Does physical activity prevent cognitive decline and dementia?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

Article


Blondell, Sarah J., Hammersley-Mather, Rachel and Veerman, J. Lennert. 2014. "Does physical activity prevent cognitive decline and dementia?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies ." BMC Public Health. 14 (1), pp. 510-521. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-510
Article Title

Does physical activity prevent cognitive decline and dementia?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

ERA Journal ID13449
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBlondell, Sarah J. (Author), Hammersley-Mather, Rachel (Author) and Veerman, J. Lennert (Author)
Journal TitleBMC Public Health
Journal Citation14 (1), pp. 510-521
Number of Pages12
Year2014
PublisherBioMed Central Ltd.
Place of PublicationLondon, United Kingdom
ISSN1471-2458
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-510
Web Address (URL)http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/510
Abstract

Background: By 2050, it has been estimated that approximately one-fifth of the population will be made up of older adults (aged ≥60 years). Old age often comes with cognitive decline and dementia. Physical activity may prevent cognitive decline and dementia.
Methods: We reviewed and synthesised prospective studies into physical activity and cognitive decline, and physical activity and dementia, published until January 2014. Forty-seven cohorts, derived from two previous systematic reviews and an updated database search, were used in the meta-analyses. Included participants were aged ≥40 years, in good health and/or randomly selected from the community. Studies were assessed for methodological quality.
Results: Twenty-one cohorts on physical activity and cognitive decline and twenty-six cohorts on physical activity and dementia were included. Meta-analysis, using the quality-effects model, suggests that participants with higher levels of physical activity, when compared to those with lower levels, are at reduced risk of cognitive decline, RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76, and dementia, RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.97. Sensitivity analyses revealed a more conservative estimate of the impact of physical activity on cognitive decline and dementia for high quality studies, studies reporting effect sizes as ORs, greater number of adjustments (≥10), and longer follow-up time (≥10 years). When one heavily weighted study was excluded, physical activity was associated with an 18% reduction in the risk of dementia (RR 0.82; 0.73-0.91).
Conclusions: Longitudinal observational studies show an association between higher levels of physical activity and a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. A case can be made for a causal interpretation. Future research should use objective measures of physical activity, adjust for the full range of confounders and have adequate follow-up length. Ideally, randomised controlled trials will be conducted. Regardless of any effect on cognition, physical activity should be encouraged, as it has been shown to be beneficial on numerous levels.

Keywordsalzheimer's disease; cognition; cognitive decline; cognitive impairment; dementia; exercise; physical activity
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020420702. Exercise physiology
520199. Applied and developmental psychology not elsewhere classified
520105. Psychological methodology, design and analysis
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Queensland
Student Services and Amenities
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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