Three Dimensional (3-D) video, by definition, is a collection of signals that can provide depth perception of a 3-D scene. With the development of 3-D display
technologies and interactive multimedia systems, 3-D video has attracted significant interest from both industries and academia with a variety of applications. In order to provide desired services in various 3-D video applications, the multiview video plus depth (MVD) representation, which can facilitate the generation of virtual views, has been determined to be the best format for 3-D video data.
Similar to 2-D video, compressed 3-D video is highly sensitive to transmission errors due to errors propagated from the current frame to the future predicted frames. Moreover, since the virtual views required for auto-stereoscopic displays are rendered from the compressed texture videos and depth maps, transmission
errors of the distorted texture videos and depth maps can be further propagated to the virtual views. Besides, the distortions in texture and depth show different
effects on the rendering views. Therefore, compared to the reliability of the transmission of the 2-D video, error-resilient texture video and depth map coding
are facing major new challenges.
This research concentrates on improving the error resilience performance of MVD-based 3-D video in packet loss scenarios. Based on the analysis of the propagating behaviour of transmission errors, a Wyner-Ziv (WZ)-based error-resilient algorithm is first designed for coding of the multi-view video data or depth data. In this scheme, an auxiliary redundant stream encoded according to WZ principle
is employed to protect a primary stream encoded with standard multi-view video coding codec. Then, considering the fact that different combinations of texture and depth coding mode will exhibit varying robustness to transmission errors, a rate-distortion optimized mode switching scheme is proposed to strike the optimal trade-off between robustness and compression effciency. In this approach,
the texture and depth modes are jointly optimized by minimizing the overall distortion of both the coded and synthesized views subject to a given bit rate. Finally, this study extends the research on the reliable transmission of view synthesis prediction (VSP)-based 3-D video. In order to mitigate the prediction position error caused by packet losses in the depth map, a novel disparity vector correction algorithm is developed, where the corrected disparity vector is calculated from the depth error. To facilitate decoder error concealment, the depth
error is recursively estimated at the decoder.
The contributions of this dissertation are multifold. First, the proposed WZbased error-resilient algorithm can accurately characterize the effect of transmission
error on multi-view distortion at the transform domain in consideration of both temporal and inter-view error propagation, and based on the estimated distortion,
this algorithm can perform optimal WZ bit allocation at the encoder through explicitly developing a sophisticated rate allocation strategy. This proposed algorithm is able to provide a finer granularity in performing rate adaptivity
and unequal error protection for multi-view data, not only at the frame level, but also at the bit-plane level. Secondly, in the proposed mode switching scheme, a
new analytic model is formulated to optimally estimate the view synthesis distortion due to packet losses, in which the compound impact of the transmission distortions of both the texture video and the depth map on the quality of the
synthesized view is mathematically analysed. The accuracy of this view synthesis distortion model is demonstrated via simulation results and, further, the estimated distortion is integrated into a rate-distortion framework for optimal
mode switching to achieve substantial performance gains over state-of-the-art algorithms. Last, but not least, this dissertation provides a preliminary investigation
of VSP-based 3-D video over unreliable channel. In the proposed disparity vector correction algorithm, the pixel-level depth map error can be precisely estimated at the decoder without the deterministic knowledge of the error-free reconstructed depth. The approximation of the innovation term involved in depth error estimation is proved theoretically. This algorithm is very useful to conceal
the position-erroneous pixels whose disparity vectors are correctly received.