Heavy metal content of rice meals sold in a Nigerian market population with a high prevalence of hypertension

Article


Anakwue, Ralph C., Nnakenyi, Ifeyinwa Dorothy, Maduforo, Aloysius N., Young, Ekenechukwu E., Okoli, Chijioke I., Ndiokwelu, Chika I. and Ezenduka, Charles C.. 2021. "Heavy metal content of rice meals sold in a Nigerian market population with a high prevalence of hypertension." Annals of African Medicine. 20 (1), pp. 37-41. https://doi.org/10.4103/aam.aam_12_20
Article Title

Heavy metal content of rice meals sold in a Nigerian market population with a high prevalence of hypertension

ERA Journal ID44603
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsAnakwue, Ralph C., Nnakenyi, Ifeyinwa Dorothy, Maduforo, Aloysius N., Young, Ekenechukwu E., Okoli, Chijioke I., Ndiokwelu, Chika I. and Ezenduka, Charles C.
Journal TitleAnnals of African Medicine
Journal Citation20 (1), pp. 37-41
Number of Pages5
Year2021
Place of PublicationIndia
ISSN1596-3519
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.4103/aam.aam_12_20
Web Address (URL)https://www.annalsafrmed.org/text.asp?2021/20/1/37/311168
Abstract

Context: Some market populations in Nigeria have been shown to have high prevalence of hypertension. Current evidence includes environmental pollutants such as heavy metals as risk factors for hypertension.

Aim: To study the heavy metal content of rice meals sold in a market population with a high prevalence of hypertension.

Settings and Design: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in Ogbete market in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.

Subjects and Methods: Five different cooked rice meals were obtained from 25 locations of the market. The rice meals included jollof rice, white rice and tomato stew, fried rice, white rice and vegetable sauce, and white rice and palm oil stew (ofeakwu). Accompanying protein (meat, fish, and egg) and vegetable salad were excluded. Similar rice meals were homogenized and analyzed in triplicates using spectrophotometric methods for mercury, copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic determination.

Statistical Analysis Used: The mean concentrations of the heavy metals were compared using analysis of variance, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Twenty-five rice dishes were evaluated, five of each kind. Arsenic content ranged from 503 to 550 mg/kg and was comparable across the five rice dishes (P = 0.148). Copper was significantly highest (16767 mg/kg) in the white rice and tomato stew dish (P < 0.001), while mercury was significantly highest (33 mg/kg) in white rice and ofeakwu (P < 0.001). Jollof rice had the highest cadmium content (23 mg/kg), which was statistically significant (P = 0.021). Lead was not found in any of the rice dishes. Conclusions: Risk factors such as heavy metals may play a role in the high prevalence of hypertension observed in market populations, and rice meals may be a major source of these heavy metals.

KeywordsHeavy metals; hypertension; Nigeria; rice
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Nigeria, Nigeria
University of Calabar, Nigeria
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/w3y45/heavy-metal-content-of-rice-meals-sold-in-a-nigerian-market-population-with-a-high-prevalence-of-hypertension

Download files


Published Version
HEAVYM~1.PDF
License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
File access level: Anyone

  • 14
    total views
  • 14
    total downloads
  • 1
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in the survival of children under‑five in Nigeria
Okoli, Chijioke Ifeanyi, Hajizadeh, Mohammad, Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur and Khanam, Rasheda. 2022. "Geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in the survival of children under‑five in Nigeria." Scientific Reports. 12, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12621-7
Socioeconomic inequalities in teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: evidence from Demographic Health Survey
Okoli, Chijioke Ifeanyi, Hajizadeh, Mohammad, Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur, Velayutham, Eswaran and Khanam, Rasheda. 2022. "Socioeconomic inequalities in teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: evidence from Demographic Health Survey." BMC Public Health. 22, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-14146-0
Inequality in Maternal and Child Health and Healthcare in Nigeria: An Econometric Analysis
Okoli, Chijioke. 2022. Inequality in Maternal and Child Health and Healthcare in Nigeria: An Econometric Analysis. PhD by Publication Doctor of Philosophy (DPHD). University of Southern Queensland. https://doi.org/10.26192/w8v19
Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in the uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: evidence from Demographic Health Survey
Okoli, Chijioke Ifeanyi, Hajizadeh, Mohammad, Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur and Khanam, Rasheda. 2021. "Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in the uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: evidence from Demographic Health Survey." Malaria Journal. 20, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03834-8
Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of maternal healthcare services in Nigeria: 2003–2017
Okoli, Chijioke, Hajizadeh, Mohammad, Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur and Khanam, Rasheda. 2020. "Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of maternal healthcare services in Nigeria: 2003–2017." BMC Health Services Research. 20, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05700-w
Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa
Doherty, Jane, Kirigia, Doris, Okoli, Chijioke, Chuma, Jane, Ezumah, N., Ichoku, Hyacinth, Hanson, Kara and McIntyre, Diane. 2018. "Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa." Global Health Action. 11 (1), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2018.1461338
Willingness to pay for antiretroviral drugs among HIV and AIDS clients in south-east Nigeria
Mbachu, Chinyere, Okoli, Chijioke, Onwujekwe, Obinna and Enabulele, Fabian. 2018. "Willingness to pay for antiretroviral drugs among HIV and AIDS clients in south-east Nigeria." Health Expectations. 21 (1), pp. 270-278. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12612
Socioeconomic status and barriers to the use of free antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria
Okoli, Chijioke I. and Cleary, Susan M.. 2011. "Socioeconomic status and barriers to the use of free antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria." African Journal of AIDS Research. 10 (2), pp. 149-155. https://doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2011.593377
Investigating determinants of out-of-pocket spending and strategies for coping with payments for healthcare in southeast Nigeria
Onwujekwe, Obinna E., Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C., Obikeze, Eric N., Okoronkwo, Ijeoma, Ochonma, Ogbonnia G., Onoka, Chima A., Madubuko, Grace and Okoli, Chijioke. 2010. "Investigating determinants of out-of-pocket spending and strategies for coping with payments for healthcare in southeast Nigeria." BMC Health Services Research. 10, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-10-67
Determinants of non-adherence to subsidized anti-retroviral treatment in southeast Nigeria
Uzochukwu, B. S. C., Onwujekwe, O. E., Onoka, A. C., Okoli, C., Uguru, N. P. and Chukwuogo, O. I.. 2009. "Determinants of non-adherence to subsidized anti-retroviral treatment in southeast Nigeria ." Health Policy and Planning. 24 (3), pp. 189-196. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czp006
Is community-based health insurance an equitable strategy for paying for healthcare? Experiences from southeast Nigeria
Onwujekwe, Obinna, Onoka, Chima, Uzochukwu, Benjamin, Okoli, Chijioke, Obikeze, Eric and Eze, Soluda. 2009. "Is community-based health insurance an equitable strategy for paying for healthcare? Experiences from southeast Nigeria." Health Policy. 92 (1), pp. 96-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.02.007
Are there geographic and socio-economic differences in incidence, burden and prevention of malaria? A study in southeast Nigeria
Onwujekwe, Obinna, Uzochukwu, Benjamin, Dike, Nkem, Okoli, Chijioke, Eze, Soludo and Chukwuogo, Ogoamaka. 2009. "Are there geographic and socio-economic differences in incidence, burden and prevention of malaria? A study in southeast Nigeria." International Journal for Equity in Health. 8, pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-8-45
Improving equity in malaria treatment: Relationship of socio-economic status with health seeking as well as with perceptions of ease of using the services of different providers for the treatment of malaria in Nigeria
Onwujekwe, Obinna, Uzochukwu, Benjamin, Eze, Soludo, Obikeze, Eric, Okoli, Chijioke and Ochonma, Ogbonnia. 2008. "Improving equity in malaria treatment: Relationship of socio-economic status with health seeking as well as with perceptions of ease of using the services of different providers for the treatment of malaria in Nigeria." Malaria Journal. 7, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-7-5