Risks and adaptation dynamics in shrimp and prawn-based farming systems in southwest coastal Bangladesh

Article


Jamal, Md. Roushon, Kristiansen, Paul, Kabir, Md. Jahangir and de Bruyn, Lisa Lobry. 2023. "Risks and adaptation dynamics in shrimp and prawn-based farming systems in southwest coastal Bangladesh." Aquaculture. 562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2022.738819
Article Title

Risks and adaptation dynamics in shrimp and prawn-based farming systems in southwest coastal Bangladesh

ERA Journal ID5734
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsJamal, Md. Roushon, Kristiansen, Paul, Kabir, Md. Jahangir and de Bruyn, Lisa Lobry
Journal TitleAquaculture
Journal Citation562
Article Number738819
Number of Pages17
Year2023
Place of PublicationNetherlands
ISSN0044-8486
1873-5622
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2022.738819
Web Address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004484862200936X
Abstract

The shrimp industry in Bangladesh is an important economic sector with growing demand, export potential, and employment opportunities. However, the industry is threatened by external and local production and market risks. Risk management strategies can be implemented through farming systems modification developing of different types of shrimp and prawn-based systems, although the adaptive capacity and economic and socio-ecological impacts are unclear. This study evaluated risks, adaptation strategies, profitability, and socio-ecological dynamics in two shrimp-based (shrimp/shrimp/shrimp and wet season (WS) rice/shrimp/shrimp) and two prawn-based (prawn/dry season (DS) rice/prawn and prawn/DS rice/prawn/dike crops) farming systems. Data was collected using focus group discussions (n = 45), household case studies (n = 18), household surveys (n = 120), and key informant interviews (n = 20). Major risks identified included disease outbreaks, lack of tidal water, salinisation, heat extremes, irregular and reduced rainfall, and price fluctuations. Agronomic management (modifying production systems, adjusting farming operations, input applications, dike cropping) was the dominant adaptation strategy in addition to financial mechanisms (market update, selling live stocks and inputs credits), gher management (water management, excavation, dike management) and water management. Adverse socio-ecological impacts of shrimp farming included salinisation, biodiversity loss, soil and water contamination, and reduced crop and livestock production. In contrast, positive impacts of prawn farming included crop diversification and livestock production and decreased salinisation, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss. Despite higher production costs, prawn-based systems generated net income nearly three times higher (USD 3410 to 4470) as compared to shrimp-based systems (USD 1570 to 1790) because dike crops added about 25% extra income. A critical insight of the research is that the prawn-based systems (prawn/DS rice/prawn/dike crop and prawn/DS rice/prawn) were economically more viable (profitable and less risky) than the shrimp-based system. However, neither the shrimp nor prawn system is feasible in all locations. Improved and semi-intensive shrimp farming in high salinity areas with available tidal water and an integrated prawn-based farming system in low to moderate salinity areas can be a viable agricultural land use planning in southwest coastal Bangladesh. This research can contribute to sustainable land use planning for brackish water shrimp and fresh water prawns, and planning to increase the profitability, risk resilience and competitiveness of the shrimp- and prawn-based farming systems with less socioecological impacts.

KeywordsProfitability; Land use planning; Ecological impacts; Markets
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020300201. Agricultural hydrology
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Byline AffiliationsUniversity of New England
Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh
School of Business
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