Developing motor vehicle emission inventories and air quality regulation for ultrafine particles

Edited book (chapter)


Keogh, Diane U.. 2012. "Developing motor vehicle emission inventories and air quality regulation for ultrafine particles." Bartul, Zacharie and Trenor, Jerome (ed.) Advances in nanotechnology, vol. 8. New York, United States. Nova Science Publishers. pp. 383-400
Chapter Title

Developing motor vehicle emission inventories and air quality regulation for ultrafine particles

Book Chapter CategoryEdited book (chapter)
ERA Publisher ID2797
Book TitleAdvances in nanotechnology, vol. 8
Authors
AuthorKeogh, Diane U.
EditorsBartul, Zacharie and Trenor, Jerome
Volume8
Page Range383-400
Chapter Number11
Number of Pages18
Year2012
PublisherNova Science Publishers
Place of PublicationNew York, United States
ISBN9781613240625
ISSN2159-1490
Web Address (URL)https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=31743
Abstract

Most particle emissions generated by motor vehicle fleets are ultrafine size (diameters < 0.1 µm) and measured in terms of particle number. These sized particles are not routinely monitored nor are they regulated by ambient air quality standards. In urban areas around the world travel demand and dependence on private motor vehicle travel is increasing, and thereby potentially contributing higher concentrations of ultrafine particles to urban airsheds. Heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) continue to be a major freight mode. HDVs are particularly high emitters of ultrafine particles and can release over an order of magnitude more particles (in terms of particle number) than petrol-fuelled vehicles, with a significant number in the ultrafine size range.

The health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter are well-documented. These are known to be serious, and a number of epidemiological studies have linked exposure to increases in hospital admissions, various respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, more epidemiological studies of the effects of ultrafine particles are needed, as well as development of motor vehicle emission inventories for ultrafine fine particles. These studies are vital to inform exposure assessment in terms of health, transport and land use planning.

Current knowledge about levels of total particulate matter generated by urban motor vehicle fleets, including of ultrafine particle emissions, remain the subject of considerable uncertainty. This limited knowledge has severely impeded our ability to develop effective and relevant ambient air quality standards and strategies to manage and control ultrafine particle emissions. Such regulation is critical for two reasons. Firstly, ultrafine particles are the main source of vehicle fleet emissions. Secondly, because debate is presently focused on the notion that particle number is more directly related to health effects than particle mass. This chapter discusses some of the scientific and practical issues and challenges associated with developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets and air quality regulation. It also introduces the world’s first published inventory of motor vehicle fleet emissions for particle number.

Keywordsair quality regulation, inventories, motor vehicle emissions, nanoparticles, particulate matter, secondary particle formation, tailpipe emissions, ultrafine particles
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020419999. Other environmental sciences not elsewhere classified
400205. Hybrid and electric vehicles and powertrains
340107. Quality assurance, chemometrics, traceability and metrological chemistry
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Byline AffiliationsAustralian Centre for Sustainable Catchments
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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