Modelling the Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Incidence of Covid-19 Infection Adjusting for the Confounders and Unobserved Heterogeneity

Article


Hoque, Zahirul, Hossain, Shahadut, Hasan, Masud, Hoque, Irfanul and Haque, Afrozul. 2023. "Modelling the Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Incidence of Covid-19 Infection Adjusting for the Confounders and Unobserved Heterogeneity." Journal of Applied Probability and Statistics. 18 (1), pp. 19-33.
Article Title

Modelling the Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Incidence of Covid-19 Infection Adjusting for the Confounders and Unobserved Heterogeneity

ERA Journal ID41643
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsHoque, Zahirul, Hossain, Shahadut, Hasan, Masud, Hoque, Irfanul and Haque, Afrozul
Journal TitleJournal of Applied Probability and Statistics
Journal Citation18 (1), pp. 19-33
Number of Pages15
Year2023
PublisherIslamic Countries Society of Statistical Sciences (ISOSS)
Place of PublicationPakistan
ISSN1930-6792
Web Address (URL)http://japs.isoss.net/April23.htm
Abstract

This study quantifies the relation between vitamin D and the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection after controlling for the common observable concomitant variables and unobserved confounding variables. The agegender specific vitamin D level, obesity rates, COVID-19 infection and related data were retrieved from published sources. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression model was used to quantify the adjusted association of vitamin D on COVID-19 infection rate. People with normal serum vitamin D level possessed 48% lower risk of being infected from COVID-19 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.517; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.297, 0.899) as compared to those having deficiency. The elderly males (aged over 60 years) possessed 28% higher risk of being infected by COVID-19 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI: 0.963, 1.703). A significantly lower COVID-19 infection rate was observed among people with normal level of vitamin D (> 50 nmol/L) compared to those with vitamin D deficiency after adjusting for the observable confounding variables and for the country level heterogeneity. In conclusion, the findings of this research suggest an inverse relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19 infection, and hence raising serum vitamin D to normal level can reduce COVID-19 infection significantly.

KeywordsCOVID-19
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 20204206. Public health
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Byline AffiliationsSchool of Mathematics, Physics and Computing
Health Canada, Canada
Australian National University
Griffith University
Jamia Hamdard, India
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