Trends and determinants of weight gains among OECD countries: an ecological study

Article


Nghiem, S., Vu, Xuan-Binh (Benjamin) and Barnett, Adrian. 2018. "Trends and determinants of weight gains among OECD countries: an ecological study." Public Health. 159, pp. 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.03.004
Article Title

Trends and determinants of weight gains among OECD countries: an ecological study

ERA Journal ID13765
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsNghiem, S. (Author), Vu, Xuan-Binh (Benjamin) (Author) and Barnett, Adrian (Author)
Journal TitlePublic Health
Journal Citation159, pp. 31-39
Number of Pages9
Year2018
PublisherElsevier
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0033-3506
1476-5616
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.03.004
Web Address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033350618300921?via%3Dihub
Abstract

Objectives
Obesity has become a global issue with abundant evidence to indicate that the prevalence of obesity in many nations has increased over time. The literature also reports a strong association between obesity and economic development, but the trend that obesity growth rates may converge over time has not been examined. We propose a conceptual framework and conduct an ecological analysis on the relationship between economic development and weight gain. We also test the hypothesis that weight gain converges among countries over time and examine determinants of weight gains.

Study design
This is a longitudinal study of 34 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in the years 1980–2008 using publicly available data.

Methods
We apply a dynamic economic growth model to test the hypothesis that the rate of weight gains across countries may converge over time. We also investigate the determinants of weight gains using a longitudinal regression tree analysis.

Results
We do not find evidence that the growth rates of body weight across countries converged for all countries. However, there were groups of countries in which the growth rates of body weight converge, with five groups for males and seven groups for females. The predicted growth rates of body weight peak when gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reaches US$47,000 for males and US$37,000 for females in OECD countries. National levels of consumption of sugar, fat and alcohol were the most important contributors to national weight gains.

Conclusion
National weight gains follow an inverse U-shape curve with economic development. Excessive calorie intake is the main contributor to weight gains.

Keywordsweight gains; convergence; OECD; excess calorie intakes
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020380108. Health economics
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Byline AffiliationsGriffith University
Queensland University of Technology
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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