Light activated shape memory polymer composite based smart structures: a framework for material development and activation methodologies

PhD Thesis


Herath, Herath Mudiyanselage Chathura Madhubhashitha. 2020. Light activated shape memory polymer composite based smart structures: a framework for material development and activation methodologies. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland. https://doi.org/10.26192/1zzy-cc22
Title

Light activated shape memory polymer composite based smart structures: a framework for material development and activation methodologies

TypePhD Thesis
Authors
AuthorHerath, Herath Mudiyanselage Chathura Madhubhashitha
SupervisorEpaarachchi, Jayantha
Islam, Mainul
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Qualification NameDoctor of Philosophy
Number of Pages189
Year2020
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.26192/1zzy-cc22
Abstract

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are evolving intensively in smart materials research. SMPs can undergo large deformations, hold a temporary shape and then recover their original shape upon exposure to a particular external stimulus. The emerging development of fibre reinforced shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) has improved SMPs’ mechanical properties to be comparable to modern fibre reinforced composites. Moreover, the inclusion of nanoparticles has enhanced the diversity in activation mechanisms and improved structural properties and durability.

Today, the SMPCs are generally viewed as promising substances for engineered applications that have raised intensive interest among the scientists and engineers. Interestingly, stimulation by light enables unique and advanced shape memory effects (SMEs) in SMPCs that can fulfill the sophisticated demands of engineering. The ability to vary the light wavelength, intensity, periodicity, polarization and the irradiated position on the SMP component enables wavelength selective, reversible, sequential and multiple SMEs. Furthermore, light travel long distances in a vacuum, can be focussed onto a certain area, is safe to humans and, can be a control signal carrier and most notably, can be sent through optical fibres to extremely inaccessible areas.

Incorporation of metallic, carbon and organic based photothermal fillers into a SMP matrix is a convenient proven method to prepare light activated shape memory polymer composites (LASMPCs). These photothermal fillers convert electromagnetic radiation into thermal energy that triggers the SMP matrix. The current study comprehensively reviewed the performances, mechanisms, challenges and limitations of the existing LASMPC systems and associated optical technologies. Predominantly this research was intended to develop reinforced LASMPC systems and allied optical technologies applicable for large scale structural engineering applications.

In this study, styrene and bisphenol A epoxy based thermosets and polylactic acid (PLA) based thermoplastic SMPs were used as polymer matrix materials. Carbon fibre, glass fibre, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and rare earth organic complexes of Nd(TTA)3Phen and Yb(TTA)3Phen were used as reinforcement and photothermal fillers. The samples were produced by means of vacuum bagging, mould casting and 4D printing. Morphological investigations were conducted to identify the microstructure and manufacturability of the LASMPCs. The samples’ mechanical and physical properties were tested by standard test methods for polymer matrix composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis was carried out to determine the thermomechanical characteristics. The photothermal effect was investigated through thermal imaging and associated shape memory behaviours were studied through shape fixing and recovery experiments. A finite element analysis was performed with ABAQUS to simulate the photothermal heating behaviour.

The current study established a material development framework for LASMPC materials and presented apt manufacturing methods for structural and large scale engineering applications. Different modes of light diffusion such as scattered low intensity light, focussed laser beams and light delivery through fibre optics were proved for structural LASMPCs. Sequential and selective wavelength activation of structural LASMPCs are presented. The FEA simulation provided additional understanding on light exposed LASMPCs’ 3-dimensional heating behaviour. Embedding a D-shaped optical fibre in an LASMPC created a single unit smart actuator, which was remotely activated by light. It was proven that flexible radiation shields can reduce the unanticipated shape recovery of LASMPCs components and protect the LASMPCs from polymer degradation due to radiation.

The improvements to their structural properties and innovative remote activation methodologies have justified LASMPCs’ aptness for space engineering applications. This study has proven its successful completion by three selected case studies of space applications. An LASMPC solar panel array model was sequentially deployed in four recovery steps. In a vacuum, a space habitat structure model was compressed to a third of its volume and then recovered its original shape. A 4D printed boom structure model was tested, proving customized LASMPC structures for sophisticated space equipment fabrication. The deployable LASMPC structures can reduce the occupied room in spacecraft. The improvements to the structural properties of LASMPCs while keeping the SME, understanding on thermomechanical and photothermal behaviours, remote actuation through optical fibres, radiation shields and the insight to space applications are the most significant novel outcomes of this study. This thesis opens up windows of opportunity for the scientific and engineering communities to provide innovative solutions to realize the sophisticated large scale engineering demands in aerospace and space applications and beyond.

Keywordsshape memory polymer composites, light activation, photothermal effect, fibre optics, deployable structures, space applications
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400909. Photonic and electro-optical devices, sensors and systems (excl. communications)
400102. Aerospace structures
401602. Composite and hybrid materials
400101. Aerospace materials
401605. Functional materials
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/q6001/light-activated-shape-memory-polymer-composite-based-smart-structures-a-framework-for-material-development-and-activation-methodologies

Download files


Published Version
  • 286
    total views
  • 132
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 6
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Light and Shape-Memory Polymers: Characterization, Preparation, Stimulation, and Application
Fang, Liang, Yan, Wan, Chen, Shunping, Duan, Qiong, Herath, Madhubhashitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Liu, Yue and Lu, Chunhua. 2023. "Light and Shape-Memory Polymers: Characterization, Preparation, Stimulation, and Application." Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. 308 (12). https://doi.org/10.1002/mame.202300158
Impact of Spectral Shift Quality (SSQ) on Fibre Optic Sensor Readings in Reinforced Concrete Beams
Udagedara, U. M. N., Herath, H. M. C. M., Henarachchi, N. K., Sooriyaarachchi, H. P., Banerjee, S. and Epaarachchi, J. A.. 2023. "Impact of Spectral Shift Quality (SSQ) on Fibre Optic Sensor Readings in Reinforced Concrete Beams." 14th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring. Stanford University, Stanford, CA 12 - 14 Sep 2023 United States. DEStech Publications, Inc.
Sensory methods and machine learning based damage identification of fibre-reinforced composite structures: An introductory review
Bandara, Senaka, Herath, Madhubhashitha and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2023. "Sensory methods and machine learning based damage identification of fibre-reinforced composite structures: An introductory review." Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 42 (21-22), pp. 1119-1146. https://doi.org/10.1177/07316844221145972
Durability and long-term behaviour of shape memory polymers and composites for the space industry - A review of current status and future perspectives
Jayalath, Sandaruwan, Herath, Madhubhashitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Trifoni, Eduardo, Gdoutos, Eleftherios E. and Fang, Liang. 2023. "Durability and long-term behaviour of shape memory polymers and composites for the space industry - A review of current status and future perspectives ." Polymer Degradation and Stability. 211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2023.110297
The use of fibre reinforced polymer composites for construction of structural supercapacitors: a review
Anurangi, Jayani, Herath, Madhubhashitha, Galhena, Dona T.L. and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2023. "The use of fibre reinforced polymer composites for construction of structural supercapacitors: a review ." Advanced Composite Materials. 32 (6), pp. 942-986. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243046.2023.2180792
Strain patterns of short span reinforced concrete beams under flexural loading: A comparison between distributed sensing and concrete damaged plasticity modelling
Udagedara, Minol, Kumar, Arjun, Herath, Madhubhashitha, Hettiarachchi, Nandita, Sooriyaarachchi, Harsha and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2023. "Strain patterns of short span reinforced concrete beams under flexural loading: A comparison between distributed sensing and concrete damaged plasticity modelling." Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. 34 (10), p. 1123–1135. https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389X221128764
Damage onset analysis of optimized shape memory polymer composites during programming into curved shapes
Emmanuel, K. D. C., Jeewantha, L. H. J., Herath, H. M. C. M., Epaarachchi, J. A. and Aravinthan, T.. 2022. "Damage onset analysis of optimized shape memory polymer composites during programming into curved shapes." Materialia. 26, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2022.101599
Fibre-optic sensor and deep learning-based structural health monitoring systems for civil structures: A review
Jayawickrema, U. M. N., Herath, H. M. C. M., Hettiarachchi, N. K., Sooriyaarachchi, H. P. and Epaarachchi, J. A.. 2022. "Fibre-optic sensor and deep learning-based structural health monitoring systems for civil structures: A review." Measurement. 199, pp. 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2022.111543
Shape memory polymer smart plaster for orthopaedic treatments
Jeewantha, Janitha, Jayalath, Sandaruwan, Emmanuel, Chris, Herath, Madhubhashitha, Forster, Elizabeth, Islam, Mainul, Leng, Jinsong and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2022. "Shape memory polymer smart plaster for orthopaedic treatments." Smart Materials and Structures. 31 (11), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665X/ac943b
Distributed sensing based real-time process monitoring of shape memory polymer components
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Emmanuel, Chris, Jeewantha, Janitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha and Leng, Jinsong. 2022. "Distributed sensing based real-time process monitoring of shape memory polymer components." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 139 (22). https://doi.org/10.1002/app.52247
Investigation of curing kinetics and internal strains to enhance performances of bisphenol A based shape memory polymers
Jeewantha, L. H. J., Emmanuel, K. D. C., Herath, H. M. C. M., Epaarachchi, J. A., Islam, M. M. and Leng, J.. 2022. "Investigation of curing kinetics and internal strains to enhance performances of bisphenol A based shape memory polymers." Materialia. 21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2021.101264
Surface-Mounted Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Measurements, and Concrete Damaged Plasticity Modeling for Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams
Jayawickrema, U. M. N., Kumar, A. S., Herath, H. M. C. M., Hettiarachchi, N. K., Sooriyaarachchi, H. P. and Epaarachchi, J. A.. 2021. "Surface-Mounted Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Measurements, and Concrete Damaged Plasticity Modeling for Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams." ASME 2021 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS2021). United States and Online United States. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2021-67524
In-situ performance evaluation of large shape memory polymer components via distributed optical fibre sensors
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Emmanuel, Chris, Epaarachchi, Jayantha and Jeewantha, Janitha. 2021. "In-situ performance evaluation of large shape memory polymer components via distributed optical fibre sensors." 10th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability (ICIAfS 2021). Negambo, Sri Lanka 11 - 13 Aug 2021 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIAfS52090.2021.9605868
Development and characterization of shape memory polymers for non-invasive biomedical applications
Jeewantha, Janitha, Emmanuel, Chris, Herath, Madhubhashitha, Islam, Mainul and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2021. "Development and characterization of shape memory polymers for non-invasive biomedical applications." ASME 2021 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS2021). United States and Online New York, United States. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2021-66024
Shape memory polymer composites and their smart structural applications
Herath, Madhubhashitha and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2021. "Shape memory polymer composites and their smart structural applications." Low, It-Meng and Dong, Yu (ed.) Composite materials: manufacturing, properties and applications. Netherlands. Elsevier. pp. 581-610
Multi-attribute parametric optimisation of shape memory polymer properties for adaptive orthopaedic plasters
Jeewantha, L. H. J., Emmanuel, K. D. C., Herath, H. M. C. M., Islam, M. M., Fang, L. and Epaarachchi, J. A.. 2022. "Multi-attribute parametric optimisation of shape memory polymer properties for adaptive orthopaedic plasters." Materialia. 21, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2022.101325
Cyanate esters as a high performing shape memory polymer: A review
Jayalath, H.T.S., Herath, Madhubhashitha and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2022. "Cyanate esters as a high performing shape memory polymer: A review." 3rd International Conference on Aspects of Materials Science and Engineering (ICAMSE2022). Chandigarh, India 04 - 05 Mar 2022 Netherlands. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.02.121
Carbon fibre reinforced shape memory polymer composites for deployable space habitats
Herath, H. M. C. M., Epaarachchi, J. A., Islam, M. M. and Leng, J.. 2019. "Carbon fibre reinforced shape memory polymer composites for deployable space habitats." Engineer: Journal of the Institution of Engineers. LII (1), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.4038/engineer.v52i1.7323
Thermomechanical and fire performance of DGEBA based shape memory polymer composites for constructions
Emmanuel, K. D. C., Herath, H. M. C. M., Jeewantha, L. H. J., Epaarachchi, J. A. and Aravinthan, T.. 2021. "Thermomechanical and fire performance of DGEBA based shape memory polymer composites for constructions." Construction and Building Materials. 303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.124442
Experimental investigation of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) of coconut oil based Metal Working Fluid
Fernando, W. L. R, Sarmilan, N., Wickramasinghe, K. C., Herath, H. M. C. M. and Perera, G. I. P.. 2019. "Experimental investigation of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) of coconut oil based Metal Working Fluid." Materials Today: Proceedings. 23 (1), pp. 23-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.06.079
Monitoring Structural Performances of Concrete Beams Using Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensors
Jayawickrema, U. M. N., Epaarachchi, J. A., Hettiarachchi, N. K., Jeewantha, L. H. J. and Herath, H. M. C. M.. 2019. "Monitoring Structural Performances of Concrete Beams Using Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensors." 10th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Management (ICSECM 2019). Kandy, Sri Lanka 12 - 14 Dec 2019
Effect of thickness on the shape memory properties of bisphenol a epoxy based shape memory polymer composites
Emmanue, K. D. C., Jeewantha, J., Herath, M., Epaarachchi J. and Aravinthan T.. 2021. "Effect of thickness on the shape memory properties of bisphenol a epoxy based shape memory polymer composites." ASME 2021 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS2021). United States and Online United States. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2021-67111
Light activated shape memory polymers and composites: A review
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Islam, Mainul, Fang, Liang and Leng, Jinsong. 2020. "Light activated shape memory polymers and composites: A review." European Polymer Journal. 136, pp. 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2020.109912
Performance of rare earth organic complexes based light activated shape memory polymer composites
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Islam, Mainul, Fang, Liang, Zhang, Fenghua and Leng, Jinsong. 2019. "Performance of rare earth organic complexes based light activated shape memory polymer composites." 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-22). Melbourne, Australia 11 - 16 Aug 2019 Australia.
Remote actuation of light activated shape memory polymers via D-shaped optical fibres
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Islam, Mainul, Zhang, Fenghua, Leng, Jinsong, Fang, Liang, Yan, Cheng, Peng, Gang Ding and Schade, Wolfgang. 2020. "Remote actuation of light activated shape memory polymers via D-shaped optical fibres." Smart Materials and Structures. 29 (4), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665X/ab72ea
4D printed shape memory polymer composite structures for deployable small spacecrafts
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Islam, Mainul, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Zhang, Fenghua and Leng, Jinsong. 2019. "4D printed shape memory polymer composite structures for deployable small spacecrafts." ASME 2019 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 2019). Louisville, United States 09 - 11 Sep 2019 United States. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2019-5583
Mechanical properties and thermomechanical behaviour of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) based shape memory polymer composites
Herath, M., James, G. and Epaarachchi, J.. 2019. "Mechanical properties and thermomechanical behaviour of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) based shape memory polymer composites." 13th International Conference on the Mechanical Behaviour of Materials (ICM13). Melbourne, Australia 11 - 14 Jun 2019 Melbourne, Australia.
Near infrared light activated shape memory polymer composite for space applications
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Islam, Mainul and Leng, Jinsong. 2018. "Near infrared light activated shape memory polymer composite for space applications." Wang, Hao (ed.) 11th Asian-Australasian Conference on Composite Materials (ACCM-11). Cairns, Australia 29 Jul - 01 Aug 2018
Effects of selectively triggered photothermal particles on shape memory polymer composites: an investigation on structural performance, thermomechanical characteristics and photothermal behaviour
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Islam, Mainul, Yan, Cheng, Zhang, Fenghua and Leng, Jinsong. 2019. "Effects of selectively triggered photothermal particles on shape memory polymer composites: an investigation on structural performance, thermomechanical characteristics and photothermal behaviour." Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. 30 (20), pp. 3124-3135. https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389X19879998
Modeling, analysis, and testing of viscoelastic properties of shape memory polymer composites and a brief review of their space engineering applications
Al Azzawi, Wessam, Herath, Madhubhashitha and Epaarachchi, Jayantha. 2019. "Modeling, analysis, and testing of viscoelastic properties of shape memory polymer composites and a brief review of their space engineering applications." Guedes, Rui Miranda (ed.) Creep and fatigue in polymer matrix composites. United Kingdom. Woodhead Publishing Limited. pp. 465-495
Structural performance and photothermal recovery of carbon fibre reinforced shape memory polymer
Herath, H. M .C. M., Epaarachchi, J. A., Islam, M. M., Al-Azzawi, W., Leng, J. and Zhang, F.. 2018. "Structural performance and photothermal recovery of carbon fibre reinforced shape memory polymer." Composites Science and Technology. 167, pp. 206-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.07.042
Thermo-mechanical behaviour and shape memory characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy
Herath, Madhubhashitha, Al-Azzawi, Wessam, Epaarachchi, Jayantha, Islam, Mainul, Robertson, Scott, Leng, Jinsong and Zhang, F.. 2018. "Thermo-mechanical behaviour and shape memory characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy." 2018 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICONN 2018). Wollongong, Australia 29 Jan - 02 Feb 2018