A Review of Analytical Methods and Technologies for Monitoring Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Water

Article


Nahar, Kamrun, Zulkarnain, Noor Azwa and Niven, Robert K.. 2023. "A Review of Analytical Methods and Technologies for Monitoring Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Water ." Water. 3577 (15). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203577
Article Title

A Review of Analytical Methods and Technologies for Monitoring Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Water

Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsNahar, Kamrun, Zulkarnain, Noor Azwa and Niven, Robert K.
Journal TitleWater
Journal Citation3577 (15)
Article Number3577
Number of Pages20
Year2023
PublisherMDPI AG
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
ISSN2073-4441
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203577
Web Address (URL)https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/15/20/3577
Abstract

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) consist of a range of manufactured fluorinated chemicals that are used in a variety of household and waterproofing products, industrial processes, and firefighting foams. In the past few years, there has been increasing concern about PFAS in the environment, since they are difficult to break down through natural processes, are highly persistent in humans, animals, soils and waters, and can travel long distances in surface and groundwater. This has created an increased need for PFAS analysis. Most PFAS monitoring currently takes place using field sampling and chromatographic analytical methods, which are laboratory-based and are very costly when used to monitor PFAS in the environment. Using a semi-systematic literature review approach, a comparative study is conducted in this article on the available analytical methods and sensor technologies that can be used to monitor and detect PFAS in the environment, including chromatographic, instrumentation analysis, and sensor-based methods. This study considered four critical factors for effective and efficient monitoring methods, which include the type of PFAS detected, removing background levels, determining detection limits, and identifying samples. In general, other analytical instruments are used in conjunction with chromatographic techniques for detecting both target and non-target analytes at a lower level of detection (LOD). It is shown that even though some sensor types have a low LOD, they are only useful for detecting targeted PFAS in water samples. However, sensors are an emerging technology that could be developed to enable low-cost, portable methods for the remote detection of PFAS species on-site.

KeywordsPFAS; contaminants in water; environmental monitoring; chromatography technique; alternative methods and technologies; sensor-based technology
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400513. Water resources engineering
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Agriculture and Environmental Science
University of New South Wales
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