Pesticide extraction from soil into runoff under a rainfall simulator

Article


Silburn, D. Mark. 2023. "Pesticide extraction from soil into runoff under a rainfall simulator." Soil Research. 61 (5), pp. 468-483. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR22115
Article Title

Pesticide extraction from soil into runoff under a rainfall simulator

ERA Journal ID5248
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsSilburn, D. Mark
Journal TitleSoil Research
Journal Citation61 (5), pp. 468-483
Number of Pages16
Year2023
PublisherCSIRO Publishing
Place of PublicationAustralia
ISSN0004-9573
1446-568X
1838-675X
1838-6768
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1071/SR22115
Web Address (URL)https://www.publish.csiro.au/SR/SR22115
Abstract

Context: Runoff estimation is an important aspect of pesticide environmental behaviour and is the major loss pathway to the environment.

Aims: To improve understanding of pesticide runoff.

Methods: Data from three rainfall simulator studies was used. Twelve pesticides were studied ranged from tightly sorbed (DDE, soil sorption coefficient (KD) ~15 000 L kg−1) to weakly sorbed (dimethoate, KD < 30).

Key results: Event runoff pesticide concentrations were closely related to soil concentrations (0–25 mm depth). The ratio of runoff to soil concentration (the runoff extraction ratio, ERO), was similar for pesticides with a wide range of sorption and across the three soils: runoff concentration (μg L−1) = 28 × soil concentration (mg kg−1). ERO decreased with time after spraying, presumably due to lower concentrations in the top few mm of soil.

Conclusions: This model provides improved or similar estimates of pesticide runoff than previous models. Similar ERO values between sites was probably due to similar hydrology (high rainfall intensity, surface sealing, moist subsoils) and erosion, and because the same masses of soil and water are involved in mixing. Reduction in runoff concentrations by leaching was not influential, because infiltration was small and soil sorption too high.

Implications: Conditions studied apply during summer storms on most cotton and grain land on clay soils in the northern grain and cotton lands in eastern Australia. The model should be applicable under these conditions.

Keywordsenrichment ratios; herbicides; insecticides; partition coefficients; pesticide runof; rainfall simulator; runoff risk; soil concentrations
ANZSRC Field of Research 20204106. Soil sciences
Byline AffiliationsCentre for Agricultural Engineering
Department of Environment and Science, Queensland
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