Gaussian Processes and Nested Sampling Applied to Kepler's Small Long-period Exoplanet Candidates

Article


Matesic, Michael R. B., Rowe, Jason F., Livingston, John H., Dholakia, Shishir, Jontof-Hutter, Daniel and Lissauer, Jack J.. 2024. "Gaussian Processes and Nested Sampling Applied to Kepler's Small Long-period Exoplanet Candidates." The Astronomical Journal. 167 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ad0fe9
Article Title

Gaussian Processes and Nested Sampling Applied to Kepler's Small Long-period Exoplanet Candidates

ERA Journal ID1048
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsMatesic, Michael R. B., Rowe, Jason F., Livingston, John H., Dholakia, Shishir, Jontof-Hutter, Daniel and Lissauer, Jack J.
Journal TitleThe Astronomical Journal
Journal Citation167 (2)
Article Number68
Number of Pages15
Year2024
PublisherIOP Publishing
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN0004-6256
1538-3881
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ad0fe9
Web Address (URL)https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/ad0fe9
AbstractThere are more than 5000 confirmed and validated planets beyond the solar system to date, more than half of which were discovered by NASA's Kepler mission. The catalog of Kepler's exoplanet candidates has only been extensively analyzed under the assumption of white noise (i.i.d. Gaussian), which breaks down on timescales longer than a day due to correlated noise (point-to-point correlation) from stellar variability and instrumental effects. Statistical validation of candidate transit events becomes increasingly difficult when they are contaminated by this form of correlated noise, especially in the low-signal-to-noise (S/N) regimes occupied by Earth–Sun and Venus–Sun analogs. To diagnose small long-period, low-S/N putative transit signatures with few (roughly 3–9) observed transit-like events (e.g., Earth–Sun analogs), we model Kepler's photometric data as noise, treated as a Gaussian process, with and without the inclusion of a transit model. Nested sampling algorithms from the Python UltraNest package recover model evidences and maximum a posteriori parameter sets, allowing us to disposition transit signatures as either planet candidates or false alarms within a Bayesian framework.
KeywordsKepler mission stellar
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 20205101. Astronomical sciences
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Montreal, Canada
Bishop’s University, Canada
Astrobiology Center, Japan
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Japan
Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Japan
Centre for Astrophysics
University of the Pacific, United States
NASA Ames Research Center, United States
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Kreidberg, Laura, Molliere, Paul, Crossfield, Ian J. M., Thorngren, Daniel P., Kawashima, Yui Kawashima, Morley, Caroline V., Benneke, Björn, Mikal-Evans, Thomas, Berardo, David, Kosiarek, Molly R., Gorjian, Varoujan, Ciardi, David R., Christiansen, Jessie L., Dragomir, Diana, Dressing, Courtney D., Fortney, Jonathan J., Fulton, Benjamin J., Greene, Thomas P., Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K, ..., Weiss, Lauren M.. 2022. "Tentative Evidence for Water Vapor in the Atmosphere of the Neptune-sized Exoplanet HD 106315c." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 164 (4). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac85be
Scaling K2. V. Statistical Validation of 60 New Exoplanets from K2 Campaigns 2-18
Christiansen, Jessie L., Bhure, Sakhee, Zink, Jon K., Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K., Adkins, Britt Duffy, Hedges, Christina, Morton, Timothy D., Bieryla, Allyson, Ciardi, David R., Cochran, William D., Dressing, Courtney D., Everett, Mark E., Isaacson, Howard, Livingston, John H., Ziegler, Carl, Berlind, Perry, Calkins, Michael L., Esquerdo, Gilbert A., Latham, David W., ..., Petigura, Erik A. P. 2022. "Scaling K2. V. Statistical Validation of 60 New Exoplanets from K2 Campaigns 2-18." The Astronomical Journal. 163 (6). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac5c4c
TOI-1670 b and c: An Inner Sub-Neptune with an Outer Warm Jupiter Unlikely to Have Originated from High-eccentricity Migration
Tran, Quang H., Bowler, Brendan P., Endl, Michael, Cochran, William D., MacQueen, Phillip J., Gandolfi, Davide, Persson, Carina M., Fridlund, Malcolm, Palle, Enric, Nowak, Grzegorz, Deeg, Hans J., Luque, Rafael, Livingston, John H., Kabath, Petr, Skarka, Marek, Subjak, Ján, Howell, Steve B., Albrecht, Simon H., Collins, Karen A., ..., Winn, Joshua N.. 2022. "TOI-1670 b and c: An Inner Sub-Neptune with an Outer Warm Jupiter Unlikely to Have Originated from High-eccentricity Migration." The Astronomical Journal. 163 (5). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac5c4f
HD 28109 hosts a trio of transiting Neptunian planets including a near-resonant pair, confirmed by ASTEP from Antarctica Get access Arrow
Dransfield, Georgina, Triaud, Amaury H M J, Guillot, Tristan, Mekarnia, Djamel, Nesvorny, David, Crouzet, Nicolas, Abe, Lyu, Agabi, Karim, Buttu, Marco, Cabrera, Juan, Gandolfi, Davide, Gunther, Maximilian N, Rodler, Florian, Schmider, Francois-Xavier, Stee, Philippe, Suarez, Olga, Collins, Karen A, Dévora-Pajares, Martín, Howell, Steve B, ..., Zhou, George. 2022. "HD 28109 hosts a trio of transiting Neptunian planets including a near-resonant pair, confirmed by ASTEP from Antarctica Get access Arrow." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 515 (1), pp. 1328-1345. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac1383
Validation of 13 Hot and Potentially Terrestrial TESS Planets
Giacalone, Steven, Dressing, Courtney D., Hedges, Christina, Kostov, Veselin B., Collins, Karen A., Jensen, Eric L. N., Yahalomi, Daniel A., Bieryla, Allyson, Ciardi, David R., Howell, Steve B., Lillo-Box, Jorge, Barkaoui, Khalid, Winters, Jennifer G, Matthews, Elisabeth, Livingston, John H., Quinn, Samuel N., Safonov, Boris S., Cadieux, Charles, Furlan, E., ..., Zou, Yujie. 2022. "Validation of 13 Hot and Potentially Terrestrial TESS Planets ." Astronomical Journal. 163 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac4334
TOI-954 b and K2-329 b: short-period Saturn-mass planets that test whether irradiation leads to inflation
Sha, Lizhou, Huang, Chelsea X., Shporer, Avi, Rodriguez, Joseph E., Vanderburg, Andrew, Brahm, Rafael, Hagelberg, Janis, Matthews, Elisabeth C., Ziegler, Carl, Livingston, John H., Stassun, Keivan G., Wright, Duncan J., Crane, Jeffrey D., Espinoza, Nestor, Bouchy, Francois, Bakos, Gaspar A., Collins, Karen A., Zhou, George, Bieryla, Allyson, ..., Villanueva, Steven. 2021. "TOI-954 b and K2-329 b: short-period Saturn-mass planets that test whether irradiation leads to inflation." The Astronomical Journal. 161 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/abd187
Near-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS
Quinn, Samuel N., Becker, Juliette C., Rodriguez, Joseph E., Hadden, Sam, Huang, Chelsea X., Morton, Timothy D., Adams, Fred C., Armstrong, David, Eastman, Jason D., Horner, Jonathan, Kane, Stephen R., Lissauer, Jack J., Twicken, Joseph D., Vanderburg, Andrew, Wittenmyer, Rob, Ricker, George R., Vanderspek, Roland K., Latham, David W., Seager, Sara, ..., Ziegler, Carl. 2019. "Near-resonance in a System of Sub-Neptunes from TESS." The Astronomical Journal. 158 (5), pp. 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab3f2b
TESS Hunt for Young and Maturing Exoplanets (THYME): A Planet in the 45 Myr Tucana-Horologium Association
Newton, Elisabeth R., Mann, Andrew W., Tofflemire, Benjamin M., Pearce, Logan, Rizzuto, Aaron C., Vanderburg, Andrew, Martinez, Raquel A., Wang, Jason J., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Kraus, Adam L., Johnson, Marshall C., Thao, Pa Chia, Wood, Mackenna L., Rampalli, Rayna, Nielsen, Eric L., Collins, Karen A., Dragomir, Diana, Hellier, Coel, Anderson, D. R, ..., Wittenmyer, Robert A.. 2019. "TESS Hunt for Young and Maturing Exoplanets (THYME): A Planet in the 45 Myr Tucana-Horologium Association." The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 880 (1), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab2988
Kepler-1649b: an exo-Venus in the solar neighborhood
Angelo, Isabel, Rowe, Jason F., Howell, Steve B., Quintana, Elisa V., Still, Martin, Mann, Andrew W., Burningham, Ben, Barclay, Thomas, Ciardi, David R., Huber, Daniel and Kane, Stephen R.. 2017. "Kepler-1649b: an exo-Venus in the solar neighborhood." The Astronomical Journal. 153 (4). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa615f
Spitzer observations confirm and rescue the habitable-zone super-earth K2-18b for future characterization
Benneke, Bjorn, Werner, Michael, Petigura, Erik, Knutson, Heather, Dressing, Courtney, Crossfield, Ian J. M., Schlieder, Joshua E., Livingston, John, Beichman, Charles, Christiansen, Jessie, Krick, Jessica, Gorjian, Varoujan, Howard, Andrew W., Sinukoff, Evan, Ciardi, David R. and Akeson, Rachel L.. 2017. "Spitzer observations confirm and rescue the habitable-zone super-earth K2-18b for future characterization." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 834 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/187
Mass constraints of the WASP-47 planetary system from radial velocities
Sinukoff, Evan, Howard, Andrew W., Petigura, Erik A., Fulton, Benjamin J., Isaacson, Howard, Weiss, Lauren M., Brewer, John M., Hansen, Brad M. S., Hirsch, Lea, Christiansen, Jessie L., Crepp, Justin R., Crossfield, Ian J. M., Schlieder, Joshua E., Ciardi, David R., Beichman, Charles A., Knutson, Heather A., Benneke, Bjoern, Dressing, Courtney D., Livingston, John H., ..., Rogers, Leslie A.. 2017. "Mass constraints of the WASP-47 planetary system from radial velocities." The Astronomical Journal. 153 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/153/2/70
197 candidates and 104 validated planets in K2's first five fields
Crossfield, Ian J., Ciardi, David R., Petigura, Erik A., Sinukoff, Evan, Schlieder, Joshua E., Howard, Andrew W., Beichman, Charles A., Isaacson, Howard, Dressing, Courtney D., Christiansen, Jessie L., Fulton, Benjamin J., Lepine, Sebastien, Weiss, Lauren, Hirsch, Lea, Livingston, John, Baranec, Christoph, Law, Nicholas M., Riddle, Reed, Ziegler, Carl, ..., Defrere, Denis. 2016. "197 candidates and 104 validated planets in K2's first five fields." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 226 (1), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3847/0067-0049/226/1/7
Planetary candidates observed by Kepler. III. Analysis of the first 16 months of data
Batalha, Natalie M., Rowe, Jason F., Bryson, Stephen T., Barclay, Thomas, Burke, Christopher J., Caldwell, Douglas A., Christiansen, Jessie L., Mullally, Fergal, Thompson, Susan E., Brown, Timothy M., Dupree, Andrea K., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Fortney, Jonathan J., Gilliland, Ronald L., Isaacson, Howard, Latham, David W., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Quinn, Samuel N., ..., Welsh, William F.. 2013. "Planetary candidates observed by Kepler. III. Analysis of the first 16 months of data." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 204 (2), pp. 24-44. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/204/2/24
Characteristics of Kepler planetary candidates based on the first data set
Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Basri, Gibor, Batalha, Natalie, Boss, Alan, Brown, Timothy M., Caldwell, Douglas, Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Cochran, William D., DeVore, Edna, Dunham, Edward W., Dupree, Andrea K., Gautier, Thomas N., Geary, John C., Gilliland, Ronald, Gould, Alan, Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Kjeldsen, Hans, ..., Wu, Hayley. 2011. "Characteristics of Kepler planetary candidates based on the first data set." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 728 (2), pp. 117-136. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/117
Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data
Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Bryson, Stephen T., Lissauer, Jack J., Rowe, Jason, Haas, Michael, Basri, Gibor, Marcy, Geoffrey W., Howard, Andrew, Isaacson, Howard, Walkowicz, Lucianne, Batalha, Natalie, Brown, Timothy M., Shporer, Avi, Caldwell, Douglas, DeVore, Edna, Jenkins, Jon M., Doyle, Laurance, Tarter, Jill, ..., Prsa, Andrej. 2011. "Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 736 (1). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/19
Architecture and dynamics of Kepler's candidate multiple transiting planet systems
Lissauer, Jack J., Ragozzine, Darin, Fabrycky, Daniel C., Steffen, Jason H., Ford, Eric B., Jenkins, Jon M., Shporer, Avi, Holman, Matthew J., Rowe, Jason F., Quintana, Elisa V., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Bryson, Stephen T., Caldwell, Douglas A., Carter, Joshua A., Ciardi, David, Dunham, Edward W., Fortney, Jonathan J., Gautier, Thomas N., ..., Sasselov, Dimitar. 2011. "Architecture and dynamics of Kepler's candidate multiple transiting planet systems." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 8-33. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/8
Kepler-22b: a 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star
Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Batalha, Natalie, Bryson, Stephen T., Rowe, Jason, Fressin, Francois, Torres, Guillermo, Caldwell, Douglas A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Cochran, William D., DeVore, Edna, Gautier, Thomas N., Geary, John C., Gilliland, Ronald, Gould, Alan, Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Latham, David W., Lissauer, Jack J., ..., Rapin, William. 2012. "Kepler-22b: a 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 745 (2), pp. 120-135. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/120
KEPLER-21b: a 1.6 REarth planet transiting the bright oscillating F subgiant star HD179070
Howell, Steve B., Rowe, Jason F., Bryson, Stephen T., Quinn, Samuel N., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Ciardi, David R., Chaplin, William J., Metcalfe, Travis S., Monteiro, Mario J. P. F. G., Appourchaux, Thierry, Basu, Sarbani, Creevey, Orlagh L., Gilliland, Ronald L., Quirion, Pierre Olivier, Stello, Denis, Kjeldsen, Hans, Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Elsworth, Yvonne, ..., Henze, Christopher E.. 2012. "KEPLER-21b: a 1.6 REarth planet transiting the bright oscillating F subgiant star HD179070." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 746 (2), pp. 123-140. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/123
Almost all of Kepler's multiple-planet candidates are planets
Lissauer, Jack J., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Rowe, Jason F., Bryson, Stephen T., Adams, Elisabeth, Buchhave, Lars A., Ciardi, David R., Cochran, William D., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Fressin, Francois, Geary, John, Gilliland, Ronald L., Holman, Matthew J., Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Kinemuchi, Karen, Koch, David G., Morehead, Robert C., ..., Twicken, Joseph D.. 2012. "Almost all of Kepler's multiple-planet candidates are planets." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 750 (2), pp. 112-126. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/750/2/112
Kepler-62: A five-planet system with planets of 1.4 and 1.6 Earth radii in the habitable zone
Borucki, William J., Agol, Eric, Fressin, Francois, Kaltenegger, Lisa, Rowe, Jason, Isaacson, Howard, Fischer, Debra, Batalha, Natalie, Lissauer, Jack J., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Fabrycky, Daniel, Desert, Jean Michel, Bryson, Stephen T., Barclay, Thomas, Bastien, Fabienne, Boss, Alan, Brugamyer, Erik, Buchhave, Lars A., Burke, Chris, ..., Winn, Joshua N.. 2013. "Kepler-62: A five-planet system with planets of 1.4 and 1.6 Earth radii in the habitable zone." Science. 340 (6132), pp. 587-590. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1234702
Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems
Rowe, Jason F., Bryson, Stephen T., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Lissauer, Jack J., Jontof-Hutter, Daniel, Mullally, Fergal, Gilliland, Ronald L., Isaacson, Howard, Ford, Eric, Howell, Steve B., Borucki, William J., Haas, Michael, Huber, Daniel, Steffen, Jason H., Thompson, Susan E., Quintana, Elisa, Barclay, Thomas, Still, Martin, Fortney, Jonathan, ..., Geary, John. 2014. "Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 784 (1), pp. 45-64. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/45
Discovery and validation of Kepler-452b: A 1.6 R⊕; super earth exoplanet in the habitable zone of a G2 star
Jenkins, Jon M., Twicken, Joseph D., Batalha, Natalie M., Caldwell, Douglas A., Cochran, William D., Endl, Michael, Latham, David W., Esquerdo, Gilbert A., Seader, Shawn, Bieryla, Allyson, Petigura, Erik, Ciardi, David R., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Huber, Daniel, Rowe, Jason F., Torres, Guillermo, Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars, ..., Borucki, William J.. 2015. "Discovery and validation of Kepler-452b: A 1.6 R⊕; super earth exoplanet in the habitable zone of a G2 star." The Astronomical Journal. 150 (2), pp. 56-74. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/150/2/56
Modeling Kepler transit light curves as false positives: rejection of blend scenarios for Kepler-9, and validation of Kepler-9 d, a super-earth-size planet in a multiple system
Torres, Guillermo, Fressin, Francois, Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Brown, Timothy M., Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars A., Charbonneau, David, Ciardi, David R., Dunham, Edward W., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Holman, Matthew J., Howell, Steve B., Isaacson, Howard, Jenkins, Jon M., Koch, David G., ..., Welsh, William F.. 2011. "Modeling Kepler transit light curves as false positives: rejection of blend scenarios for Kepler-9, and validation of Kepler-9 d, a super-earth-size planet in a multiple system." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 727 (1), pp. 24-41. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/727/1/24
Kepler's first rocky planet: Kepler-10b
Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars A., Caldwell, Douglas A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Ciardi, David, Dunham, Edward W., Fressin, Francois, Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Haas, Michael R., Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Kjeldsen, Hans, Koch, David G., Latham, David W., Lissauer, Jack J., Marcy, Geoffrey W., ..., Gould, Alan. 2011. "Kepler's first rocky planet: Kepler-10b." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 729 (1), pp. 27-47. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/729/1/27
A first comparison of Kepler planet candidates in single and multiple systems
Latham, David W., Rowe, Jason F., Quinn, Samuel N., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Brown, Timothy M., Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars A., Caldwell, Douglas A., Carter, Joshua A., Christiansen, Jessie L., Ciardi, David R., Cochran, William D., Dunham, Edward W., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Holman, Matthew J., ..., Wohler, Bill. 2011. "A first comparison of Kepler planet candidates in single and multiple systems." The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 732 (2), pp. L24-L27. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/732/2/L24
Kepler-18b, c, and d: a system of three planets confirmed by transit timing variations, light curve validation, Warm-Spitzer photometry, and radial velocity measurements
Cochran, William D., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Torres, Guillermo, Fressin, Francois, Desert, Jean Michel, Ragozzine, Darin, Sasselov, Dimitar, Fortney, Jonathan J., Rowe, Jason F., Brugamyer, Erik J., Bryson, Stephen T., Carter, Joshua A., Ciardi, David R., Howell, Steve B., Steffen, Jason H., Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Winn, Joshua N., Welsh, William F., ..., Batalha, Natalie. 2011. "Kepler-18b, c, and d: a system of three planets confirmed by transit timing variations, light curve validation, Warm-Spitzer photometry, and radial velocity measurements." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 7-25. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/7
Kepler-14b: A massive hot Jupiter transiting an F star in a close visual binary
Buchhave, Lars A., Latham, David W., Carter, Joshua A., Desert, Jean Michel, Torres, Guillermo, Adams, Elisabeth R., Bryson, Stephen T., Charbonneau, David B., Ciardi, David R., Kulesa, Craig, Dupree, Andrea K., Fischer, Debra A., Fressin, Francois, Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Howell, Steve B., Isaacson, Howard, Jenkins, Jon M., Marcy, Geoffrey W., ..., Van Cleve, Jeffrey. 2011. "Kepler-14b: A massive hot Jupiter transiting an F star in a close visual binary." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/3
Discovery and atmospheric characterization of giant planet Kepler-12b: An inflated radius outlier
Fortney, Jonathan J., Demory, Brice Olivier, Desert, Jean Michel, Rowe, Jason, Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Buchhave, Lars A., Ciardi, David, Gautier, Thomas N., Batalha, Natalie M., Caldwell, Douglas A., Bryson, Stephen T., Nutzman, Philip, Jenkins, Jon M., Howard, Andrew, Charbonneau, David, Knutson, Heather A., Howell, Steve B., Everett, Mark, ..., Geary, John C.. 2011. "Discovery and atmospheric characterization of giant planet Kepler-12b: An inflated radius outlier." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 9-20. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/9
Kepler-10c: a 2.2 earth radius transiting planet in a multiple system
Fressin, François, Torres, Guillermo, Desert, Jean Michel, Charbonneau, David, Batalha, Natalie M., Fortney, Jonathan J., Rowe, Jason F., Allen, Christopher, Borucki, William J., Brown, Timothy M., Bryson, Stephen T., Ciardi, David R., Holman, Matthew J., Latham, David W., Ragozzine, Darin, Cochran, William D., Sasselov, Dimitar D., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Henze, Christopher E., ..., Marcy, Geoffrey W.. 2011. "Kepler-10c: a 2.2 earth radius transiting planet in a multiple system." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1). https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/5
Kepler-15b: a hot Jupiter enriched in heavy elements and the first Kepler mission planet confirmed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope
Endl, Michael, MacQueen, Phillip J., Cochran, William D., Brugamyer, Erik J., Buchhave, Lars A., Rowe, Jason, Lucas, Phillip, Isaacson, Howard, Bryson, Steve, Howell, Steve B., Fortney, Jonathan J., Hansen, Terese, Borucki, William J., Caldwell, Douglas, Christiansen, Jessie L., Ciardi, David R., Demory, Brice Olivier, Everett, Mark, Ford, Eric B., ..., Twicken, Joseph D.. 2011. "Kepler-15b: a hot Jupiter enriched in heavy elements and the first Kepler mission planet confirmed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 13-23. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/13
The kepler-19 system: a transiting 2.2 R ⊕ planet and a second planet detected via transit timing variations
Ballard, Sarah, Fabrycky, Daniel, Fressin, Francois, Charbonneau, David, Desert, Jean Michel, Torres, Guillermo, Marcy, Geoffrey, Burke, Christopher J., Isaacson, Howard, Henze, Christopher, Steffen, Jason H., Ciardi, David R., Howell, Steven B., Cochran, William D., Endl, Michael, Bryson, Stephen T., Rowe, Jason F., Holman, Matthew J., Lissauer, Jack J., ..., Borucki, William J.. 2011. "The kepler-19 system: a transiting 2.2 R ⊕ planet and a second planet detected via transit timing variations." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 743 (2), pp. 200-219. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/200
Transit timing observations from Kepler- III. Confirmation of four multiple planet systems by a Fourier-domain study of anticorrelated transit timing variations
Steffen, Jason H., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Carter, Joshua A., Desert, Jean Michel, Fressin, Francois, Holman, Matthew J., Lissauer, Jack J., Moorhead, Althea V., Rowe, Jason F., Ragozzine, Darin, Welsh, William F., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Buchhave, Lars A., Bryson, Steve, Caldwell, Douglas A., Charbonneau, David, Ciardi, David R., ..., Van Cleve, Jeffery. 2012. "Transit timing observations from Kepler- III. Confirmation of four multiple planet systems by a Fourier-domain study of anticorrelated transit timing variations." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 421 (3), pp. 2342-2354. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20467.x
Kepler-20: a sun-like star with three sub-neptune exoplanets and two earth-size candidates
Gautier, Thomas N., Charbonneau, David, Rowe, Jason F., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Torres, Guillermo, Fressin, Francois, Rogers, Leslie A., Desert, Jean Michel, Buchhave, Lars A., Latham, David W., Quinn, Samuel N., Ciardi, David R., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Gilliland, Ronald L., Walkowicz, Lucianne M., Bryson, Stephen T., Cochran, William D., ..., Van Cleve, Jeffrey. 2012. "Kepler-20: a sun-like star with three sub-neptune exoplanets and two earth-size candidates." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 749 (1), pp. 15-33. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/15
Transit timing observations from Kepler. IV. Confirmation of four multiple-planet systems by simple physical models
Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Steffen, Jason H., Rowe, Jason F., Carter, Joshua A., Moorhead, Althea V., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Bryson, Steve, Buchhave, Lars A., Christiansen, Jessie L., Ciardi, David R., Cochran, William D., Endl, Michael, Fanelli, Michael N., Fischer, Debra, Fressin, Francois, Geary, John, Haas, Michael R., ..., Shporer, Avi. 2012. "Transit timing observations from Kepler. IV. Confirmation of four multiple-planet systems by simple physical models." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 750 (2), pp. 114-130. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/750/2/114
Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler
Howard, Andrew W., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Bryson, Stephen T., Jenkins, Jon M., Rowe, Jason F., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Dunham, Edward W., Gautier, Thomas N., Van Cleve, Jeffrey, Cochran, William D., Latham, David W., Lissauer, Jack J., Torres, Guillermo, Brown, Timothy M., Gilliland, Ronald L., Buchhave, Lars A., Caldwell, Douglas A., ..., MacQueen, Phillip J.. 2012. "Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 201 (2), pp. 15-34. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15
Transit timing observations from Kepler. VI. Potentially interesting candidate systems from fourier-based statistical tests
Steffen, Jason H., Ford, Eric B., Rowe, Jason F., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Holman, Matthew J., Welsh, William F., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Bryson, Steve, Caldwell, Douglas A., Ciardi, David R., Jenkins, Jon M., Kjeldsen, Hans, Koch, David G., Prsa, Andrej, Sanderfer, Dwight T., Seader, Shawn and Twicken, Joseph D.. 2012. "Transit timing observations from Kepler. VI. Potentially interesting candidate systems from fourier-based statistical tests." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 756 (2), pp. 186-190. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/186
On the relative sizes of planets within kepler multiple-candidate systems
Ciardi, David R., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Gautier, T. N., Howell, Steve B., Lissauer, Jack J., Ragozzine, Darin and Rowe, Jason F.. 2013. "On the relative sizes of planets within kepler multiple-candidate systems." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 763 (1), pp. 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/763/1/41
A sub-Mercury-sized exoplanet
Barclay, Thomas, Rowe, Jason F., Lissauer, Jack J., Huber, Daniel, Fressin, Francois, Howell, Steve B., Bryson, Stephen T., Chaplin, William J., Desert, Jean Michel, Lopez, Eric D., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Mullally, Fergal, Ragozzine, Darin, Torres, Guillermo, Adams, Elisabeth R., Agol, Eric, Barrado, David, Basu, Sarbani, Bedding, Timothy R., ..., Thompson, Susan E.. 2013. "A sub-Mercury-sized exoplanet." Nature. 494 (7438), pp. 452-454. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11914
Confirmation of hot jupiter Kepler-41B via phase curve analysis
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A super-earth-sized planet orbiting in or near the habitable zone around a sun-like star
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Masses, radii, and orbits of small Kepler planets: the transition from gaseous to rocky planets
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Planetary candidates observed by Kepler IV: Planet sample from Q1-Q8 (22 months)
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Spitzer observations of exoplanets discovered with the Kepler K2 mission
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K2 discovers a busy bee: an unusual transiting Neptune found in the beehive cluster
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Architecture of Kepler's multi-transiting systems. II. New investigations with twice as many candidates
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The Discovery and Mass Measurement of a New Ultra-short-period Planet: K2-131b
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Transiting circumbinary planets Kepler-34 b and Kepler-35 b
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Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20
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An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities
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The same frequency of planets inside and outside open clusters of stars
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Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters
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An Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone of a cool star
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MOST light-curve analysis of the γ Doradus pulsator HR 8799, showing resonances and amplitude variations
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