Planet Hunters TESS II: findings from the first two years of TESS

Article


Eisner, N. L., Barragan, O., Lintott, C., Aigrain, S., Nicholson, B., Boyajian, T. S., Howells, S., Johnston, C., Lakeland, B., Miller, G., McMaster, A., Parviainen, H., Safron, E. J., Schwamb, M. E., Trouille, L., Vaughan, S., Zicher, N., Allen, C., Allen, S., ..., Hoffman, T.. 2021. "Planet Hunters TESS II: findings from the first two years of TESS." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 501 (4), pp. 4669-4690. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3739
Article Title

Planet Hunters TESS II: findings from the first two years of TESS

ERA Journal ID1074
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsEisner, N. L., Barragan, O., Lintott, C., Aigrain, S., Nicholson, B., Boyajian, T. S., Howells, S., Johnston, C., Lakeland, B., Miller, G., McMaster, A., Parviainen, H., Safron, E. J., Schwamb, M. E., Trouille, L., Vaughan, S., Zicher, N., Allen, C., Allen, S., Bouslog, M., Johnson, C., Simon, M. N., Wolfenbarger, Z., Baeten, E. M. L., Bundy, D. M. and Hoffman, T.
Journal TitleMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Journal Citation501 (4), pp. 4669-4690
Number of Pages22
Year2021
PublisherOxford University Press
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0035-8711
1365-2966
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3739
Web Address (URL)https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/501/4/4669/6027708
AbstractWe present the results from the first two years of the Planet Hunters TESS (PHT) citizen science project, which identifies planet candidates in the TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) data by engaging members of the general public. Over 22 000 citizen scientists from around the world visually inspected the first 26 sectors of TESS data in order to help identify transit-like signals. We use a clustering algorithm to combine these classifications into a ranked list of events for each sector, the top 500 of which are then visually vetted by the science team. We assess the detection efficiency of this methodology by comparing our results to the list of TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs) and show that we recover 85 per cent of the TOIs with radii greater than 4 R⊕ and 51 per cent of those with radii between 3 and 4 R⊕. Additionally, we present our 90 most promising planet candidates that had not previously been identified by other teams, 73 of which exhibit only a single-transit event in the TESS light curve, and outline our efforts to follow these candidates up using ground-based observatories. Finally, we present noteworthy stellar systems that were identified through the Planet Hunters TESS project.
Keywordsmethods: data analysis; catalogues; planets and satellites:
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020510109. Stellar astronomy and planetary systems
Public Notes

This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Oxford, United Kingdom
Centre for Astrophysics
Louisiana State University, United States
NASA Ames Research Center, United States
Institute of Astronomy, Belgium
Radboud University, Netherlands
Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, Spain
Gemini Observatory, United States
Queen’s University Belfast, United Kingdom
Adler Planetarium, United States
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Stauffer, John, Rebull, Luisa, Bouvier, Jerome, Hillenbrand, Lynne A., Collier-Cameron, Andrew, Pinsonneault, Marc, Aigrain, Suzanne, Barrado, David, Bouy, Herve, Ciardi, David, Cody, Ann Marie, David, Trevor, Micela, Giusi, Soderblom, David, Somers, Garrett, Stassun, Keivan G., Valenti, Jeff and Vrba, Frederick J.. 2016. "Rotation in the Pleiades with K2. III. Speculations on origins and evolution." The Astronomical Journal. 152 (5), pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-6256/152/5/115
Rotation in the Pleiades with K2. II. Multiperiod stars
Rebull, L. M., Stauffer, J. R., Bouvier, J., Cody, A. M., Hillenbrand, L. A., Soderblom, D. R., Valenti, J., Barrado, D., Bouy, H., Ciardi, D., Pinsonneault, M., Stassun, K., Micela, G., Aigrain, S., Vrba, F., Somers, G., Gillen, E. and Collier Cameron, A.. 2016. "Rotation in the Pleiades with K2. II. Multiperiod stars." The Astronomical Journal. 152 (5), pp. 114-133. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-6256/152/5/114
Astrophysical parameters and habitable zone of the exoplanet hosting star GJ 581
von Braun, Kaspar, Boyajian, Tabetha S., Kane, Stephen R., van Belle, Gerard T., Ciardi, David R., Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, McAlister, Harold A., Henry, Todd J., Jao, Wei Chun, Riedel, Adric R., Subasavage, John P., Schaefer, Gail, ten Brummelaar, Theo A., Ridgway, Stephen, Sturmann, Laszlo, Sturmann, Judit, Mazingue, Jude, Turner, Nils H., Farrington, Chris, ..., Boden, Andrew F.. 2011. "Astrophysical parameters and habitable zone of the exoplanet hosting star GJ 581." The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 729 (2), pp. L26-L30. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/729/2/L26
55 Cancri: stellar astrophysical parameters, a planet in the habitable zone, and implications for the radius of a transiting super-earth
von Braun, Kaspar, Boyajian, Tabetha S., ten Brummelaar, Theo A., Kane, Stephen R., van Belle, Gerard T., Ciardi, David R., Raymond, Sean N., Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, McAlister, Harold A., Schaefer, Gail, Ridgway, Stephen T., Sturmann, Laszlo, Sturmann, Judit, White, Russel, Turner, Nils H., Farrington, Chris and Goldfinger, P. J.. 2011. "55 Cancri: stellar astrophysical parameters, a planet in the habitable zone, and implications for the radius of a transiting super-earth." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 740 (1), pp. 49-54. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/740/1/49
The GJ436 system: directly determined astrophysical parameters of an M dwarf and implications for the transiting hot Neptune
von Braun, Kaspar, Boyajian, Tabetha S., Kane, Stephen R., Hebb, Leslie, van Belle, Gerard T., Farrington, Chris, Ciardi, David R., Knutson, Heather A., ten Brummelaar, Theo A., Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, McAlister, Harold A., Schaefer, Gail, Ridgway, Stephen, Cameron, Andrew Collier, Goldfinger, P. J., Turner, Nils H., Sturmann, Laszlo and Sturmann, Judit. 2012. "The GJ436 system: directly determined astrophysical parameters of an M dwarf and implications for the transiting hot Neptune." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 753 (2), pp. 171-179. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/753/2/171
Stellar diameters and temperatures. II. Main-sequence K- and M-stars
Boyajian, Tabetha S., von Braun, Kaspar, van Belle, Gerard, McAlister, Harold A., ten Brummelaar, Theo A., Kane, Stephen R., Muirhead, Philip S., Jones, Jeremy, White, Russel, Schaefer, Gail, Ciardi, David, Henry, Todd, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Ridgway, Stephen, Gies, Douglas, Jao, Wei Chun, Rojas-Ayala, Barbara, Parks, J. Robert, Sturmann, Laszlo, ..., Berger, David H.. 2012. "Stellar diameters and temperatures. II. Main-sequence K- and M-stars." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 757 (2), pp. 112-142. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/757/2/112
Host star properties and transit exclusion for the HD 38529 planetary system
Henry, Gregory W., Kane, Stephen R., Wang, Sharon X., Wright, Jason T., Boyajian, Tabetha S., von Braun, Kaspar, Ciardi, David R., Dragomir, Diana, Farrington, Chris, Fischer, Debra A., Hinkel, Natalie R., Howard, Andrew W., Jensen, Eric, Laughlin, Gregory, Mahadevan, Suvrath and Pilyavsky, Genady. 2013. "Host star properties and transit exclusion for the HD 38529 planetary system." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 768 (2), pp. 155-163. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/768/2/155
Stellar diameters and temperatures - V. 11. Newly characterized exoplanet host stars
von Braun, Kaspar, Boyajian, Tabetha S., van Belle, Gerard T., Kane, Stephen R., Jones, Jeremy, Farrington, Chris, Schaefer, Gail, Vargas, Norm, Scott, Nic, ten Brummelaar, Theo A., Kephart, Miranda, Gies, Douglas R., Ciardi, David R., Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Mazingue, Cassidy, McAlister, Harold A., Ridgway, Stephen, Goldfinger, P. J., Turner, Nils H. and Sturmann, Laszlo. 2014. "Stellar diameters and temperatures - V. 11. Newly characterized exoplanet host stars." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 438 (3), pp. 2413-2425. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt2360
Stellar diameters and temperatures. VI. High angular resolution measurements of the transiting exoplanet host stars HD 189733 and HD 209458 and implications for models of cool dwarfs
Boyajian, Tabetha, von Braun, Kaspar, Feiden, Gregory A., Huber, Daniel, Basu, Sarbani, Demarque, Pierre, Fischer, Debra A., Schaefer, Gail, Mann, Andrew W., White, Timothy R., Maestro, Vicente, Brewer, John, Lamell, C. Brooke, Spada, Federico, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Ireland, Michael, Farrington, Chris, van Belle, Gerard T., Kane, Stephen R., ..., Sturmann, Laszlo. 2015. "Stellar diameters and temperatures. VI. High angular resolution measurements of the transiting exoplanet host stars HD 189733 and HD 209458 and implications for models of cool dwarfs." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 447 (1), pp. 846-857. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stu2502
Three temperate Neptunes orbiting nearby stars
Fulton, Benjamin J., Howard, Andrew W., Weiss, Lauren M., Sinukoff, Evan, Petigura, Erik A., Isaacson, Howard, Hirsch, Lea, Marcy, Geoffrey W., Henry, Gregory W., Grunblatt, Samuel K., Huber, Daniel, von Braun, Kaspar, Boyajian, Tabetha S., Kane, Stephen R., Wittrock, Justin, Horch, Elliott P., Ciardi, David R., Howell, Steve B., Wright, Jason T. and Ford, Eric B.. 2016. "Three temperate Neptunes orbiting nearby stars." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 830 (1), pp. 46-64. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/830/1/46
Rotation in the Pleiades with K2. I. Data and first results
Rebull, L. M., Stauffer, J. R., Bouvier, J., Cody, A. M., Hillenbrand, L. A., Soderblom, D. R., Valenti, J., Barrado, D., Bouy, H., Ciardi, D., Pinsonneault, M., Stassun, K., Micela, G., Aigrain, S., Vrba, F., Somers, G., Christiansen, J., Gillen, E. and Collier Cameron, A.. 2016. "Rotation in the Pleiades with K2. I. Data and first results." The Astronomical Journal. 152 (5), pp. 113-131. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-6256/152/5/113
Temporal variability of the wind from the star τ Boötis
Nicholson, B. A., Vidotto, A. A., Mengel, M., Brookshaw, L., Carter, B., Petit, P., Marsden, S. C., Jeffers, S. V. and Fares, R.. 2016. "Temporal variability of the wind from the star τ Boötis." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 459 (2), pp. 1907-1915. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw731
Evidence for reflected light from the most eccentric exoplanet known
Kane, Stephen R., Wittenmyer, Robert A., Hinkel, Natalie R., Roy, Arpita, Mahadevan, Suvrath, Dragomir, Diana, Matthews, Jaymie M., Henry, Gregory W., Chakraborty, Abhijit, Boyajian, Tabetha S., Wright, Jason T., Ciardi, David R., Fischer, Debra A., Butler, R. Paul, Tinney, C. G., Carter, Brad D., Jones, Hugh R. A ., Bailey, Jeremy and O'Toole, Simon J.. 2016. "Evidence for reflected light from the most eccentric exoplanet known." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 821 (1). https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/821/1/65
The Discovery and Mass Measurement of a New Ultra-short-period Planet: K2-131b
Dai, Fei, Winn, Joshua N., Gandolfi, Davide, Wang, Sharon X., Teske, Johanna K., Burt, Jennifer, Albrecht, Simon, Barragan, Oscar, Cochran, William D., Endl, Michael, Fridlund, Malcolm, Hatzes, Artie P., Hirano, Teruyuki, Hirsch, Lea A., Johnson, Marshall C., Justesen, Anders Bo, Livingston, John, Persson, Carina M., Prieto-Arranz, Jorge, ..., Wittenmyer, Robert A.. 2017. "The Discovery and Mass Measurement of a New Ultra-short-period Planet: K2-131b." The Astronomical Journal. 154 (6), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa9065
Winds of planet hosting stars
Nicholson, B. A., Mengel, M. W., Brookshaw, L., Vidotto, A. A., Carter, B. D., Marsden, S. C., Soutter, J., Waite, I. A. and Horner, J.. 2015. "Winds of planet hosting stars." Short, Wayne and Cairns, Iver (ed.) 14th Australian Space Research Conference (ASRC 2014). Adelaide, Australia 29 Sep - 01 Oct 2014 Sydney, Australia.
Characterizing the cross dispersion reflection gratings of CRIRES+
Follert, Roman, Taubert, Dieter, Hollandt, Joerg, Monte, Christian, Oliva, Ernesto, Seemann, Ulf, Loewinger, Tom, Anwand-Heerwart, Heiko, Schmidt, Christof, Dorn, Reinhold J., Bristow, Paul, Hatzes, Artie, Reiners, Ansgar, Piskunov, Nikolai, Heiter, Ulrike, Stempels, Eric, Marquart, Thomas, Lavail, Alexis, Cumani, Claudio, ..., Tordo, Sebastien. 2016. "Characterizing the cross dispersion reflection gratings of CRIRES+." SPIE - Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy. United States. SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232569
The "+" for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT
Dorn, Reinhold J, Follert, Roman, Bristow, Paul, Cumani, Claudio, Eschbaumer, Siegfried, Grunhut, Jason, Haimerl, Andreas, Hatzes, Artie, Heiter, Ulrike, Hinterschuster, Renate, Ives, Derek J, Jung, Yves, Kerber, Florian, Klein, Barbara, Lavaila, Alexis, Lizon, Jean Louis, Löwinger, Tom, Molina-Condea, Ignacio, Nicholson, Belinda, ..., Tordo, Sebastien. 2016. "The "+" for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT ." Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy IV. Edinburgh, United Kingdom 26 Jun - 01 Jul 2016 United States. SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232837
Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data
Pope, B. J. S., White, T. R., Huber, D., Murphy, S. J., Bedding, T. R., Caldwell, D. A., Sarai, A., Aigrain, S. and Barclay, T.. 2015. "Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 455 (1), pp. L36-L40. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnrasl/slv143