Arterial oxygen desaturation kinetics during apnea

Article


Stewart, Ian B., Bulmer, Andrew C., Sharman, James E. and Ridgway, Lynne. 2005. "Arterial oxygen desaturation kinetics during apnea." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 37 (11), pp. 1871-1876. https://doi.org/10.12490/01.mss.0000176305.51360.7e
Article Title

Arterial oxygen desaturation kinetics during apnea

ERA Journal ID9788
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsStewart, Ian B. (Author), Bulmer, Andrew C. (Author), Sharman, James E. (Author) and Ridgway, Lynne (Author)
Journal TitleMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Journal Citation37 (11), pp. 1871-1876
Number of Pages6
Year2005
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins
Place of PublicationUSA
ISSN0195-9131
1530-0315
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.12490/01.mss.0000176305.51360.7e
Abstract

Purpose: To quantify the rate of arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in freedivers. Methods: Ten freedivers and ten controls undertook five maximal face immersion apneas in 10°C water separated by 2 min of recovery. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and pulse oximetry were recorded continuously. Peripheral blood flow was measured by calf plethysmography every 30 s, and venous blood samples were collected at rest and after apneas 1, 3, and 5. The blood was analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), lactate, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. The arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) data were curve fitted with both a sigmoid and two-slope continuous function. Results: Apnea duration increased with successive attempts, with freedivers achieving significantly longer maximal apneas (trained 246 ± 44 s, untrained 129 ± 39 s, P < 0.001). Compared with controls, freedivers displayed a significant change from baseline in heart rate (trained -27.2 ± 9.5 bpm, untrained -19.7 ± 9.3 bpm, P < 0.001) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (trained 48 ± 20.7 mm Hg, untrained 37 ± 10.0 mm Hg, P = 0.002), but no difference existed in peripheral blood flow, Hct, lactate, or Hb. The maximal slope of the SaO2 sigmoid curve was not significantly different between the groups (trained -0.16 ± 0.05%·s -1, untrained -0.15 ± 0.06%·s-1, P = 0.26), but the ΔSaO2/Δt obtained from the two-slope continuous model indicated that 85% of the variance in the freedivers ΔSaO 2/At could be explained by the apnea-induced bradycardia, preapnea vital capacity, and Hb concentration. Conclusions: The sigmoidal function provided no quantifiable difference in the rate of oxygen desaturation. The two-slope continuous method, however, indicated that freedivers who had larger oxygen stores and produced the largest bradycardia were able to slow the ΔSaO2/Δt to two to three times that of the least marked response.

Keywordsfreedivers; arterial oxygen desaturation; breath hold; diving response; sigmoid logistic function
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020420702. Exercise physiology
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Byline AffiliationsQueensland University of Technology
University of Queensland
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