The anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects of bile pigments in the Ames Salmonella test

Article


Bulmer, Andrew C., Ried, K., Coombes, Jeff S., Blanchfield, Joanne T., Toth, Istvan and Wagner, Karl-Heinz. 2007. "The anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects of bile pigments in the Ames Salmonella test." Mutation Research: Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 629, pp. 122-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2007.01.008
Article Title

The anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects of bile pigments in the Ames Salmonella test

ERA Journal ID3373
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBulmer, Andrew C. (Author), Ried, K. (Author), Coombes, Jeff S. (Author), Blanchfield, Joanne T. (Author), Toth, Istvan (Author) and Wagner, Karl-Heinz (Author)
Journal TitleMutation Research: Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Journal Citation629, pp. 122-132
Number of Pages11
Year2007
Place of PublicationNetherlands
ISSN1383-5718
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2007.01.008
Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the potential pro- and anti-mutagenic effects of endogenous bile pigments unconjugated bilirubin (BR), biliverdin (BV) and a synthetic, water soluble conjugate, bilirubin ditaurate (BRT) in the Ames Salmonella test.
The bile pigments were tested over a wide concentration range (0.01–2 !mol/plate) in the presence of three bacterial strains (TA98,TA100, TA102). A variety of mutagens including benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[']P), 2,4,7 trinitrofluorenone (TNFone), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), sodium azide (NaN3) and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), were used to promote the formation of mutant revertants.
Tests were conducted with (B[']P, 2-AF, t-BuOOH) and without (TNFone, NaN3, t-BuOOH) metabolic activation incorporating the addition of the microsomal liver preparation, S9. The bile pigments alone did not induce mutagenicity in any of the strains tested (p > 0.05). Anti-mutagenic effects of the bile pigments were observed in the presence of all mutagens except for
NaN3 and the anti-mutagenic effects appeared independent of the strain tested. For TNFone induced genotoxicity, the order of effectiveness was BR> or equal to BRT >BV. However, the order was BR> or equal to BRT > or equal to BV. for 2-AF. Antioxidant testing in the TA102 strain
revealed bile pigments could effectively inhibit the genotoxic effect of t-BuOOH induced oxidative stress. The apparent antioxidant and anti-mutagenic behaviour of bile pigments further suggests their presence in biological systems is of possible physiological importance.

Keywordsbile pigments; bilirubin; biliverdin; bilirubin ditaurate; Antioxidant; antimutagen; Ames test; salmonella
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020420702. Exercise physiology
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Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Queensland
University of Vienna, Austria
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