Characterization of Temporarily Captured Minimoon 2020 CD3 by Keck Time-resolved Spectrophotometry

Article


Bolin, Bryce T., Fremling, Christoffer, Holt, Timothy R., Hankins, Matthew J., Ahumada, Tomás, Anand, Shreya, Bhalerao, Varun, Burdge, Kevin B., Copperwheat, Chris M., Coughlin, Michael, Deshmukh, Kunal P., De, Kishalay, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Morbidelli, Alessandro, Purdum, Josiah N., Quimby, Robert, Bodewits, Dennis, Chang, Chan-Kao, Ip, Wing-Huen, ..., Zolkower, Jeffry. 2021. "Characterization of Temporarily Captured Minimoon 2020 CD3 by Keck Time-resolved Spectrophotometry." The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 900 (2), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abae69
Article Title

Characterization of Temporarily Captured Minimoon 2020 CD3 by Keck Time-resolved
Spectrophotometry

ERA Journal ID45091
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBolin, Bryce T., Fremling, Christoffer, Holt, Timothy R., Hankins, Matthew J., Ahumada, Tomás, Anand, Shreya, Bhalerao, Varun, Burdge, Kevin B., Copperwheat, Chris M., Coughlin, Michael, Deshmukh, Kunal P., De, Kishalay, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Morbidelli, Alessandro, Purdum, Josiah N., Quimby, Robert, Bodewits, Dennis, Chang, Chan-Kao, Ip, Wing-Huen, Hsu, Chen-Yen, Laher, Russ R., Lin, Zhong-Yi, Lisse, Carey M., Masci, Frank J., Ngeow, Chow-Choong, Tan, Hanjie, Zhai, Chengxing, Burruss, Rick, Dekany, Richard, Delacroix, Alexandre, Duev, Dmitry A., Graham, Matthew, Hale, David, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Kupfer, Thomas, Mahabal, Ashish, Mroz, Przemyslaw J., Neill, James D., Riddle, Reed, Rodriguez, Hector, Smith, Roger M., Soumagnac, Maayane T., Walters, Richard, Yan, Lin and Zolkower, Jeffry
Journal TitleThe Astrophysical Journal Letters
Journal Citation900 (2), pp. 1-14
Article NumberL45
Number of Pages15
Year2021
PublisherIOP Publishing
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN2041-8205
2041-8213
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abae69
Web Address (URL)https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/abae69
Abstract

We present time-resolved visible spectrophotometry of 2020 CD3, the second known minimoon. The spectrophotometry was taken with the Keck I/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer between wavelengths 434 and 912 nm in the B, g, V, R, I, and RG850 filters as it was leaving the Earth-Moon system on 2020 March 23 UTC. The spectrum of 2020 CD3 resembles V-type asteroids and some lunar rock samples with a 434-761 nm reddish slope of ∼18%/100 nm (g-r = 0.62 ± 0.08 and r-i = 0.21 ± 0.06) with an absorption band at ∼900 nm corresponding to i-z = -0.54 ± 0.10. Combining our measured H of 31.9 ± 0.1 with an albedo of 0.35 typical for V-type asteroids, we determine 2020 CD3's diameter to be ∼0.9 ± 0.1 m, making it the first minimoon and one of the smallest asteroids to be spectrally studied. We use our time-series photometry to detect significant periodic light-curve variations with a period of ∼573 s and amplitude of ∼1. In addition, we extend the observational arc of 2020 CD3 to 37 days, to 2020 March 23 UTC. From the improved orbital solution for 2020 CD3, we estimate the likely duration of its capture to be ∼2 yr and the nongravitational perturbation on its orbit due to radiation pressure with an area-to-mass ratio of (6.9 ± 2.4) × 10-4 m2 kg-1 implying a density of 2.3 ± 0.8 g cm-3, broadly compatible with other meter-scale asteroids and lunar rock. We searched for prediscovery detections of 2020 CD3 in the Zwicky Transient Facility archive as far back as 2018 October but were unable to locate any positive detections.

KeywordsAsteroids (72); Near-Earth objects (1092); Meteoroids (1040)
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020510109. Stellar astronomy and planetary systems
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Byline AffiliationsCalifornia Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States
University of Southern Queensland
Southwest Research Institute, United States
University of Maryland, United States
Indian Institute of Technology, India
Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
University of Minnesota, United States
Cote d'Azur University, France
San Diego State University, United States
University of Tokyo, Japan
Auburn University, United States
National Central University, Taiwan
Johns Hopkins University, United States
University of California, United States
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
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