Mapping and situation analysis of basic WASH facilities at households in Bangladesh: Evidence from a nationally representative survey

Article


Ahmed, Md. Sabbir, Islam Md Irteja, Das, Manik Chandra, Khan, Arifuzzaman and Yunus, Fakir Md. 2021. "Mapping and situation analysis of basic WASH facilities at households in Bangladesh: Evidence from a nationally representative survey ." PLoS One. 16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259635
Article Title

Mapping and situation analysis of basic WASH facilities at households in Bangladesh: Evidence from a nationally representative survey

ERA Journal ID39745
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsAhmed, Md. Sabbir, Islam Md Irteja, Das, Manik Chandra, Khan, Arifuzzaman and Yunus, Fakir Md
Journal TitlePLoS One
Journal Citation16
Article Numbere0259635
Number of Pages12
Year2021
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN1932-6203
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259635
Web Address (URL)https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0259635
Abstract

Background
Ensuring water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities for households remains a major public health concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study investigated the current situation of basic WASH facilities for households in Bangladesh and drew a national coverage map.

Methods
We analyzed the publicly available nationally representative 2019 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) dataset that was carried out by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) with support from the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF). A total of 61,209 households (weighted) were included in the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to examine the relationships between independent variables (socio-demographic and economic status) and their distributions over outcome variables (basic water, sanitation, and hygiene). Further, the spatial distribution of WASH facilities at the household level was depicted.

Results
Coverage of access to basic water facilities at the household level was 99.5% (95% CI 99.4% to 99.6%), sanitation 60.7% (95% CI 60.0% to 61.5%), and hygiene 56.3% (95% CI 55.6% to 57.0%). However, coverage of combined access to all three components was 40.2% (95% CI 39.4% to 40.9%). Among all 64 administrative districts of Bangladesh, we found comparatively lower coverage of WASH facilities in the South and South-East regions and relatively higher in the households of the North and North-Western regions. An adjusted regression model revealed that richest households [AOR = 29.64, 95% CI 26.31 to 33.39], households in the rural areas [AOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.79], household heads with higher educational attainment [AOR = 2.28, 95% CI 2.09 to 2.49], and households with 5+ family members [AOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.56 to 1.71] had the higher likelihood to have basic WASH facilities.

Conclusion
Less than half of the Bangladeshi households had access to all three major WASH components (basic water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities); however, variation exists at the individual parameter of basic water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities. A comprehensive WASH approach may reduce the gap and improve the quality of WASH facilities in Bangladesh.

KeywordsWASH; LMICs
ANZSRC Field of Research 20204206. Public health
PubMed ID34735535
Byline AffiliationsPatuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
Centre for Health Research
School of Mathematics, Physics and Computing
University of South Asia, Bangladesh
Central Queensland Hospital and Health Service, Australia
University of Queensland
Dalhousie University, Canada
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