Explaining short-term memory phenomena with long-term memory theory: Is a special state involved?

Article


Humphreys, Michael S., Tehan, Gerald, Baumann, Oliver and Loft, Shayne. 2023. "Explaining short-term memory phenomena with long-term memory theory: Is a special state involved?" Current Psychology: developmental - learning - personality - social. 42 (10), p. 8163–18177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02615-5
Article Title

Explaining short-term memory phenomena with long-term memory theory: Is a special state involved?

ERA Journal ID6214
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsHumphreys, Michael S., Tehan, Gerald, Baumann, Oliver and Loft, Shayne
Journal TitleCurrent Psychology: developmental - learning - personality - social
Journal Citation42 (10), p. 8163–18177
Number of Pages15
Year2023
PublisherSpringer
ISSN1046-1310
1936-4733
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02615-5
Web Address (URL)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-021-02615-5
Abstract

The idea that some recently encountered items reside in a special state where they do not have to be retrieved has come to be a critical component of short-term memory theories. In the current work, the existence of such a special state was tested using the probe-recognition paradigm followed by a delayed recognition test. Across two experiments participants received a series of probe recognition trials where list lengths of 1-, 4- and 8-items were intermixed. Delayed recognition performance for non-target probes was poorer for the only item in 1-item lists than for the last item in multi-item lists. At the same time, the delayed recognition of studied-but-not probed items was better for the 1-item list, compared to the last item in a multi-item list, indicating that some form of a retrieval effect was involved and not lower levels of attention/initial learning. An examination of the size of the testing effect as it varied across list lengths and experiments also indicated that residence in a special state was not playing an important role. Overall, the data are not in support of the assumption that items at the focus of attention are in a special state that do not require retrieval. Our conclusions are that special states cannot be used to define STM memory and that the probe recognition paradigm may be useful in determining how testing affects memory.

Keywordsepisodic memory ; short-term memory; probe recognition; long-term memory; testing efect
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Queensland
University of Southern Queensland
Bond University
University of Western Australia
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/z0217/explaining-short-term-memory-phenomena-with-long-term-memory-theory-is-a-special-state-involved

Download files


Published Version
s12144-021-02615-5.pdf
License: CC BY 4.0
File access level: Anyone

  • 17
    total views
  • 11
    total downloads
  • 1
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Building a transdisciplinary expert consensus on the cognitive drivers of performance under pressure: An international multi-panel Delphi study
Albertella, Lucy, Kirkham, Rebecca, Adler, Amy B., Crampton, John, Drummond, Sean P. A., Fogarty, Gerard J., Gross, James J., Zaichkowsky, Leonard, Andersen, Judith P., Bartone, Paul T., Boga, Danny, Bond, Jeffrey W., Brunyé, Tad T., Campbell, Mark J., Ciobanu, Liliana G., Clark, Scott R., Crane, Monique F., Dietrich, Arne, Doty, Tracy J., ..., Yücel, Murat. 2023. "Building a transdisciplinary expert consensus on the cognitive drivers of performance under pressure: An international multi-panel Delphi study." Frontiers in Psychology. 13, pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1017675
Memory and communication support in dementia: research-based strategies for caregivers
Smith, Erin R., Broughton, Megan, Baker, Rosemary, Pachana, Nancy A., Angwin, Anthony J., Humphreys, Michael S., Mitchell, Leander, Byrne, Gerard J., Copland, David A., Gallois, Cindy, Hegney, Desley and Chenery, Helen J.. 2011. "Memory and communication support in dementia: research-based strategies for caregivers." International Psychogeriatrics. 23 (2), pp. 256-263. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210001845
The role of context in producing item interactions and false memories
Tehan, Gerald, Humphreys, Michael S., Tolan, G. Anne and Pitcher, Cameron. 2004. "The role of context in producing item interactions and false memories." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 30, pp. 107-119.
Utility of a computerised cognitive screen in MCI and depression in an older population
Kingsbury, Rachell, Pachana, Nancy A., Humphreys, Michael, Tehan, Gerry and Byrne, Gerard J. A.. 2010. "Utility of a computerised cognitive screen in MCI and depression in an older population." The Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counselling. 16 (1), pp. 14-26.
Measuring episodic memory: a novel approach with an indefinite number of alternative forms
Humphreys, Michael S., Smith, Simon, Pachana, Nancy A., Tehan, Gerry and Byrne, Gerard J.. 2010. "Measuring episodic memory: a novel approach with an indefinite number of alternative forms." Applied Cognitive Psychology. 24 (8), pp. 1080-1094. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1591
Retrieval plus scanning: does it occur?
Brannelly, Susan, Tehan, Gerald and Humphreys, Michael S.. 1989. "Retrieval plus scanning: does it occur?" Memory and Cognition. 17 (6), pp. 712-722.
Articulatory loop explanations of memory span and pronunciation rate correspondences: a cautionary note
Tehan, Gerald and Humphreys, Michael S.. 1988. "Articulatory loop explanations of memory span and pronunciation rate correspondences: a cautionary note." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 26, pp. 293-296.
Associative priming in perceptual identification: effects of prime-processing requirements
Burt, Jennifer S., Walker, Michael B., Humphreys, Michael S. and Tehan, Gerald. 1993. "Associative priming in perceptual identification: effects of prime-processing requirements." Memory and Cognition. 21, pp. 125-137.
Transient phonemic codes and immunity to proactive interference
Tehan, Gerald and Humphreys, Michael S.. 1995. "Transient phonemic codes and immunity to proactive interference." Memory and Cognition. 23, pp. 181-191.
Cuing effects in short-term recall
Tehan, Gerald and Humphreys, Michael S.. 1996. "Cuing effects in short-term recall." Memory and Cognition. 24, pp. 719-732.
Creating proactive interference in immediate recall: building a dog from a dart, a mop and a fig
Tehan, Gerald and Humphreys, Michael S.. 1998. "Creating proactive interference in immediate recall: building a dog from a dart, a mop and a fig." Memory and Cognition. 26, pp. 477-489.
Target similarity effects: support for the parallel distributed processing assumptions
Humphreys, Michael S., Tehan, Gerald, O'Shea, Annissa and Bolland, Scott W.. 2000. "Target similarity effects: support for the parallel distributed processing assumptions." Memory and Cognition. 28 (5), pp. 798-811.