Disease threats to the Australian soybean industry

Paper


Ryley, Malcolm. 2013. "Disease threats to the Australian soybean industry." Summer Grains Conference (ASGC 2013): Innovate, Grow, Prosper. Gold Coast, Australia 17 - 19 Jun 2013
Paper/Presentation Title

Disease threats to the Australian soybean industry

Presentation TypePaper
Authors
AuthorRyley, Malcolm
Journal or Proceedings TitleSummer Grains Conference (ASGC 2013)
Year2013
Web Address (URL) of Paperhttp://www.australiansummergrains.com.au/conference-proceedings/tuesday-18th-june.html
Conference/EventSummer Grains Conference (ASGC 2013): Innovate, Grow, Prosper
Event Details
Summer Grains Conference (ASGC 2013): Innovate, Grow, Prosper
Event Date
17 to end of 19 Jun 2013
Event Location
Gold Coast, Australia
Abstract

More than 80 diseases have been recorded on soybean (Glycine max) in Australia, and of these only a handful can be considered to have had a significant impact on commercial crops. Charcoal rot (caused by Macrophomina phaseolina), sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and phytophthora root rot (Phytophthora sojae) are the most important root and stem pathogens, whilst rust (Phakospora pachyrhizi) can be considered to be the worst foliar pathogen. Losses from these endemic diseases can be effectively managed through Integrated Disease Management strategies, including plant resistance, paddock selection, optimum planting density and timing, and in the case of rust, timely fungicide sprays. At least 17 pathotypes of Phytophthora sojae have been recorded in Australia, and overseas several pathotypes of Phakopsora pachyrhizi are known. New pathotypes of these pathogens will appear when soybean varieties with a single gene for resistance are grown in regions and years favourable for disease development. Prior to 2012 powdery mildew (Erisyphe diffusa) had not been recorded in Australia, although there is evidence that the pathogen had been present before then. The disease's potential future impact on production is unknown.
Among the diseases which are exotic to Australia, soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), sudden wilt syndrome (several Fusarium species), and brown spot (Mycosphaerella uspenskajae) and are the greatest risk to the Australian soybean industry. The first two pathogens are soilborne, whilst the brown spot pathogen is seed- and stubble-borne, so their entry into Australia is possible in machinery and on boots contaminated with infested soil or stubble fragments. Surveillance of pathotypes of endemic diseases, of emerging endemic diseases such as powdery mildew, and of possible modes of entry of significant exotic soybean diseases into Australia needs to be conducted with vigilance.

Keywordsrot; mildew
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020410202. Biosecurity science and invasive species ecology
310407. Host-parasite interactions
300409. Crop and pasture protection (incl. pests, diseases and weeds)
Public Notes

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Byline AffiliationsDepartment of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Queensland
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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