Design features and bruise evaluation of an apple harvest and in-filed presorting machine

Article


Pothula, Anand Kumar, Zhang, Zhao and Lu, Renfu. 2018. "Design features and bruise evaluation of an apple harvest and in-filed presorting machine." Transactions of the ASABE. 61 (3), pp. 1135-1144. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.12327
Article Title

Design features and bruise evaluation of an apple harvest and in-filed presorting machine

ERA Journal ID3442
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsPothula, Anand Kumar (Author), Zhang, Zhao (Author) and Lu, Renfu (Author)
Journal TitleTransactions of the ASABE
Journal Citation61 (3), pp. 1135-1144
Number of Pages10
Year2018
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN2151-0032
2151-0040
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.12327
Web Address (URL)https://elibrary.asabe.org/abstract.asp?aid=49024
Abstract

In-field presorting of apples, in combination with the harvest aid function, would have advantages of cost savings in postharvest handling and storage, reduced postharvest pest and disease problems, and better inventory management, while also enhancing harvest productivity. A new apple harvest and in-field presorting prototype was developed to help apple growers achieve these potential benefits. The prototype sorts and grades fruit based on color and size, using a machine vision-based sorting system with an innovative fruit singulating and rotating design (SRD), and it handles the graded fruit in the bins using newly designed automatic bin fillers. Bruise damage by impact is a critical factor in the development of the apple harvest and in-field presorting prototype. This article reports on the major design features of the prototype and experimental evaluation of the prototype for potential bruise damage. Experiments were conducted on ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples to evaluate bruise damage potential under both empty and partially filled bin conditions. An impact recording device (IRD) was used to measure the impact magnitude in terms of peak acceleration (G) at all critical points of the machine, including harvest conveyors, main conveyor, flat conveyor, SRD, cup conveyor, bin filler, and bins. It was found that bruise damage mainly occurred during bin filling. The number of impacts recorded for the partially filled bin was reduced by 60%, compared to that for the empty bin, indicating that the impact between apples and the wooden bin’s floor was a major cause of bruising. The maximum G value for the partially filled bin was measured at 34.5, while the measured G values were less than 20 from start to the point just before the bin filler, indicating no bruise damage. Bruise evaluation showed that no more than 9% of the test apples would be downgraded from ‘Extra Fancy’ grade for the partially filled bin condition. Higher G values for the empty bin condition suggested the need for further improvement to the discharge of apples from the bin filler to the bin to further reduce bruise damage.

Keywordsapples, bruising, fruit, grading, harvesting, sorting, machine vision
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020409901. Agricultural engineering
Public Notes

File reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher/author.

Byline AffiliationsMichigan State University, United States
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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