Corticospinal contributions to lower limb muscle activity during cycling in humans

Article


Sidhu, Simranjit K., Hoffman, Ben, Cresswell, Andrew G. and Carroll, Timothy J.. 2012. "Corticospinal contributions to lower limb muscle activity during cycling in humans." Journal of Neurophysiology. 107 (1), pp. 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00212.2011
Article Title

Corticospinal contributions to lower limb muscle activity during cycling in humans

ERA Journal ID14548
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsSidhu, Simranjit K. (Author), Hoffman, Ben (Author), Cresswell, Andrew G. (Author) and Carroll, Timothy J. (Author)
Journal TitleJournal of Neurophysiology
Journal Citation107 (1), pp. 306-314
Number of Pages9
Year2012
Place of PublicationBethesda, United States
ISSN0022-3077
1522-1598
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00212.2011
Web Address (URL)https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/jn.00212.2011
Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to investigate corticospinal contributions to locomotor drive to leg muscles involved in cycling. We studied 1) if activation of inhibitory interneurons in the cortex via subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) caused a suppression of EMG and 2) how the responses to stimulation of the motor cortex via TMS and cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) were modulated across the lo- comotor cycle. TMS at intensities subthreshold for activation of the corticospinal tract elicited suppression of EMG for approximately one-half of the subjects and muscles during cycling, and in matched static contractions in vastus lateralis. There was also significant modulation in the size of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS across the locomotor cycle (P ⬍ 0.001) that was strongly related to variation in background EMG in all muscles (r ⬎ 0.86; P ⬍ 0.05). When MEP and CMEP amplitudes were normalized to background EMG, they were relatively larger prior to the main EMG burst and smaller when background EMG was maximum. Since the pattern of modulation of normalized MEP and CMEP responses was similar, the data suggest that phase-dependent modulation of corticospinal re- sponses during cycling in humans is driven mainly by spinal mech- anisms. However, there were subtle differences in the degree to which normalized MEP and CMEP responses were facilitated prior to EMG burst, which might reflect small increases in cortical excitability prior to maximum muscle activation. The data demonstrate that the motor cortex contributes actively to locomotor drive, and that spinal factors dominate phase-dependent modulation of corticospinal excitability during cycling in humans.
transcranial

Keywordstranscranial magnetic stimulation; knee extensors; electromyography
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020420703. Motor control
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Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Queensland
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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