The effects of age on dyspnea and respiratory mechanical and neural responses to exercise in healthy men

Article


MacAskill, William, Hoffman, Ben, Johnson, Michael A., Sharpe, Graham R., Rands, Joshua, Wotherspoon, Shoena E., Gevorkov, Yaroslav, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Mills, Dean E.. 2023. "The effects of age on dyspnea and respiratory mechanical and neural responses to exercise in healthy men." Physiological Reports. 11 (16). https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.15794
Article Title

The effects of age on dyspnea and respiratory mechanical and neural responses to exercise in healthy men

ERA Journal ID201375
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsMacAskill, William, Hoffman, Ben, Johnson, Michael A., Sharpe, Graham R., Rands, Joshua, Wotherspoon, Shoena E., Gevorkov, Yaroslav, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Mills, Dean E.
Journal TitlePhysiological Reports
Journal Citation11 (16)
Article Numbere15794
Number of Pages16
Year2023
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN2051-817X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.15794
Web Address (URL)https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.14814/phy2.15794
Abstract

The respiratory muscle pressure generation and inspiratory and expiratory neuromuscular recruitment patterns in younger and older men were compared during exercise, alongside descriptors of dyspnea. Healthy younger (n = 8, 28 ± 5 years) and older (n = 8, 68 ± 4 years) men completed a maximal incremental cycling test. Esophageal, gastric (Pga) and transdiaphragmatic pressures, and electromyography (EMG) of the crural diaphragm were measured using a micro-transducer and EMG catheter. EMG of the parasternal intercostals, sternocleidomastoids, and rectus abdominis were measured using skin surface electrodes. After the exercise test, participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate descriptors of dyspnea. Pga at end-expiration, Pga expiratory tidal swings, and the gastric pressure–time product (PTPga) at absolute and relative minute ventilation were higher (p < 0.05) for older compared to younger men. There were no differences in EMG responses between older and younger men. Younger men were more likely to report shallow breathing (p = 0.005) than older men. Our findings showed younger and older men had similar respiratory neuromuscular activation patterns and reported different dyspnea descriptors, and that older men had greater expiratory muscle pressure generation during exercise. Greater expiratory muscle pressures in older men may be due to compensatory mechanisms designed to offset increasing airway resistance due to aging. These results may have implications for exercise-induced expiratory muscle fatigue in older men.

ANZSRC Field of Research 2020420702. Exercise physiology
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Health and Medical Sciences
Centre for Health Research
Institute for Resilient Regions
Griffith University
Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom
Department of Health, Queensland
Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
University of Cape Town, South Africa
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Torquati, Luciana, Mielke, Gregore I, Brown, Wendy J, Burton, Nicola W and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. 2019. "Shift Work and Poor Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies." American Journal of Public Health. 109 (11), pp. e13-e20. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305278
A hard day's night: Time use in shift workers
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L, Gomersall, Sjaan, Clark, Bronwyn, Torquati, Luciana, Pavey, Toby and Brown, Wendy J. 2019. "A hard day's night: Time use in shift workers." BMC Public Health. 19, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6766-5
Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour can minimise the risk of suicidal behaviours among adolescents
Khan, Asaduzzaman, Uddin, Riaz and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2019. "Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour can minimise the risk of suicidal behaviours among adolescents." Acta Paediatrica. 108 (6), pp. 1163-1164. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.14749
'In Initiative Overload': Australian Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity in the Workplace from Diverse Industries
Chau, Josephine Y., Engelen, Lina, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Young, Sarah, Olsen, Heidi, Gilson, Nicholas, Burton, Nicola W., Bauman, Adrian E. and Brown, Wendy J.. 2019. "'In Initiative Overload': Australian Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity in the Workplace from Diverse Industries." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (3), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030516
Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and relative weight gain among South African adults living in resource-poor communities: longitudinal data from the STOP-SA study
Okop, K. J., Lambert, E. V., Alaba, O., Levitt, N. S., Luke, A., Dugas, L., Dover, R. V. H., Kroff, J., Micklesfield, L. K., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Warren, Smit, Dugmore, H., Bobrow, K., Odunitan-Wayas, F. A. and Puone, T.. 2019. "Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and relative weight gain among South African adults living in resource-poor communities: longitudinal data from the STOP-SA study." International Journal of Obesity. 43 (3), pp. 603-614. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0216-9
The repeated bout effect can occur without mechanical and neuromuscular changes after a bout of eccentric exercise
Pincheira, P. A., Hoffman, B. W., Cresswell, A. G., Carroll, T. J., Brown, N. A. T. and Lichtwark, G. A.. 2018. "The repeated bout effect can occur without mechanical and neuromuscular changes after a bout of eccentric exercise." Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 28 (10), pp. 2123-2134. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13222
Transforming the workplace environment to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases: participatory action research in a South African power plant
Schouw, Darcelle, Mash, Robert and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2018. "Transforming the workplace environment to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases: participatory action research in a South African power plant." Global Health Action. 11 (1), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2018.1544336
A brief self-directed intervention to reduce office employees’ sedentary behaviour in a flexible workplace
Olsen, Heidi M., Brown, Wendy J., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Burton, Nicola W.. 2018. "A brief self-directed intervention to reduce office employees’ sedentary behaviour in a flexible workplace." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 60 (10), pp. 954-959. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001389
Feasibility for the use of a standardized fitness testing protocol among Australian fitness industry professionals
Bennie, Jason A., Wiesner, Glen H., Vergeer, Ineke, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, De Cocker, Katrien, Alexander, Chris and Biddle, Stuart J. H.. 2018. "Feasibility for the use of a standardized fitness testing protocol among Australian fitness industry professionals." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 89 (3), pp. 380-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1486965
Changing diet and physical activity in nurses: a pilot study and process evaluation highlighting challenges in workplace health promotion
Torquati, Luciana, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Pavey, Toby and Leveritt, Michael. 2018. "Changing diet and physical activity in nurses: a pilot study and process evaluation highlighting challenges in workplace health promotion." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 50 (10), pp. 1015-1025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2017.12.001
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a flexible office-based workplace: employee perceptions and priorities for change
Olsen, Heidi M., Brown, Wendy J., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Burton, Nicola W.. 2018. "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a flexible office-based workplace: employee perceptions and priorities for change." Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 29 (3), pp. 344-352. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.164
Australian fitness professionals' level of interest in engaging with high health-risk population subgroups: findings from a national survey
Bennie, J. A., Thomas, G., Wiesner, G. H., van Uffelen, J. G. Z., Khan, A., Kolbe-Alexander, T., Vergeer, I. and Biddle, S. J. H.. 2018. "Australian fitness professionals' level of interest in engaging with high health-risk population subgroups: findings from a national survey." Public Health. 160, pp. 108-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.03.035
Qualitative evaluation of a physical activity-based chronic disease prevention program in a low-income, rural South African setting
Draper, C. E., Nemutandani, S. M., Grimsrud, A. T., Rudolph, M., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., de Kock, L. and Lambert, E. V.. 2010. "Qualitative evaluation of a physical activity-based chronic disease prevention program in a low-income, rural South African setting." Rural and Remote Health. 10 (3).
Evaluation of a school-based physical activity intervention in Alexandra Township
Draper, Catherine E., de Kock, Lauren, Grimsrud, Anna T., Rudolph, Michael, Nemutandani, Simon, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2010. "Evaluation of a school-based physical activity intervention in Alexandra Township." South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 22 (1), pp. 12-19.
Physical activity advocacy and promotion: the South African experience
Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Bull, Fiona and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2012. "Physical activity advocacy and promotion: the South African experience." South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 24 (4), pp. 112-116.
A systematic review of physical activity-based interventions in shift workers
Flahr, Hannah, Brown, Wendy J. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2018. "A systematic review of physical activity-based interventions in shift workers." Preventive Medicine Reports. 10, pp. 323-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.04.004
From evidence-based research to practice-based evidence: disseminating a web-based computer-tailored workplace sitting intervention through a Health Promotion Organisation
De Cocker, Katrien, Cardon, Greet, Bennie, Jason A., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, De Meester, Femke and Vandelanotte, Corneel. 2018. "From evidence-based research to practice-based evidence: disseminating a web-based computer-tailored workplace sitting intervention through a Health Promotion Organisation." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051049
Muscle fascicle strains in human gastrocnemius during backward downhill walking
Hoffman, B. W., Cresswell, A. G., Carroll, T. J. and Lichtwark, G. A.. 2014. "Muscle fascicle strains in human gastrocnemius during backward downhill walking." Journal of Applied Physiology. 116 (11), pp. 1455-1462. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01431.2012
The impact of strength level on adaptations to combined weightlifting, plyometric, and ballistic training
James, L. P., Haff, G. Gregory, Kelly, V. G., Connick, M. J., Hoffman, B. W. and Beckman, E. M.. 2018. "The impact of strength level on adaptations to combined weightlifting, plyometric, and ballistic training ." Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 28 (5), pp. 1494-1505. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13045
Shifting the physical inactivity curve worldwide by closing the gender gap
Mielke, Gregore I., da Silva, Inacio Chrochemore M., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Brown, Wendy J.. 2018. "Shifting the physical inactivity curve worldwide by closing the gender gap." Sports Medicine. 48 (2), pp. 481-489. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0754-7
The relationship between functional status, physical fitness and cognitive performance in physically active older adults: A pilot study
Ramnath, U., Rauch, L., Lambert, E. V. and Kolbe-Alexander, T. L.. 2018. "The relationship between functional status, physical fitness and cognitive performance in physically active older adults: A pilot study." PLoS One. 13 (4), pp. 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194918
Shift work and the risk of cardiovascular disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis including dose–response relationship
Torquati, Luciana, Mielke, Gregore I., Brown, Wendy J. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2018. "Shift work and the risk of cardiovascular disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis including dose–response relationship." Scandonavian Journal of Work Environment and Health. 44 (3), pp. 229-238. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3700
Flexible work: The impact of a new policy on employees’ sedentary behaviour and physical activity
Olsen, Heidi M, Brown, Wendy J., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Burton, Nicola W.. 2017. "Flexible work: The impact of a new policy on employees’ sedentary behaviour and physical activity." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 60 (1), pp. 23-28. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001190
Protection from muscle damage in the absence of changes in muscle mechanical behavior
Hoffman, Ben W., Cresswell, Andrew G., Carroll, Timothy J. and Lichtwark, Glen A.. 2016. "Protection from muscle damage in the absence of changes in muscle mechanical behavior." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 48 (8), pp. 1495-1505. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000920
Implementing an online student laboratory data repository in a first year undergraduate health science course
Engstrom, Craig, Bulmer, Michael, Newcombe, Peter and Hoffman, Ben. 2017. "Implementing an online student laboratory data repository in a first year undergraduate health science course." International Journal of Information and Education Technology. 7 (2), pp. 100-105. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2017.7.2.849
Oxygen supplementation for preventing adverse outcomes following surgery or invasive procedures
Eager, Amanda, Ralph, Nicholas, Duff, Jed, Conway, Aaron and Mills, Dean. 2017. "Oxygen supplementation for preventing adverse outcomes following surgery or invasive procedures." PROSPERO: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. 16 June 2017.
Gender equality in sport for improved public health
Brown, Wendy J., Mielke, Gregore I. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2016. "Gender equality in sport for improved public health." The Lancet. 388 (10051), pp. 1257-1258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30881-9
Inspiratory muscle warm-up does not improve cycling time trial performance
Gregson, Ian, Mills, Dean, Gonzalez, Javier, Sharpe, Graham and Johnson, Michael. 2012. "Inspiratory muscle warm-up does not improve cycling time trial performance." 22nd European Respiratory Society Annual Congress. Vienna, Austria 01 - 05 Sep 2012 Switzerland.
Which Women are Highly Active Over a 12-Year Period? A Prospective Analysis of Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Pavey, Toby G., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Uitdewilligen, Leonie and Brown, Wendy J.. 2017. "Which Women are Highly Active Over a 12-Year Period? A Prospective Analysis of Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health." Sports Medicine. 47 (12), pp. 2653-2666. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0732-0
The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal
Ding, Ding, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Nguyen, Binh, Katzmarzyk, Peter T., Pratt, Michael and Lawson, Kenny D.. 2017. "The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal." British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51 (19), pp. 1392-1409. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097385
Sitting time, physical activity and sleep by work type and pattern – The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Clark, Bronwyn k., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Duncan, Mitch J. and Brown, Wendy. 2017. "Sitting time, physical activity and sleep by work type and pattern – The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030290
Participation in fitness-related activities of an incentive-based health promotion program and hospital costs: a retrospective longitudinal study
Patel, Deepak, Lambert, Estelle V., da Silva, Roseanne, Greyling, Mike, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Noach, Adam, Conradie, Jaco, Nossel, Craig, Borrenson, Jill and Gaziano, Thomas. 2011. "Participation in fitness-related activities of an incentive-based health promotion program and hospital costs: a retrospective longitudinal study." American Journal of Health Promotion. 25 (5), pp. 341-348. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.100603-QUAN-172
Construct validity of the neighborhood environment walkability scale for Africa
Oyeyemi, Adewale L., Conway, Terry L., Adedoyin, Rufus A., Akinroye, Kingsley K., Aryeetey, Richmond, Assah, Felix, Cain, Kelli L., Gavand, Kavita A., Kosoma, Sandra S., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Lambert, Estelle V., Larouche, Richard, Moss, Sarah J., Ocansey, Reginald, Onywera, Vincent O., Prista, Antonio, Tremblay, Mark S. and Sallis, James F.. 2017. "Construct validity of the neighborhood environment walkability scale for Africa." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49 (3), pp. 482-491. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001131
'Be active!' Revisiting the South African food-based dietary guideline for activity
Botha, C. R., Wright, H. H., Moss, Sarah and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2013. "'Be active!' Revisiting the South African food-based dietary guideline for activity." South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 26 (3 (Supplement)), pp. S18-S27.
Non-communicable disease prevention and worksite health promotion programs: a brief review
Kolbe-Alexander, T. L. and Lambert, E. V.. 2013. "Non-communicable disease prevention and worksite health promotion programs: a brief review." Occupational Medicine and Health Affairs. 1 (7), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-6879.1000141
Innovative strategies targeting obesity and non-communicable diseases in South Africa: what can we learn from the private healthcare sector?
Lambert, E. V. and Kolbe-Alexander, T. L.. 2013. "Innovative strategies targeting obesity and non-communicable diseases in South Africa: what can we learn from the private healthcare sector?" Obesity Reviews. 14 (2 (Supplement)), pp. 141-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12094
The relationship between leadership support, workplace health promotion and employee wellbeing in South Africa
Milner, Karen, Greyling, Michael, Goetzel, Ron, da Silva, Roseanne, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Patel, Deepak, Nossel, Craig and Beckowski, Meghan. 2015. "The relationship between leadership support, workplace health promotion and employee wellbeing in South Africa." Health Promotion International. 30 (3), pp. 514-522. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dat064
The perceived role and influencers of physical activity among pregnant women from low socioeconomic status communities in South Africa
Muzigaba, Moise, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Wong, Fiona. 2014. "The perceived role and influencers of physical activity among pregnant women from low socioeconomic status communities in South Africa." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11 (7), pp. 1276-1283. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0386
The Healthiest Company Index: a campaign to promote worksite wellness in South Africa
Patel, Deepak, Goetzel, Ron Z., Beckowski, Meghan, Milner, Karen, Greyling, Mike, da Silva, Roseanne, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Tabrizi, Maryam J. and Nossel, Craig. 2013. "The Healthiest Company Index: a campaign to promote worksite wellness in South Africa." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 55 (2), pp. 172-178. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182728d61
The relationship between workplace environment and employee health behaviors in a South African workforce
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Greyling, Michael, da Silva, Roseanne, Milner, Karen, Patel, Deepak, Wyper, Lauren, Beckowski, Meghan, Lambert, Estelle V. and Goetzel, Ron. 2014. "The relationship between workplace environment and employee health behaviors in a South African workforce." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 56 (10), pp. 1094-1099. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000236
Nurses’ lifestyle behaviours, health priorities and barriers to living a healthy lifestyle: a qualitative descriptive study
Phiri, Lindokuhle P., Draper, Catherine E., Lambert, Estelle V. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2014. "Nurses’ lifestyle behaviours, health priorities and barriers to living a healthy lifestyle: a qualitative descriptive study." BMC Nursing. 13 (38), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-014-0038-6
Steps that count: physical activity recommendations, brisk walking, and steps per minute - how do they relate?
Pillay, Julian D., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Proper, Karin I., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2014. "Steps that count: physical activity recommendations, brisk walking, and steps per minute - how do they relate?" Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11 (3), pp. 502-508. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0210
The relationship between the built environment and habitual levels of physical activity in South African older adults: a pilot study
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Pacheco, Kyla, Tomaz, Simone A., Karpul, David and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2015. "The relationship between the built environment and habitual levels of physical activity in South African older adults: a pilot study." BMC Public Health. 15 (518), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1853-8
The association between daily steps and health, and the mediating role of body composition: a pedometer-based, cross-sectional study in an employed South African population
Pillay, Julian D., van der Ploeg, Hidde P., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Proper, Karin I., van Stralen, Maartjie, Tomaz, Simone A., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Eztelle V.. 2015. "The association between daily steps and health, and the mediating role of body composition: a pedometer-based, cross-sectional study in an employed South African population." BMC Public Health. 15 (174), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1381-6
A comparative study of Australian and New Zealand male and female nurses’ health: a sex comparison and gender analysis
Tuckett, Anthony, Henwood, Tim, Oliffe, John L., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Rin Kim, Jae. 2016. "A comparative study of Australian and New Zealand male and female nurses’ health: a sex comparison and gender analysis." American Journal of Men's Health. 10 (6), pp. 450-458. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988314567222
Steps that count: pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity and current physical guidelines ‒ how do they relate?
Pillay, J. D., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Proper, K. I., Tomaz, S. A, van Mechelen, W. and Lambert, E. V.. 2014. "Steps that count: pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity and current physical guidelines ‒ how do they relate?" South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (3), pp. 77-81. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.534
Steps that count: the association between the number and intensity of steps accumulated and fitness and health measures
Pillay, Julian David, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Estelle Vicki. 2014. "Steps that count: the association between the number and intensity of steps accumulated and fitness and health measures." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11 (1), pp. 10-17. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2011-0288
The effects of pressure-threshold inspiratory load on lactate clearance after maximal exercise
Johnson, Michael, Brown, David, Bayfield, Katie, Gonzalez, Javier, Mills, Dean and Sharpe, Graham. 2011. "The effects of pressure-threshold inspiratory load on lactate clearance after maximal exercise." 21st European Respiratory Society Annual Congress. Amsterdam, Netherlands 24 - 28 Sep 2011 Switzerland.
The effects of inspiratory muscle training on breathing mechanics during fixed load cycling exercise
Mills, Dean, Sharpe, Graham, Johnson, Michael and Barnett, Yvonne. 2011. "The effects of inspiratory muscle training on breathing mechanics during fixed load cycling exercise." 21st European Respiratory Society Annual Congress. Amsterdam, Netherlands 24 - 28 Sep 2011 Switzerland.
Clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease and healthcare expenditure in employees with private health insurance presenting for health risk appraisal: a cross-sectional study
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Conradie, Jaco and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2013. "Clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease and healthcare expenditure in employees with private health insurance presenting for health risk appraisal: a cross-sectional study." BMC Public Health. 13 (1213), pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1213
Steps that count! A feasibility study of a pedometer-based, healthpromotion intervention in an employed, South African population
Pillay, J. D., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Proper, K. I., van Mechelen, W. and Lambert, E. V.. 2014. "Steps that count! A feasibility study of a pedometer-based, healthpromotion intervention in an employed, South African population." South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (1), pp. 15-19. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.500
Promoting diet and physical activity in nurses: a systematic review
Torquati, Luciana, Pavey, Toby, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Leveritt, Michael. 2017. "Promoting diet and physical activity in nurses: a systematic review." American Journal of Health Promotion. 31 (1), pp. 19-27. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.141107-LIT-562
The effects of inspiratory muscle training on the interleukin-6 response to intense volitional hyperpnoea
Mills, Dean, Johnson, Michael, McPhilimey, Martin, Williams, Neil, Gonzalez, Javier, Barnett, Yvonne and Sharpe, Graham. 2012. "The effects of inspiratory muscle training on the interleukin-6 response to intense volitional hyperpnoea." 22nd European Respiratory Society Annual Congress. Vienna, Austria 01 - 05 Sep 2012 Switzerland.
The effects of inspiratory muscle training on interleukin-6 concentration during cycling exercise and volitional hyperpnoea
Mills, Dean, Johnson, Michael, McPhilimey, Martin, Williams, Neil, Gonzalez, Javier, Barnett, Yvonne and Sharpe, Graham. 2012. "The effects of inspiratory muscle training on interleukin-6 concentration during cycling exercise and volitional hyperpnoea." 22nd European Respiratory Society Annual Congress. Vienna, Austria 01 - 05 Sep 2012 Switzerland.
NEWS for Africa: adaptation and reliability of a built environment questionnaire for physical activity in seven African countries
Oyeyemi, Adewale L., Kasoma, Sandra S., Onywera, Vincent O., Assah, Felix, Adedoyin, Rufus A., Conway, Terry L., Moss, Sarah J., Ocansey, Reginald, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Akinroye, Kingsley K., Prista, Antonio, Larouche, Richard, Gavand, Kavita A., Cain, Kelli L., Lambert, Estelle V., Aryeetey, Richmond, Bartels, Clare, Tremblay, Mark S. and Sallis, James F.. 2016. "NEWS for Africa: adaptation and reliability of a built environment questionnaire for physical activity in seven African countries." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 13 (33), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0357-y
Diet and physical activity behaviour in nurses: a qualitative study
Torquati, Luciana, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L, Pavey, Toby, Perrson, Christina and Leveritt, Michael. 2016. "Diet and physical activity behaviour in nurses: a qualitative study." International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. 54 (6), pp. 268-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2016.1169943
The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases
Ding, Ding, Lawson, Kenny D., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Finkelstein, Eric A., Katzmarzyk, Peter T., van Mechelen, Willem and Pratt, Michael. 2016. "The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases." The Lancet. 388 (10051), pp. 1311-1324. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30383-X
Can the use of Bus Rapid Transit lead to a healthier lifestyle in urban South Africa? The SUN Study
Bartels, Clare, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Behrens, Roger, Hendricks, Sharief and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2016. "Can the use of Bus Rapid Transit lead to a healthier lifestyle in urban South Africa? The SUN Study." Journal of Transport and Health. 3 (2), pp. 200-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2016.04.003
Inspiratory loading intensity does not influence lactate clearance during recovery
Johnson, Michael A., Mills, Dean E., Brown, David M., Bayfield, Katie J., Gonzalez, Javier T. and Sharpe, Graham R.. 2012. "Inspiratory loading intensity does not influence lactate clearance during recovery." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 44 (5), pp. 863-871. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31824079d0
Cardiovascular fitness is associated with bias between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity
Tomaz, S. A., Lambert, E. V., Karpul, D. and Kolbe-Alexander, T. L.. 2016. "Cardiovascular fitness is associated with bias between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity." European Journal of Sport Science. 16 (1), pp. 149-157. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.987323
Working on wellness (WOW): a worksite health promotion intervention programme
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Proper, Karin I., Lambert, Estelle V., van Wier, Marieke F., Pillay, Julian D., Nossel, Craig, Adonis, Leegale and Van Mechelen, Willem. 2012. "Working on wellness (WOW): a worksite health promotion intervention programme." BMC Public Health. 12 (1), pp. 372-383. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-372
Steps that count!: The development of a pedometer-based health promotion intervention in an employed, health insured South African population
Pillay, Julian D., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Proper, Karin I., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2012. "Steps that count!: The development of a pedometer-based health promotion intervention in an employed, health insured South African population." BMC Public Health. 12 (1), pp. 880-887. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-880
Influence of oxidative stress, diaphragm fatigue and inspiratory muscle training on the plasma cytokine response to maximum sustainable voluntary ventilation
Mills, Dean E., Johnson, Michael A., McPhilimey, Martin J., Williams, Neil C., Gonzalez, Javier T., Barnett, Yvonne A. and Sharpe, Graham R.. 2014. "Influence of oxidative stress, diaphragm fatigue and inspiratory muscle training on the plasma cytokine response to maximum sustainable voluntary ventilation." Journal of Applied Physiology. 116 (8), pp. 970-979. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01271.2013
Prior upper body exercise reduces cycling work capacity but not critical power
Johnson, Michael A., Mills, Dean E., Brown, Peter I. and Sharpe, Graham R.. 2014. "Prior upper body exercise reduces cycling work capacity but not critical power." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 46 (4), pp. 802-808. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000159
The effects of inspiratory muscle training on plasma interleukin-6 concentration during cycling exercise and a volitional mimic of the exercise hyperpnea
Mills, Dean E., Johnson, Michael A., McPhilimey, Martin J., Williams, Neil C., Gonzalez, Javier T., Barnett, Yvonne A. and Sharpe, Graham R.. 2013. "The effects of inspiratory muscle training on plasma interleukin-6 concentration during cycling exercise and a volitional mimic of the exercise hyperpnea." Journal of Applied Physiology. 115 (8), pp. 1163-1172. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00272.2013
Response [to the Chiappa et al letter to the editor]
Johnson, Michael A., Mills, Dean E., Brown, Peter I. and Sharpe, Graham R.. 2013. "Response [to the Chiappa et al letter to the editor]." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 45 (1), pp. 214-215. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31826aade2
Inspiratory muscle warm-up does not improve cycling time-trial performance
Johnson, M. A., Gregson, I. R., Mills, D. E., Gonzalez, J. T. and Sharpe, G. R.. 2014. "Inspiratory muscle warm-up does not improve cycling time-trial performance." European Journal of Applied Physiology. 114 (9), pp. 1821-1830. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-2914-x
The effects of inspiratory muscle training in older adults
Mills, Dean E., Johnson, Michael A., Barnett, Yvonne A., Smith, William H. T. and Sharpe, Graham R.. 2015. "The effects of inspiratory muscle training in older adults." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 47 (4), pp. 691-697. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000474
Cortical and spinal excitability during and after lengthening contractions of the human plantar flexor muscles performed with maximal voluntary effort
Hahn, Daniel, Hoffman, Ben W., Carroll, Timothy J. and Cresswell, Andrew G.. 2012. "Cortical and spinal excitability during and after lengthening contractions of the human plantar flexor muscles performed with maximal voluntary effort." PLoS One. 7 (11), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049907
A comparison of two Hill-type skeletal muscle models on the construction of medial gastrocnemius length-tension curves in humans in vivo
Hoffman, B. W., Lichtwark, G. A., Carroll, T. J. and Cresswell, A. G.. 2012. "A comparison of two Hill-type skeletal muscle models on the construction of medial gastrocnemius length-tension curves in humans in vivo." Journal of Applied Physiology. 113 (1), pp. 90-96. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00070.2012
Increases in corticospinal responsiveness during a sustained submaximal plantar flexion
Hoffman, B. W., Oya, T., Carroll, T. J. and Cresswell, A. G.. 2009. "Increases in corticospinal responsiveness during a sustained submaximal plantar flexion." Journal of Applied Physiology. 107 (1), pp. 112-120. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91541.2008
Corticospinal-evoked responses in lower limb muscles during voluntary contractions at varying strengths
Oya, T., Hoffman, B. W. and Cresswell, A. G.. 2008. "Corticospinal-evoked responses in lower limb muscles during voluntary contractions at varying strengths." Journal of Applied Physiology. 105 (5), pp. 1527-1532. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.90586.2008