The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases

Article


Ding, Ding, Lawson, Kenny D., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Finkelstein, Eric A., Katzmarzyk, Peter T., van Mechelen, Willem and Pratt, Michael. 2016. "The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases." The Lancet. 388 (10051), pp. 1311-1324. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30383-X
Article Title

The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases

ERA Journal ID15320
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsDing, Ding (Author), Lawson, Kenny D. (Author), Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. (Author), Finkelstein, Eric A. (Author), Katzmarzyk, Peter T. (Author), van Mechelen, Willem (Author) and Pratt, Michael (Author)
Journal TitleThe Lancet
Journal Citation388 (10051), pp. 1311-1324
Number of Pages14
Year2016
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0140-6736
1474-547X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30383-X
Abstract

Background The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantifi ed at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Methods Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world’s population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Findings conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. Interpretation In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is responsible for a substantial economic burden. This paper provides further justifi cation to prioritise promotion of regular physical activity worldwide as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases.

Keywordsphysical inactivity; non-communicable diseases
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020389999. Other economics not elsewhere classified
420799. Sports science and exercise not elsewhere classified
Public Notes

This publication was recognised by the American Heart Association as one of 'the most impactful publications in lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health in 2016'.

Permanent restricted access to Published version, in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.

Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Sydney
Western Sydney University
University of Queensland
National University of Singapore
Louisiana State University, United States
VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Netherlands
Emory University, United States
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/q3xxq/the-economic-burden-of-physical-inactivity-a-global-analysis-of-major-non-communicable-diseases

  • 1583
    total views
  • 15
    total downloads
  • 3
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Physical activity interventions among youth living in rural and remote areas: A systematic review
Dennehy, John, Cameron, Melainie, Phillips, Tania and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2024. "Physical activity interventions among youth living in rural and remote areas: A systematic review." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 48 (2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anzjph.2024.100137
An Evaluation of Community Health Workers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Personal Lifestyle Behaviour in Non-Communicable Disease Health Promotion and Their Association with Self-Efficacy and NCD-Risk Perception
Yenit, Melaku Kindie, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Gelaye, Kassahun Alemu, Gezie, Lemma Derseh, Tesema, Getayeneh Antehunegn, Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen, Azale, Telake, Shitu, Kegnie and Gyawali, Prajwal. 2023. "An Evaluation of Community Health Workers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Personal Lifestyle Behaviour in Non-Communicable Disease Health Promotion and Their Association with Self-Efficacy and NCD-Risk Perception." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 20 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20095642
Status and Trends of Physical Activity Surveillance, Policy, and Research in 164 Countries: Findings From the Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA! 2015 and 2020 Surveys
Varela, Andrea Ramirez, Hallal, Pedro.C., Grueso, Juliana Mejía, Pedisic, Željko, Salvo, Deborah, Nguyen, Anita., Klepac, Bojana, Bauman, Adrian., Siefken, Katja, Hinckson, Erica., Oyeyemi, Adewale L. ., Richards, Justin., Khidir,Elena Daniela Salih, Inoue, Shigeru., Amagasa, Shiho., Jauregui, Alejandra., da Silva, M.C., Lee, I., Ding, Melody., ..., Pratt, Michael.. 2023. "Status and Trends of Physical Activity Surveillance, Policy, and Research in 164 Countries: Findings From the Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA! 2015 and 2020 Surveys." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 20 (2), pp. 112-128. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2022-0464
Bullying Experiences of South Asian Immigrants in Australia: a Mixed-Method Study
Nisar, Mehwish, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Khan, Asaduzzaman. 2023. "Bullying Experiences of South Asian Immigrants in Australia: a Mixed-Method Study." Prevention Science. 24 (4), pp. 785-797. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-022-01487-w
Life Course Epidemiology Applied to Physical Activity Research
Mielke, Gregore Iven, Ding, Ding, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, van Sluijs, Esther and Hallal, Pedro C.. 2023. "Life Course Epidemiology Applied to Physical Activity Research." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 20 (9), pp. 801-802. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2023-0440
If You Build It Will They Come? Park Upgrades, Park Use and Park-Based Physical Activity in Urban Cape Town, South Africa—The SUN Study
Bartels, Clare A., Lambert, Estelle V., Young, Marié E. M. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2023. "If You Build It Will They Come? Park Upgrades, Park Use and Park-Based Physical Activity in Urban Cape Town, South Africa—The SUN Study." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 20 (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032574
Efficacy of a school-based education intervention on the consumption of fruits, vegetables and carbonated soft drinks among adolescents
Ahmed, Kazi R, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Khan, Asaduzzaman. 2023. "Efficacy of a school-based education intervention on the consumption of fruits, vegetables and carbonated soft drinks among adolescents." Public Health Nutrition. 26 (12), pp. 3112-3121. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980023002094
The effects of age on dyspnea and respiratory mechanical and neural responses to exercise in healthy men
MacAskill, William, Hoffman, Ben, Johnson, Michael A., Sharpe, Graham R., Rands, Joshua, Wotherspoon, Shoena E., Gevorkov, Yaroslav, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Mills, Dean E.. 2023. "The effects of age on dyspnea and respiratory mechanical and neural responses to exercise in healthy men." Physiological Reports. 11 (16). https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.15794
The Feasibility of a Text-Messaging Intervention Promoting Physical Activity in Shift Workers: A Process Evaluation
Monnaatsie, Malebogo, Biddle, Stuart J. H. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2023. "The Feasibility of a Text-Messaging Intervention Promoting Physical Activity in Shift Workers: A Process Evaluation." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 20 (4), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043260
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among south Asian immigrants in Australia
Nisar, Mehwish, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Khan, Asaduzzaman. 2024. "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among south Asian immigrants in Australia." Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 35 (1), pp. 57-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.711
The prevalence of chronic diseases in international immigrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Nisar, Mehwish, Uddin, Riaz, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Khan, Asaduzzaman. 2023. "The prevalence of chronic diseases in international immigrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 51 (3), pp. 442-453. https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948221116219
Science has no Borders, so Should Scientific Publishing: A Position Statement from the Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Ding, Ding, Carson, Valerie, Hunter, Ruth F., Jauregui, Alejandra, Kolbe-Alexander Tracy, Lee, Eun-Young, Mair, Jacqueline, Mielke, Gregore Iven, Oyeyemi, Adewale L., Ramirez Varela, Andrea, Salvo, Deborah, Siefken, Katja, Tassitano, Rafael M., van Sluijs, Esther and Hallal, Pedro C.. 2023. "Science has no Borders, so Should Scientific Publishing: A Position Statement from the Journal of Physical Activity and Health." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 19 (12), pp. 809-810. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2022-0570
Case study from Africa: physical activity and safety from crime and traffic in Africa
Oyeyemi, Adewale L., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2022. "Case study from Africa: physical activity and safety from crime and traffic in Africa." Siefken, Katja, Ramirez Varela, Andrea, Waqanivalu, Temo and Schulenkorf, Nico (ed.) Physical Activity in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Milton Park, United Kingdom. Routledge. pp. 171-186
A collaborative approach to adopting/ adapting guidelines. The Australian 24-hour movement guidelines for children (5-12 years) and young people (13-17 years): An integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep
Okely, Anthony D., Ghersi, Davina, Loughran, Sarah P., Cliff, Dylan P., Shilton, Trevor, Jones, Rachel A., Stanley, Rebecca M., Sherring, Julie, Toms, Natalie, Eckermann, Simon, Olds, Timothy S., Zhang, Zhiguang, Parrish, Anne-Maree, Kervin, Lisa, Downie, Sandra, Salmon, Jo, Bannerman, Clair, Needham, Tamie, Marshall, Elaine, ..., Tremblay, Mark S.. 2022. "A collaborative approach to adopting/ adapting guidelines. The Australian 24-hour movement guidelines for children (5-12 years) and young people (13-17 years): An integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 19 (1), pp. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01236-2
Gender inequalities in physical activity among adolescents from 64 Global South countries
Ricardo, Luiza Isnardi Cardoso, Wendt, Andrea, dos Santos Costa, Caroline, Mielke, Gregore Iven, Brazo-Sayavera, Javier, Khan, Asaduzzaman, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Crochemore-Silva, Inacio. 2022. "Gender inequalities in physical activity among adolescents from 64 Global South countries." Journal of Sport and Health Science. 11 (4), pp. 509-520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2022.01.007
‘Cost, culture and circumstances’: Barriers and enablers of health behaviours in South Asian immigrants of Australia
Nisar, Mehwish, Khan, Asaduzzaman and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2022. "‘Cost, culture and circumstances’: Barriers and enablers of health behaviours in South Asian immigrants of Australia." Health and Social Care in the Community. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13759
School physical activity policies and associations with physical activity practices and behaviours: A systematic review of the literature
Stylianou, Michalis, Woodforde, James, Duncombe, Stephanie, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Gomersall, Sjaan. 2021. "School physical activity policies and associations with physical activity practices and behaviours: A systematic review of the literature." Health and Place. 73, pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2021.102705
Effectiveness of a school-based intervention on physical activity and screen time among adolescents
Ahmed, Kazi Rumana, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Khan, Asaduzzaman. 2022. "Effectiveness of a school-based intervention on physical activity and screen time among adolescents." Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 25 (3), pp. 242-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2021.10.007
The Effects Of Age On Exercise-induced Abdominal Muscle Fatigue In Healthy Younger And Older Men
Mills, Dean, Hoffman, Ben, Johnson, Michael A., Sharpe, Graham R., Rands, Joshua, Wotherspoon, Shoena E, Gevorkov, Yaroslav, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and MacAskill, William. 2022. "The Effects Of Age On Exercise-induced Abdominal Muscle Fatigue In Healthy Younger And Older Men." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 54 (9S), pp. 539-239. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000881828.14030.71
Comparison of adult shift and non-shift workers’ physical activity and sleep behaviours: cross-sectional analysis from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia (HILDA) cohort
Fenwick, Matthew J., Oftedal, Stina, Kolbe-Alexander Tracy and Duncan, Mitch J.. 2022. "Comparison of adult shift and non-shift workers’ physical activity and sleep behaviours: cross-sectional analysis from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia (HILDA) cohort ." Journal of Public Health. 31 (10), pp. 1621-1629. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-022-01738-8
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in shift and non-shift workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Monnaatsie, Malebogo, Biddle, Stuart J. H., Khan, Shahjahan and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2021. "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in shift and non-shift workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Preventive Medicine Reports. 24, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101597
Beyond criticism of ethics review boards: strategies for engaging research communities and enhancing ethical review processes
Hickey, Andrew, Davis, Samantha, Farmer, Will, Dawidowicz, Julianna, Moloney, Clint, Lamont-Mills, Andrea, Carniel, Jess, Pillay, Yosheen, Akenson, David, Bromdal, Annette, Gehrmann, Richard, Mills, Dean, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Machin, Tanya, Reich, Suzanne, Southey, Kim, Crowley-Cyr, Lynda, Watanabe, Taiji, Davenport, Josh, ..., Maxwell, Jacinta. 2021. "Beyond criticism of ethics review boards: strategies for engaging research communities and enhancing ethical review processes." Journal of Academic Ethics. 20, pp. 549-567. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-021-09430-4
Eight investments that work for physical activity
Milton, Karen, Cavill, Nick, Chalkley, Anna, Foster, Charlie, Gomersall, Sjaan, Hagstomer, Maria, Kelly, Paul, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Mair, Jacqueline, McLaughlin, Matthew, Nobles, James, Reece, Lindsey, Shilton, Trevor, Smith, Ben J. and Schipperijn, Jasper. 2021. "Eight investments that work for physical activity." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 18 (6), pp. 625-630. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2021-0112
Approaches to improve causal inference in physical activity epidemiology
Lynch, Brigid M., Dixon-Suen, Suzanne C., Ramirez Varela, Andrea, Yang, Yi, English, Dallas R., Ding, Ding, Gardiner, Paul A. and Boyle, Terry. 2020. "Approaches to improve causal inference in physical activity epidemiology." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 17 (1), pp. 80-84. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0515
Striking the right balance: evidence to inform combined physical activity and sedentary behavior recommendations
Chastin, Sebastien F. M., McGregor, Duncan E., Biddle, Stuart J. H., Cardon, Greet, Chaput, Jean-Philippe, Dall, Philippa M., Dempsey, Paddy C., DiPietro, Loretta, Ekelund, Ulf, Katzmarzyk, Peter T., Leitzmann, Michael, Stamatakis, Emmanuel and van der Ploeg, Hidde P.. 2021. "Striking the right balance: evidence to inform combined physical activity and sedentary behavior recommendations." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 18 (6), pp. 631-637. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0635
A longitudinal assessment of risk factors and chronic diseases among immigrant and non-immigrant adults in Australia
Nisar, Mehwish, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Burton, Nicola W. and Khan, Asaduzzaman. 2021. "A longitudinal assessment of risk factors and chronic diseases among immigrant and non-immigrant adults in Australia." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18 (6), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168621
Efficacy of interactive video gaming in older adults with memory complaints: A cluster-randomized exercise intervention
Ramnath, Udhir, Rauch, Laurie, Lambert, Estelle Victoria and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2021. "Efficacy of interactive video gaming in older adults with memory complaints: A cluster-randomized exercise intervention ." PLoS One. 16 (5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252016
Dose-dependent associations of joint aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercise with obesity: A cross-sectional study of 280,605 adults
Bennie, Jason A., Ding, Ding and De Cocker, Katrien. 2021. "Dose-dependent associations of joint aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercise with obesity: A cross-sectional study of 280,605 adults." Journal of Sport and Health Science. 12 (2), pp. 186-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2021.01.002
Light-Intensity Physical Activity and Life Expectancy: National Health and Nutrition Survey
del Pozo Cruz, Borja, Biddle, Stuart J. H., Gardiner, Paul A. and Ding, Ding. 2021. "Light-Intensity Physical Activity and Life Expectancy: National Health and Nutrition Survey." American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 61 (3), pp. 428-433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.02.012
The effectiveness of physical activity interventions in Asian children and adolescents: a systematic review
Ahmed, K. R., Uddin, R., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L. and Khan, A.. 2021. "The effectiveness of physical activity interventions in Asian children and adolescents: a systematic review." Public Health. 194, pp. 48-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2021.02.011
Community-based approaches to reducing health inequities and fostering environmental justice through global youth-engaged citizen science
King, Abby C., Odunitan-Wayas, Feyisayo A., Chaudhury, Moushumi, Rubio, Maria Alejandra, Baiocchi, Michael, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Montes, Felipe, Banchoff, Ann, Sarmiento, Olga Lucia, Balter, Katarina, Hinckson, Erica, Chastin, Sebastien, Lambert, Estelle V., Gonzalez, Silvia A., Guerra, Ana Maria, Gelius, Peter, Zha, Caroline, Chethan, Sarabu, Kakar, Pooja A., ..., Gardiner, Paul A.. 2021. "Community-based approaches to reducing health inequities and fostering environmental justice through global youth-engaged citizen science." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18 (3), pp. 1-29. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030892
Associations between indicators of energy intake and expenditure with excess weight and obesity among women in sedentary and less-sedentary jobs
Torquati, Luciana, Mielke, Gregore I., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Brown, Wendy J.. 2021. "Associations between indicators of energy intake and expenditure with excess weight and obesity among women in sedentary and less-sedentary jobs." Preventive Medicine. 147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106507
Associations between self-reported sleep duration, all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in employed individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Pienaar, Paula R., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., van Mechelen, Willem, Boot, Cecile R. L., Roden, Laura C., Lambert, Estelle V. and Rae, Dale E.. 2021. "Associations between self-reported sleep duration, all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in employed individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis." American Journal of Health Promotion. 35 (6), pp. 853-865. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117121992288
National physical activity and sedentary behaviour policies in 76 countries: availability, comprehensiveness, implementation, and effectiveness
Klepac-Pogrmilovic, Bojana, Ramirez Varela, Andrea, Pratt, Michael, Milton, Karen, Bauman, Adrian, Biddle, Stuart J. H. and Pedisic, Zeljko. 2020. "National physical activity and sedentary behaviour policies in 76 countries: availability, comprehensiveness, implementation, and effectiveness." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 17 (1), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01022-6
Does Strength-Promoting Exercise Confer Unique Health Benefits? A Pooled Analysis of Data on 11 Population Cohorts With All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Mortality Endpoints
Stamatakis, Emmanuel, Lee, I.-Min, Bennie, Jason, Freeston, Jonathan, Hamer, Mark, O’Donovan, Gary, Ding, Ding, Bauman, Adrian and Mavros, Yorgi. 2018. "Does Strength-Promoting Exercise Confer Unique Health Benefits? A Pooled Analysis of Data on 11 Population Cohorts With All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Mortality Endpoints." American Journal of Epidemiology. 187 (5), pp. 1102-1112. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx345
World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour
Bull, Fiona C., Al-Ansari, Salih S., Biddle, Stuart, Borodulin, Katja, Buman, Matthew P., Cardon, Greet, Carty, Catherine, Chaput, Jean-Philippe, Chastin, Sebastien, Chou, Roger, Dempsey, Paddy C., DiPietro, Loretta, Ekelund, Ulf, Firth, Joseph, Friedenreich, Christine M., Garcia, Leandro, Gichu, Muthoni, Jago, Russell, Katzmarzyk, Peter T., ..., Willumsen, Juana F.. 2020. "World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour." British Journal of Sports Medicine. 54 (24), pp. 1451-1462. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955
New global guidelines on sedentary behaviour and health for adults: broadening the behavioural targets
Dempsey, Paddy C., Biddle, Stuart J. H., Buman, Matthew P., Chastin, Sebastien, Ekelund, Ulf, Friedenreich, Christine M., Katzmarzyk, Peter T., Leitzmann, Michael F., Stamatakis, Emmanuel, van der Ploeg, Hidde P., Willumsen, Juana and Bull, Fiona. 2020. "New global guidelines on sedentary behaviour and health for adults: broadening the behavioural targets." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 17 (1), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01044-0
Advancing the global physical activity agenda: recommendations for future research by the 2020 WHO physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines development group
DiPietro, Loretta, Al-Ansari, Salih Saad, Biddle, Stuart J. H., Borodulin, Katja, Bull, Fiona C., Buman, Matthew P., Cardon, Greet, Carty, Catherine, Chaput, Jean-Philippe, Chastin, Sebastien, Chou, Roger, Dempsey, Paddy C., Ekelund, Ulf, Firth, Joseph, Friedenreich, Christine M., Garcia, Leandro, Gichu, Muthoni, Jago, Russell, Katzmarzyk, Peter T., ..., Willumsen, Juana F.. 2020. "Advancing the global physical activity agenda: recommendations for future research by the 2020 WHO physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines development group." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 17 (1), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01042-2
Run, lift, or both? Associations between concurrent aerobic–muscle strengthening exercise with adverse cardiometabolic biomarkers among Korean adults
Bennie, Jason A., Ding, Ding, Khan, Asaduzzaman, Stamatakis, Emmanuel, Biddle, Stuart J. H. and Kim, Junghoon. 2020. "Run, lift, or both? Associations between concurrent aerobic–muscle strengthening exercise with adverse cardiometabolic biomarkers among Korean adults." European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 27 (7), pp. 738-748. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487318817899
Making the case for 'physical activity security': the 2020 WHO Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour from a Global South perspective
Lambert, Estelle Victoria, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Adlakha, Deepti, Oyeyemi, Adewale, Anokye, Nana Kwame, Goenka, Shifalika, Mogrovejo, Patricia and Salvo, Deborah. 2020. "Making the case for 'physical activity security': the 2020 WHO Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour from a Global South perspective." British Journal of Sports Medicine. 54 (24), pp. 1447-1448. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103524
Trends in Muscle-Strengthening Exercise Among Nationally Representative Samples of United States Adults Between 2011 and 2017
Bennie, Jason A., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Seghers, Jan, Biddle, Stuart J.H. and De Cocker, K.. 2020. "Trends in Muscle-Strengthening Exercise Among Nationally Representative Samples of United States Adults Between 2011 and 2017." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 17 (5), pp. 512-518. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0472
Changes in risk factors for non-communicable diseases associated with the ‘Healthy choices at work’ programme, South Africa
Schouw, Darcelle, Mash, Robert and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2020. "Changes in risk factors for non-communicable diseases associated with the ‘Healthy choices at work’ programme, South Africa." Global Health Action. 13 (1), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2020.1827363
Assessing the validity and reliability and determining cut-points of the Actiwatch 2 in measuring physical activity
Kemp, Chadley, Pienaar, Paula R., Henst, Rob H. P., Roden, Laura C., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Rae, Dale E.. 2020. "Assessing the validity and reliability and determining cut-points of the Actiwatch 2 in measuring physical activity." Physiological Measurement. 41 (8), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/aba80f
Ten Research Priorities Related to Youth Sport, Physical Activity, and Health
Howie, Erin K., Guagliano, Justin M., Milton, Karen, Vella, Stewart A., Gomersall, Sjaan R., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Richards, Justin and Pate, Russell R.. 2020. "Ten Research Priorities Related to Youth Sport, Physical Activity, and Health." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 17 (9), pp. 920-929. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0151
A retrospective evaluation of a community-based physical activity health promotion program
Draper, Catherine E., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2009. "A retrospective evaluation of a community-based physical activity health promotion program." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 6 (5), pp. 578-588. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.6.5.578
Muscle strengthening, aerobic exercise, and obesity: a pooled analysis of 1.7 million US adults
Bennie, Jason A., De Cocker, Katrien, Pavey, Toby, Stamatakis, Emmanuel, Biddle, Stuart J. H. and Ding, Ding. 2020. "Muscle strengthening, aerobic exercise, and obesity: a pooled analysis of 1.7 million US adults." Obesity. 28 (2), pp. 371-378. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22673
The development of the Comprehensive Analysis of Policy on Physical Activity (CAPPA) framework
Klepac-Pogrmilovic, Bojana, O'Sullivan, Grant, Milton, Karen, Biddle, Stuart J. H., Bauman, Adrian, Bellew, William, Cavill, Nick, Kahlmeier, Sonja, Kelly, Michael P., Mutrie, Nanette, Pratt, Michael, Rutter, Harry, Ramirez Varela, Andrea, Woods, Catherine and Pedisic, Zeljko. 2019. "The development of the Comprehensive Analysis of Policy on Physical Activity (CAPPA) framework." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-019-0822-5
Controversies in the Science of Sedentary Behaviour and Health: Insights, Perspectives and Future Directions from the 2018 Queensland Sedentary Behaviour Think Tank
Biddle, Stuart J. H., Bennie, Jason A., De Cocker, Katrien, Dunstan, David, Gardiner, Paul A., Healy, Genevieve, Lynch, Brigid, Owen, Neville, Brakenridge, Charlotte, Brown, Wendy, Buman, Matthew, Clark, Bronwyn, Dohrn, Ing-Mari, Duncan, Mitch, Gilson, Nicholas, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Pavey, Toby, Reid, Natasha, Vandelanotte, Corneel, ..., Vincent, Grace E.. 2019. "Controversies in the Science of Sedentary Behaviour and Health: Insights, Perspectives and Future Directions from the 2018 Queensland Sedentary Behaviour Think Tank." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (23), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234762
Shift Work and Poor Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies
Torquati, Luciana, Mielke, Gregore I, Brown, Wendy J, Burton, Nicola W and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. 2019. "Shift Work and Poor Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies." American Journal of Public Health. 109 (11), pp. e13-e20. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305278
A hard day's night: Time use in shift workers
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L, Gomersall, Sjaan, Clark, Bronwyn, Torquati, Luciana, Pavey, Toby and Brown, Wendy J. 2019. "A hard day's night: Time use in shift workers." BMC Public Health. 19, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6766-5
Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour can minimise the risk of suicidal behaviours among adolescents
Khan, Asaduzzaman, Uddin, Riaz and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2019. "Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour can minimise the risk of suicidal behaviours among adolescents." Acta Paediatrica. 108 (6), pp. 1163-1164. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.14749
'In Initiative Overload': Australian Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity in the Workplace from Diverse Industries
Chau, Josephine Y., Engelen, Lina, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Young, Sarah, Olsen, Heidi, Gilson, Nicholas, Burton, Nicola W., Bauman, Adrian E. and Brown, Wendy J.. 2019. "'In Initiative Overload': Australian Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity in the Workplace from Diverse Industries." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (3), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030516
A global systematic scoping review of studies analysing indicators, development, and content of national-level physical activity and sedentary behaviour policies
Klepac-Pogrmilovic, Bojana, O'Sullivan, Grant, Milton, Karen, Biddle, Stuart J. H., Bauman, Adrian, Bull, Fiona, Kahlmeier, Sonja, Pratt, Michael and Pedisic, Zeljko. 2018. "A global systematic scoping review of studies analysing indicators, development, and content of national-level physical activity and sedentary behaviour policies." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 15 (1), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0742-9
Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and relative weight gain among South African adults living in resource-poor communities: longitudinal data from the STOP-SA study
Okop, K. J., Lambert, E. V., Alaba, O., Levitt, N. S., Luke, A., Dugas, L., Dover, R. V. H., Kroff, J., Micklesfield, L. K., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Warren, Smit, Dugmore, H., Bobrow, K., Odunitan-Wayas, F. A. and Puone, T.. 2019. "Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and relative weight gain among South African adults living in resource-poor communities: longitudinal data from the STOP-SA study." International Journal of Obesity. 43 (3), pp. 603-614. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0216-9
Transforming the workplace environment to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases: participatory action research in a South African power plant
Schouw, Darcelle, Mash, Robert and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2018. "Transforming the workplace environment to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases: participatory action research in a South African power plant." Global Health Action. 11 (1), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2018.1544336
A brief self-directed intervention to reduce office employees’ sedentary behaviour in a flexible workplace
Olsen, Heidi M., Brown, Wendy J., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Burton, Nicola W.. 2018. "A brief self-directed intervention to reduce office employees’ sedentary behaviour in a flexible workplace." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 60 (10), pp. 954-959. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001389
Feasibility for the use of a standardized fitness testing protocol among Australian fitness industry professionals
Bennie, Jason A., Wiesner, Glen H., Vergeer, Ineke, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, De Cocker, Katrien, Alexander, Chris and Biddle, Stuart J. H.. 2018. "Feasibility for the use of a standardized fitness testing protocol among Australian fitness industry professionals." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 89 (3), pp. 380-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1486965
Changing diet and physical activity in nurses: a pilot study and process evaluation highlighting challenges in workplace health promotion
Torquati, Luciana, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Pavey, Toby and Leveritt, Michael. 2018. "Changing diet and physical activity in nurses: a pilot study and process evaluation highlighting challenges in workplace health promotion." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 50 (10), pp. 1015-1025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2017.12.001
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a flexible office-based workplace: employee perceptions and priorities for change
Olsen, Heidi M., Brown, Wendy J., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Burton, Nicola W.. 2018. "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a flexible office-based workplace: employee perceptions and priorities for change." Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 29 (3), pp. 344-352. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.164
Australian fitness professionals' level of interest in engaging with high health-risk population subgroups: findings from a national survey
Bennie, J. A., Thomas, G., Wiesner, G. H., van Uffelen, J. G. Z., Khan, A., Kolbe-Alexander, T., Vergeer, I. and Biddle, S. J. H.. 2018. "Australian fitness professionals' level of interest in engaging with high health-risk population subgroups: findings from a national survey." Public Health. 160, pp. 108-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.03.035
Qualitative evaluation of a physical activity-based chronic disease prevention program in a low-income, rural South African setting
Draper, C. E., Nemutandani, S. M., Grimsrud, A. T., Rudolph, M., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., de Kock, L. and Lambert, E. V.. 2010. "Qualitative evaluation of a physical activity-based chronic disease prevention program in a low-income, rural South African setting." Rural and Remote Health. 10 (3).
Evaluation of a school-based physical activity intervention in Alexandra Township
Draper, Catherine E., de Kock, Lauren, Grimsrud, Anna T., Rudolph, Michael, Nemutandani, Simon, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2010. "Evaluation of a school-based physical activity intervention in Alexandra Township." South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 22 (1), pp. 12-19.
Physical activity advocacy and promotion: the South African experience
Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Bull, Fiona and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2012. "Physical activity advocacy and promotion: the South African experience." South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 24 (4), pp. 112-116.
A systematic review of physical activity-based interventions in shift workers
Flahr, Hannah, Brown, Wendy J. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2018. "A systematic review of physical activity-based interventions in shift workers." Preventive Medicine Reports. 10, pp. 323-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.04.004
From evidence-based research to practice-based evidence: disseminating a web-based computer-tailored workplace sitting intervention through a Health Promotion Organisation
De Cocker, Katrien, Cardon, Greet, Bennie, Jason A., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, De Meester, Femke and Vandelanotte, Corneel. 2018. "From evidence-based research to practice-based evidence: disseminating a web-based computer-tailored workplace sitting intervention through a Health Promotion Organisation." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051049
Shifting the physical inactivity curve worldwide by closing the gender gap
Mielke, Gregore I., da Silva, Inacio Chrochemore M., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Brown, Wendy J.. 2018. "Shifting the physical inactivity curve worldwide by closing the gender gap." Sports Medicine. 48 (2), pp. 481-489. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0754-7
The relationship between functional status, physical fitness and cognitive performance in physically active older adults: A pilot study
Ramnath, U., Rauch, L., Lambert, E. V. and Kolbe-Alexander, T. L.. 2018. "The relationship between functional status, physical fitness and cognitive performance in physically active older adults: A pilot study." PLoS One. 13 (4), pp. 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194918
Shift work and the risk of cardiovascular disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis including dose–response relationship
Torquati, Luciana, Mielke, Gregore I., Brown, Wendy J. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy. 2018. "Shift work and the risk of cardiovascular disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis including dose–response relationship." Scandonavian Journal of Work Environment and Health. 44 (3), pp. 229-238. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3700
Flexible work: The impact of a new policy on employees’ sedentary behaviour and physical activity
Olsen, Heidi M, Brown, Wendy J., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Burton, Nicola W.. 2017. "Flexible work: The impact of a new policy on employees’ sedentary behaviour and physical activity." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 60 (1), pp. 23-28. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001190
Too much sitting and cardio-metabolic risk: an update of epidemiological evidence
Bauman, Adrian E., Chau, Josephine Y., Ding, Ding and Bennie, Jason. 2013. "Too much sitting and cardio-metabolic risk: an update of epidemiological evidence." Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports. 7 (4), pp. 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12170-013-0316-y
Gender equality in sport for improved public health
Brown, Wendy J., Mielke, Gregore I. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2016. "Gender equality in sport for improved public health." The Lancet. 388 (10051), pp. 1257-1258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30881-9
Which Women are Highly Active Over a 12-Year Period? A Prospective Analysis of Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Pavey, Toby G., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Uitdewilligen, Leonie and Brown, Wendy J.. 2017. "Which Women are Highly Active Over a 12-Year Period? A Prospective Analysis of Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health." Sports Medicine. 47 (12), pp. 2653-2666. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0732-0
The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal
Ding, Ding, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Nguyen, Binh, Katzmarzyk, Peter T., Pratt, Michael and Lawson, Kenny D.. 2017. "The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal." British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51 (19), pp. 1392-1409. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097385
Sitting time, physical activity and sleep by work type and pattern – The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Clark, Bronwyn k., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Duncan, Mitch J. and Brown, Wendy. 2017. "Sitting time, physical activity and sleep by work type and pattern – The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030290
International Olympic Committee consensus statement on the health and fitness of young people through physical activity and sport
Mountjoy, Margo, Andersen, Lars Bo, Armstrong, Neil, Biddle, Stuart, Boreham, Colin, Brandl Bedenbeck, Hans Peter, Ekelund, Ulf, Engebretsen, Lars, Hardman, Ken, Hills, Andrew, Kahlmeier, Sonja, Kriemler, Susi, Lambert, Estelle, Ljungqvist, Arne, Matsudo, Victor, McKay, Heather, Micheli, Lyle, Pate, Russell, Riddoch, Chris, ..., van Mechelen, Willem. 2011. "International Olympic Committee consensus statement on the health and fitness of young people through physical activity and sport." British Journal of Sports Medicine. 45 (11), pp. 839-848. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090228
Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours: an international perspective using a twin-panel Delphi procedure
Gillis, Lauren, Tomkinson, Grant, Olds, Timothy, Moreira, Carla, Christie, Candice, Nigg, Claudio, Cerin, Ester, Van Sluijs, Esther, Stratton, Gareth, Janssen, Ian, Dorovolomo, Jeremy, Reilly, John J., Mota, Jorge, Zayed, Kashef, Kawalski, Kent, Andersen, Lars Bo, Carrizosa, Manuel, Tremblay, Mark, Chia, Michael, ..., Van Mechelen, Willem. 2013. "Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours: an international perspective using a twin-panel Delphi procedure." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 10, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-112
Participation in fitness-related activities of an incentive-based health promotion program and hospital costs: a retrospective longitudinal study
Patel, Deepak, Lambert, Estelle V., da Silva, Roseanne, Greyling, Mike, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Noach, Adam, Conradie, Jaco, Nossel, Craig, Borrenson, Jill and Gaziano, Thomas. 2011. "Participation in fitness-related activities of an incentive-based health promotion program and hospital costs: a retrospective longitudinal study." American Journal of Health Promotion. 25 (5), pp. 341-348. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.100603-QUAN-172
Construct validity of the neighborhood environment walkability scale for Africa
Oyeyemi, Adewale L., Conway, Terry L., Adedoyin, Rufus A., Akinroye, Kingsley K., Aryeetey, Richmond, Assah, Felix, Cain, Kelli L., Gavand, Kavita A., Kosoma, Sandra S., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Lambert, Estelle V., Larouche, Richard, Moss, Sarah J., Ocansey, Reginald, Onywera, Vincent O., Prista, Antonio, Tremblay, Mark S. and Sallis, James F.. 2017. "Construct validity of the neighborhood environment walkability scale for Africa." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 49 (3), pp. 482-491. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001131
'Be active!' Revisiting the South African food-based dietary guideline for activity
Botha, C. R., Wright, H. H., Moss, Sarah and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2013. "'Be active!' Revisiting the South African food-based dietary guideline for activity." South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 26 (3 (Supplement)), pp. S18-S27.
Non-communicable disease prevention and worksite health promotion programs: a brief review
Kolbe-Alexander, T. L. and Lambert, E. V.. 2013. "Non-communicable disease prevention and worksite health promotion programs: a brief review." Occupational Medicine and Health Affairs. 1 (7), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-6879.1000141
Innovative strategies targeting obesity and non-communicable diseases in South Africa: what can we learn from the private healthcare sector?
Lambert, E. V. and Kolbe-Alexander, T. L.. 2013. "Innovative strategies targeting obesity and non-communicable diseases in South Africa: what can we learn from the private healthcare sector?" Obesity Reviews. 14 (2 (Supplement)), pp. 141-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12094
The relationship between leadership support, workplace health promotion and employee wellbeing in South Africa
Milner, Karen, Greyling, Michael, Goetzel, Ron, da Silva, Roseanne, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Patel, Deepak, Nossel, Craig and Beckowski, Meghan. 2015. "The relationship between leadership support, workplace health promotion and employee wellbeing in South Africa." Health Promotion International. 30 (3), pp. 514-522. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dat064
The perceived role and influencers of physical activity among pregnant women from low socioeconomic status communities in South Africa
Muzigaba, Moise, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Wong, Fiona. 2014. "The perceived role and influencers of physical activity among pregnant women from low socioeconomic status communities in South Africa." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11 (7), pp. 1276-1283. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0386
The Healthiest Company Index: a campaign to promote worksite wellness in South Africa
Patel, Deepak, Goetzel, Ron Z., Beckowski, Meghan, Milner, Karen, Greyling, Mike, da Silva, Roseanne, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Tabrizi, Maryam J. and Nossel, Craig. 2013. "The Healthiest Company Index: a campaign to promote worksite wellness in South Africa." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 55 (2), pp. 172-178. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182728d61
The relationship between workplace environment and employee health behaviors in a South African workforce
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Greyling, Michael, da Silva, Roseanne, Milner, Karen, Patel, Deepak, Wyper, Lauren, Beckowski, Meghan, Lambert, Estelle V. and Goetzel, Ron. 2014. "The relationship between workplace environment and employee health behaviors in a South African workforce." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 56 (10), pp. 1094-1099. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000236
Nurses’ lifestyle behaviours, health priorities and barriers to living a healthy lifestyle: a qualitative descriptive study
Phiri, Lindokuhle P., Draper, Catherine E., Lambert, Estelle V. and Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.. 2014. "Nurses’ lifestyle behaviours, health priorities and barriers to living a healthy lifestyle: a qualitative descriptive study." BMC Nursing. 13 (38), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-014-0038-6
Steps that count: physical activity recommendations, brisk walking, and steps per minute - how do they relate?
Pillay, Julian D., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Proper, Karin I., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2014. "Steps that count: physical activity recommendations, brisk walking, and steps per minute - how do they relate?" Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11 (3), pp. 502-508. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0210
The relationship between the built environment and habitual levels of physical activity in South African older adults: a pilot study
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Pacheco, Kyla, Tomaz, Simone A., Karpul, David and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2015. "The relationship between the built environment and habitual levels of physical activity in South African older adults: a pilot study." BMC Public Health. 15 (518), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1853-8
The association between daily steps and health, and the mediating role of body composition: a pedometer-based, cross-sectional study in an employed South African population
Pillay, Julian D., van der Ploeg, Hidde P., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Proper, Karin I., van Stralen, Maartjie, Tomaz, Simone A., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Eztelle V.. 2015. "The association between daily steps and health, and the mediating role of body composition: a pedometer-based, cross-sectional study in an employed South African population." BMC Public Health. 15 (174), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1381-6
A comparative study of Australian and New Zealand male and female nurses’ health: a sex comparison and gender analysis
Tuckett, Anthony, Henwood, Tim, Oliffe, John L., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L. and Rin Kim, Jae. 2016. "A comparative study of Australian and New Zealand male and female nurses’ health: a sex comparison and gender analysis." American Journal of Men's Health. 10 (6), pp. 450-458. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988314567222
Steps that count: pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity and current physical guidelines ‒ how do they relate?
Pillay, J. D., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Proper, K. I., Tomaz, S. A, van Mechelen, W. and Lambert, E. V.. 2014. "Steps that count: pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity and current physical guidelines ‒ how do they relate?" South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (3), pp. 77-81. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.534
Steps that count: the association between the number and intensity of steps accumulated and fitness and health measures
Pillay, Julian David, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Estelle Vicki. 2014. "Steps that count: the association between the number and intensity of steps accumulated and fitness and health measures." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 11 (1), pp. 10-17. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2011-0288
Clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease and healthcare expenditure in employees with private health insurance presenting for health risk appraisal: a cross-sectional study
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Conradie, Jaco and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2013. "Clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease and healthcare expenditure in employees with private health insurance presenting for health risk appraisal: a cross-sectional study." BMC Public Health. 13 (1213), pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1213
Steps that count! A feasibility study of a pedometer-based, healthpromotion intervention in an employed, South African population
Pillay, J. D., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Proper, K. I., van Mechelen, W. and Lambert, E. V.. 2014. "Steps that count! A feasibility study of a pedometer-based, healthpromotion intervention in an employed, South African population." South African Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (1), pp. 15-19. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAJSM.500
Promoting diet and physical activity in nurses: a systematic review
Torquati, Luciana, Pavey, Toby, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy and Leveritt, Michael. 2017. "Promoting diet and physical activity in nurses: a systematic review." American Journal of Health Promotion. 31 (1), pp. 19-27. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.141107-LIT-562
NEWS for Africa: adaptation and reliability of a built environment questionnaire for physical activity in seven African countries
Oyeyemi, Adewale L., Kasoma, Sandra S., Onywera, Vincent O., Assah, Felix, Adedoyin, Rufus A., Conway, Terry L., Moss, Sarah J., Ocansey, Reginald, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Akinroye, Kingsley K., Prista, Antonio, Larouche, Richard, Gavand, Kavita A., Cain, Kelli L., Lambert, Estelle V., Aryeetey, Richmond, Bartels, Clare, Tremblay, Mark S. and Sallis, James F.. 2016. "NEWS for Africa: adaptation and reliability of a built environment questionnaire for physical activity in seven African countries." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 13 (33), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0357-y
Diet and physical activity behaviour in nurses: a qualitative study
Torquati, Luciana, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L, Pavey, Toby, Perrson, Christina and Leveritt, Michael. 2016. "Diet and physical activity behaviour in nurses: a qualitative study." International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. 54 (6), pp. 268-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2016.1169943
Can the use of Bus Rapid Transit lead to a healthier lifestyle in urban South Africa? The SUN Study
Bartels, Clare, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Behrens, Roger, Hendricks, Sharief and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2016. "Can the use of Bus Rapid Transit lead to a healthier lifestyle in urban South Africa? The SUN Study." Journal of Transport and Health. 3 (2), pp. 200-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2016.04.003
Cardiovascular fitness is associated with bias between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity
Tomaz, S. A., Lambert, E. V., Karpul, D. and Kolbe-Alexander, T. L.. 2016. "Cardiovascular fitness is associated with bias between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity." European Journal of Sport Science. 16 (1), pp. 149-157. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.987323
Working on wellness (WOW): a worksite health promotion intervention programme
Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L., Proper, Karin I., Lambert, Estelle V., van Wier, Marieke F., Pillay, Julian D., Nossel, Craig, Adonis, Leegale and Van Mechelen, Willem. 2012. "Working on wellness (WOW): a worksite health promotion intervention programme." BMC Public Health. 12 (1), pp. 372-383. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-372
Steps that count!: The development of a pedometer-based health promotion intervention in an employed, health insured South African population
Pillay, Julian D., Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Proper, Karin I., van Mechelen, Willem and Lambert, Estelle V.. 2012. "Steps that count!: The development of a pedometer-based health promotion intervention in an employed, health insured South African population." BMC Public Health. 12 (1), pp. 880-887. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-880