Evaluation of the performance of automated bay irrigation

Project report


Smith, Rod, Uddin, Jasim and Gillies, Malcolm. 2014. Evaluation of the performance of automated bay irrigation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Title

Evaluation of the performance of automated bay irrigation

Report TypeProject report
AuthorsSmith, Rod (Author), Uddin, Jasim (Author) and Gillies, Malcolm (Author)
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Number of Pages41
Year2014
PublisherUniversity of Southern Queensland
Place of PublicationToowoomba, Australia
Abstract

High flow bay irrigation together with automation and accurate and precise timing gives what we are calling High Flow Precision Bay Irrigation. This project seeks to demonstrate to farmers the extent of the efficiency gains that are possible with this system and the management strategies necessary to achieve those gains.

In recent evaluation studies conducted by the CRC for Irrigation Futures (Smith et al., 2009 and Gillies et al., 2010) higher irrigation flows have been shown to offer very much improved (volumetric) application efficiencies, well above those currently achieved across the GMID. On all but the lightest soils efficiencies in excess of 85% should be achievable, reaching as high as 95% on some soils.

Irrigation duration (or time to cut-off) is critical in reaching those efficiencies. As flow rates are increased, the optimum duration decreases dramatically. Consistent with this, the accuracy and precision required in estimating and controlling the irrigation duration increases. The difficulty is compounded by the fact that conditions can change with each irrigation, for example, changes in irrigation flow rate, crop density, soil moisture, hence the optimum time to cut-off (Tco) also changes. Management needs to adapt to these changes.

Automation of bay irrigation, such as the Rubicon FarmConnect® system (http://rubicon.com), provides the needed certainty in managing irrigation durations (along with very substantial labour efficiencies). Measurement of flow rate (SmartMeter Gateway) and the irrigation advance (FloodTech depth sensor) early in each irrigation should provide the data needed to calculate in real-time the precise time to cut-off required for that irrigation. Various methods are appear feasible and include empirical guidelines (Smith et al., 2013), volume balance calculations, and full hydrodynamic simulation (Smith et al., 2012)

The principal objective of the study was to demonstrate the gains in application efficiencies possible through the use of optimally-managed, automated, high-flow bay irrigation. A secondary objective (that will be the subject of a later paper) was to evaluate the techniques for calculating the irrigation duration (or time to cut-off) for each irrigation in real time, using data captured during that irrigation, in sufficient time to provide optimum control of that irrigation.

Nine existing automated farms were selected for the trial that together represent the range of soils, bay geometries, and crops typical of the GMID. A SmartMeter Gateway was installed at each site giving a measure of the flow rate onto the farm from which the flow rate down each trial bay could be inferred. Three Rubicon FloodTech depth sensors were installed in each bay, located at approximately one third of the distance down of the field, at two thirds distance, and near the downstream end. These sensors record the rate of advance of the irrigation flow down the bay and a measure of the flow depth at each point throughout the entire irrigation. The first sensor location was that thought to be useful in the real-time control of irrigations.

The key performance measure used in the evaluations was the application efficiency, which is a measure of the water lost (as tail-water run-off or deep percolation below the root zone) in irrigating a given bay. A total of 46 irrigations across the various sites were evaluated. Analysis of each event included calibration of the surface irrigation hydraulic simulation model SISCO from the measured flow rate, advance and depth data, and simulation of each event using SISCO to give the required performance parameters. These provide the main reportable outcome from the project. The evaluation data is also able to be used to explore the techniques that can be used to calculate Tco.

The results from the evaluations, summarised in the table below, demonstrate that application efficiencies in excess of 90% are indeed achievable and being achieved through correct and precise management of automated surface irrigation. Four of the farms evaluated in this study are already operating at that level. For four of the other five farms strategies have been identified that will raise their efficiency close to or above 90%. On the remaining farm (farm R) soil limitations preclude any improvements in efficiency on the trial bay. Fortunately this bay is not representative of the remainder of the farm where higher efficiencies would be expected.

Summary of results
Farm No of Irrigations Application Efficiency (%) Recommended Action
Ll 6 95 Nil required
Q 1 87 Monitor more events
P 5 92 Nil required
I 9 74 Reduce time to cut-off to 90 min
Th 5 63 Cut off when advance reaches 50% of length
M 6 68 Cut-off at 90 min and irrigate less frequently and at consistent soil moisture
R 7 63 None possible – conduct further trials on a more representative bay
G 2 90 Cut off when advance reaches 50% of length
D 5 56 Grade bay, flow rate 20 ML/d, cut off at 100 min & re-evaluate

Farm Ll is the prime example of a high performing farm. For the irrigations evaluated on that farm application efficiencies between 90 and 100% were consistently obtained. This means that on average 95% of the water supplied to the farm was added to the crop root zone and made available to the crop. Losses to either tail-water runoff or deep percolation were a low 5%. These results were achieved through consistent, correct and precise management of the irrigations. Soil moisture measurements were used to determine when to irrigate, with each irrigation commencing at about the same moisture content. The same flow rate was applied at each irrigation and for the same duration (with minor adjustments to compensate for slight differences in the starting soil moisture content). The duration was selected to minimise tail-water runoff. Over time this farmer reduced his irrigation durations to the point where the advance just reached the end of his field. The management on this farm provides a model for all irrigators.

There are two main reasons for the relatively low efficiencies on some farms. First and most common is the use of irrigation durations of excessive length. This typically results in excessive tail-water runoff. It also means that water is present on the surface of the bay for long periods of time which leads to waterlogging of the soils and reduced pasture growth. Indication of this was evident in the soil moisture data from at least four farms. The second reason for low efficiencies on two farms was the use of flow rates that were too low for the particular soils. This led to excessive deep percolation loss. Both causes of low efficiencies are easily remedied by correct selection of flow rate and duration.

One further factor, important in its own right, which also contributed to the low efficiencies, was the selection of when to irrigate. All trial bays had soil moisture probes installed and the data from the probes was available to the farmers to aid in their irrigation management. It allows farmers to select an appropriate refill point, that is, the soil moisture level at which they should irrigate. Typically this is the point at which the water consumption by the crop or pasture just starts to decline. By irrigating sooner, the soil is maintained in a wetter state, and the crop develops a shallower root system. The result is more frequent waterlogging and reduced production. From an irrigation efficiency perspective, it is easier to obtain high application efficiencies when the soil moisture deficit is greater. In a number of cases the soil moisture data gathered in this study indicated that farmers were irrigating well before the true refill point was reached and that the period between irrigations could have been extended by at least two days. These same farmers were also inconsistent in the moisture content at which they irrigated. This meant that the optimum irrigation duration varied from one irrigation to the next making the task of estimating the duration more difficult.

Finally, it is worth noting that the automation per se does not confer high efficiencies. The management skill of the grower is a critical factor. He/she is still required to determine when to irrigate, the flow rate to be used and the duration appropriate to that flow rate. Once selected the automation provides precision in the application of those decisions.

Keywordshigh flow precision bay irrigation; performance
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020300202. Agricultural land management
Public Notes

Report to Rubicon Water and Goulburn Murray Water. NCEA Publication 1005612/1. USQ publication.

Byline AffiliationsNational Centre for Engineering in Agriculture
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/q2zv4/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-automated-bay-irrigation

  • 1663
    total views
  • 6
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Smarter Irrigation for Profit - Taggle IrriMATE Irrigation Advance Sensor & SMS notifier
Gillies, Malcolm, Foley, Joseph and Kelderman, Simon. 2018. Smarter Irrigation for Profit - Taggle IrriMATE Irrigation Advance Sensor & SMS notifier. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Selection of flow rate and irrigation duration for high performance bay irrigation
Smith, R.J. and Uddin, M.J.. 2020. "Selection of flow rate and irrigation duration for high performance bay irrigation." Agricultural Water Management. 228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2019.105850
Smart automation of furrow irrigation in the sugar industry
Gillies, Malcolm, Attard, Steven, Jaramillo, Andres, Davis, Marian and Foley, Joseph. 2017. "Smart automation of furrow irrigation in the sugar industry." 39th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2017). Cairns, Australia 03 - 05 May 2017 Mackay, Australia.
Knowledge management, sensing and control tools for irrigated broadacre cropping
McCarthy, Alison, Scobie, Michael, Gillies, Malcolm, Agustina, Lidya and Foley, Joseph. 2016. "Knowledge management, sensing and control tools for irrigated broadacre cropping." 19th Symposium on Precision Agriculture in Australasia. Toowoomba, Australia 12 - 13 Sep 2016
Estimating irrigation duration for high performance furrow irrigation on cracking clay soils
Smith, R. J., Uddin, M. J. and Gillies, M. H.. 2018. "Estimating irrigation duration for high performance furrow irrigation on cracking clay soils." Agricultural Water Management. 206, pp. 78-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.03.014
Improving surface irrigation
Gillies, Malcolm H., Foley, Joseph P. and McCarthy, Alison C.. 2018. "Improving surface irrigation." Chen, Guangnan (ed.) Advances in agricultural machinery and technologies. United States. CRC Press. pp. 225-262
Modernisation of furrow irrigation in the sugar industry: final report 2014/079
Gillies, M., Attard, S. and Foley, J.. 2017. Modernisation of furrow irrigation in the sugar industry: final report 2014/079. Brisbane, Australia. Sugar Research Australia.
Smart automated furrow irrigation of cotton
Uddin, J., Smith, R. J., Gillies, M. H., Moller, P. and Robson, D.. 2018. "Smart automated furrow irrigation of cotton." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 144 (5), pp. 04018005-1. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001282
An alternative approach to whole-farm deficit irrigation analysis: evaluating the risk-efficiency of wheat irrigation strategies in sub-tropical Australia
Peake, A. S., Carberry, P. S., Raine, S. R., Gett, V. and Smith, R. J.. 2016. "An alternative approach to whole-farm deficit irrigation analysis: evaluating the risk-efficiency of wheat irrigation strategies in sub-tropical Australia." Agricultural Water Management. 169, pp. 61-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.02.013
Evaluating the performance of automated bay irrigation
Smith, R. J., Uddin, J. M., Gillies, M. H., Moller, P. and Clurey, K.. 2016. "Evaluating the performance of automated bay irrigation." Irrigation Science. 34 (3), pp. 175-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-016-0494-8
Towards a smart automated surface irrigation management in rice-growing areas in Italy
Masseroni, Daniele, Uddin, Jasim, Tyrrell, Reece, Mareels, Iven, Gandolfi, Claudio and Facchi, Arianna. 2017. "Towards a smart automated surface irrigation management in rice-growing areas in Italy." Journal of Agricultural Engineering . XLVII (585), pp. 42-48. https://doi.org/10.4081/jae.2017.585
Water: advanced irrigation technologies
Hedley, C. B., Knox, J. W., Raine, S. R. and Smith, R.. 2014. "Water: advanced irrigation technologies." van Alfen, Neal K. (ed.) Encyclopedia of agriculture and food systems. United States. Elsevier. pp. 378-406
Optimal irrigation of cotton via real-time, adaptive control
McCarthy, Alison, Smith, Rod and Hancock, Nigel. 2013. Optimal irrigation of cotton via real-time, adaptive control. Narrabri, Australia. Cotton Research and Development Corporation.
Trends in the use of surface irrigation in Australian irrigated agriculture
Koech, R., Smith, R. and Gillies, M.. 2015. "Trends in the use of surface irrigation in Australian irrigated agriculture." Current. 42 (5), pp. 84-92.
SISCO: surface irrigation simulation, calibration and optimisation
Gillies, M. H. and Smith, R. J.. 2015. "SISCO: surface irrigation simulation, calibration and optimisation." Irrigation Science. 33 (5), pp. 339-355. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-015-0470-8
CFD study of the hydraulic performance of large-diameter gated fluming
Koech, Richard, Mossad, Ruth, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2015. "CFD study of the hydraulic performance of large-diameter gated fluming." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 141 (2), pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000795
Estimation of wet canopy bulk stomatal resistance from energy flux measurements during sprinkler irrigation
Uddin, Jasim M., Smith, Rod J., Hancock, Nigel H. and Foley, Joseph P.. 2016. "Estimation of wet canopy bulk stomatal resistance from energy flux measurements during sprinkler irrigation." Biosystems Engineering. 143, pp. 61-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2015.12.017
A new approach to estimate canopy evaporation and canopy interception capacity from evapotranspiration and sap flow measurements during and following wetting
Uddin, J., Foley, J. P., Smith, R. J. and Hancock, N. H.. 2016. "A new approach to estimate canopy evaporation and canopy interception capacity from evapotranspiration and sap flow measurements during and following wetting." Hydrological Processes. 30 (11), pp. 1757-1767. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10739
Evaluation of the performance of automated bay irrigation of pasture and fodder
Smith, Rod, Uddin, Jasim and Gillies, Malcolm. 2015. "Evaluation of the performance of automated bay irrigation of pasture and fodder." Irrigation Australia Regional Conference 2015. Sydney, Australia 26 - 28 May 2015 Sydney, Australia.
Smart automated furrow irrigation of cotton
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2015. "Smart automated furrow irrigation of cotton." Irrigation Australia Regional Conference 2015. Sydney, Australia 26 - 28 May 2015 Sydney, Australia.
Micrometeorology of sprinkler irrigation
Hancock, N. H., Uddin, J. M., Smith, R. J. and Foley, J. P.. 2015. "Micrometeorology of sprinkler irrigation." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 200, pp. 293-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.10.010
Controlling surface irrigation using digital devices
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2014. "Controlling surface irrigation using digital devices." Keppell, Mike and Reushle, Shirley (ed.) 2nd Digital Rural Futures Conference 2014. Toowoomba, Australia 25 - 27 Jun 2014 Toowoomba, Australia.
High performance automated furrow irrigation
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2014. "High performance automated furrow irrigation ." 17th Australian Cotton Conference (ACC 2014): Our Fibre, Our Focus, Our Future. Gold Coast, Australia 05 - 07 Aug 2014 Narrabri, Australia.
Are evaporation losses in sprinkler irrigation high?
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph. 2014. "Are evaporation losses in sprinkler irrigation high?" 17th Australian Cotton Conference (ACC 2014): Our Fibre, Our Focus, Our Future. Gold Coast, Australia 05 - 07 Aug 2014 Narrabri, Australia.
A simple strategy to manage furrow irrigation efficiently
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2014. "A simple strategy to manage furrow irrigation efficiently." 17th Australian Cotton Conference (ACC 2014): Our Fibre, Our Focus, Our Future. Gold Coast, Australia 05 - 07 Aug 2014 Narrabri, Australia.
Selection of irrigation duration for high performance furrow irrigation on cracking clay soils
Smith, Rod, Uddin, Jasim and Gillies, Malcolm. 2014. "Selection of irrigation duration for high performance furrow irrigation on cracking clay soils." Irrigation Australia Conference 2014: Water for Life, Future for All. Gold Coast, Australia 02 - 06 Jun 2014 Sydney, Australia.
Can advected energy affect the water use efficiency in sprinkler irrigation?
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph. 2014. "Can advected energy affect the water use efficiency in sprinkler irrigation? " Irrigation Australia Conference 2014: Water for Life, Future for All. Gold Coast, Australia 02 - 06 Jun 2014 Sydney, Australia.
Estimation of canopy interception under sprinkler irrigation: a new approach
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph. 2014. "Estimation of canopy interception under sprinkler irrigation: a new approach." Irrigation Australia Conference 2014: Water for Life, Future for All. Gold Coast, Australia 02 - 06 Jun 2014 Sydney, Australia.
Inflow rate and border irrigation performance
Morris, Michael R., Hussain, Amjed, Gillies, Malcolm H. and O'Halloran, Nicholas J.. 2015. "Inflow rate and border irrigation performance." Agricultural Water Management. 155, pp. 76-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.03.017
Real-time irrigation decision-making and control for site-specific irrigation of cotton using a centre pivot, 2012/13
McCarthy, Alison, Smith, Rod and Hancock, Nigel. 2014. "Real-time irrigation decision-making and control for site-specific irrigation of cotton using a centre pivot, 2012/13." Irrigation Australia Conference 2014: Water for Life, Future for All. Gold Coast, Australia 02 - 06 Jun 2014 Sydney, Australia.
Autonomous site-specific irrigation control: the current state and a vision of a future system [Keynote]
McCarthy, Alison, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2014. "Autonomous site-specific irrigation control: the current state and a vision of a future system [Keynote]." Keppell, Mike and Reushle, Shirley (ed.) 2nd Digital Rural Futures Conference 2014. Toowoomba, Australia 25 - 27 Jun 2014 Toowoomba, Australia.
Quantifying potential yield and lodging-related yield gaps for irrigated spring wheat in sub-tropical Australia
Peake, A. S., Huth, N. I., Carberry, P. S., Raine, S. R. and Smith, R. J.. 2014. "Quantifying potential yield and lodging-related yield gaps for irrigated spring wheat in sub-tropical Australia." Field Crops Research. 158, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2013.12.001
Evaluating the performance of a real-time optimisation system for furrow irrigation
Koech, R. K., Smith, R. J. and Gillies, M. H.. 2014. "Evaluating the performance of a real-time optimisation system for furrow irrigation ." Agricultural Water Management. 142, pp. 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.04.020
A real-time optimisation system for automation of furrow irrigation
Koech, R. K., Smith, R. J. and Gillies, M. H.. 2014. "A real-time optimisation system for automation of furrow irrigation." Irrigation Science. 32 (4), pp. 319-327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-014-0432-6
A computer model to estimate seepage rates from automated irrigation distribution channels during periods of shutdown
Moavenshahidi, A., Smith, R. and Gillies, M.. 2014. "A computer model to estimate seepage rates from automated irrigation distribution channels during periods of shutdown." Journal of Hydroinformatics. 16 (6), pp. 1302-1317. https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2014.104
Factors affecting the estimation of seepage rates from channel automation data
Moavenshahidi, A., Smith, R. and Gillies, M.. 2014. "Factors affecting the estimation of seepage rates from channel automation data." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 141 (6), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000842
Evaluation of sap flow sensors to measure the transpiration rate of plants during canopy wetting and drying
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph. 2014. "Evaluation of sap flow sensors to measure the transpiration rate of plants during canopy wetting and drying." Journal of Agricultural Studies. 2 (2), pp. 105-119. https://doi.org/10.5296/jas.v2i2.6134
Hydraulics of large diameter gated flexible fluming
Koech, Richard, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2013. "Hydraulics of large diameter gated flexible fluming." Biosystems Engineering. 114 (2), pp. 170-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.12.005
Water-use efficiency and productivity trends in Australian irrigated cotton: a review
Roth, Guy, Harris, Graham, Gillies, Malcolm, Montgomery, Janelle and Wigginton, David. 2013. "Water-use efficiency and productivity trends in Australian irrigated cotton: a review." Crop and Pasture Science. 64 (12), pp. 1033-1048. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP13315
Modification of the McNeal clay swelling model improves prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of applied water quality
Ezlit, Y. D., Bennett, J. McL., Raine, S. R. and Smith, R. J.. 2013. "Modification of the McNeal clay swelling model improves prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of applied water quality." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 77 (6), pp. 2149-2156. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2013.03.0097
Real-time, web-enabled adaptive control and monitoring of surface and overhead irrigation systems
McCarthy, Alison, Gillies, Malcolm and Smith, Rod. 2013. "Real-time, web-enabled adaptive control and monitoring of surface and overhead irrigation systems." Lamb, David (ed.) 1st Digital Rural Futures Conference: Smart Farms - Smart Regions (DRF 2013). Armidale, Australia 26 - 28 Jun 2013 Armidale, Australia.
A review of salinity and sodicity in irrigation
Ezlit, Younes D., Smith, Rod J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. A review of salinity and sodicity in irrigation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Improving irrigation efficiency through precision irrigation in South East Queensland
Eberhard, J., McHugh, A., Scobie, M., Schmidt, E., McCarthy, A., Uddin, Md J., McKeering, L. and Poulter, R.. 2013. Improving irrigation efficiency through precision irrigation in South East Queensland. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Evaporation and sapflow dynamics during sprinkler irrigation of cotton
Uddin, J., Smith, R. J., Hancock, N. H. and Foley, J. P.. 2013. "Evaporation and sapflow dynamics during sprinkler irrigation of cotton." Agricultural Water Management. 125, pp. 35-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2013.04.001
Real-time adaptive control of furrow irrigation: preliminary results of cotton field trial
McCarthy, Alison, Smith, Rod and Hancock, Nigel. 2012. "Real-time adaptive control of furrow irrigation: preliminary results of cotton field trial." Irrigation Australia Conference (IAL 2012). Adelaide, Australia 24 - 29 Jun 2012 Sydney, Australia.
Real-time model predictive control of surface irrigation for cotton: setup of field trial
McCarthy, Alison, Smith, Rod and Hancock, Nigel. 2012. "Real-time model predictive control of surface irrigation for cotton: setup of field trial." 16th Australian Cotton Conference (ACC 2012): Growing Better all the Time. Gold Coast, Australia 14 - 16 Aug 2012 Gold Coast, Australia.
Seepage rate estimation from total channel control data during periods of shut down: preliminary data quality assessment. Case study: Coleambally irrigation system
Shahidi, A. M., Smith, R. and Gillies, M.. 2013. "Seepage rate estimation from total channel control data during periods of shut down: preliminary data quality assessment. Case study: Coleambally irrigation system." Bjornlund, H., Brebbia, C. A. and Wheeler, S. (ed.) 4th International Conference on Sustainable Irrigation and Drainage: Management, Technologies and Policies . Adelaide, Australia 11 - 13 Dec 2012 Southampton, United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.2495/SI120101
Review of precision irrigation technologies and their application
Smith, R. J., Baillie, J. N., McCarthy, A. C., Raine, S. R. and Baillie, C. P.. 2010. Review of precision irrigation technologies and their application. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Measurement of evapotranspiration during sprinkler irrigation using a precision energy budget (Bowen ratio, eddy covariance) methodology
Uddin, J., Hancock, N. H., Smith, R. J. and Foley, J. P.. 2013. "Measurement of evapotranspiration during sprinkler irrigation using a precision energy budget (Bowen ratio, eddy covariance) methodology." Agricultural Water Management. 116, pp. 89-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2012.10.008
New approach to estimate the additional water requirements in sprinkler irrigation: a predictive model
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph. 2012. "New approach to estimate the additional water requirements in sprinkler irrigation: a predictive model." Currey, Anne (ed.) ICID & Irrigation Australia 2012 Conference and Trade Show . Adelaide, Australia 24 - 29 Jun 2012 Sydney, Australia.
A novel technique to measure the total evaporation and its components during sprinkler irrigation
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph. 2012. "A novel technique to measure the total evaporation and its components during sprinkler irrigation ." Currey, Anne (ed.) ICID & Irrigation Australia 2012 Conference and Trade Show . Adelaide, Australia 24 - 29 Jun 2012 Sydney, Australia.
Improved evaluation of bay (and furrow) irrigation
Rojas-Ponce, Samuel, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2011. "Improved evaluation of bay (and furrow) irrigation." Thompson, Chris (ed.) Irrigation 2011: New Horizons, Fresh Ideas Regional Conference and Exhibition. Launceston, Australia 22 - 25 Aug 2011 Sydney, Australia.
Surface irrigation for energy and water use efficiency
Khatri, Kanya L. and Smith, Rod. 2011. "Surface irrigation for energy and water use efficiency." Thompson, Chris (ed.) Irrigation 2011: New Horizons, Fresh Ideas Regional Conference and Exhibition. Launceston, Australia 22 - 25 Aug 2011 Sydney, Australia.
Evaluating whole field irrigation performance using statistical inference of inter-furrow infiltration variation
Gillies, M. H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, S. R.. 2011. "Evaluating whole field irrigation performance using statistical inference of inter-furrow infiltration variation." Biosystems Engineering. 110 (2), pp. 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.07.008
Design of an automatic furrow irrigation system utilising adaptive real-time control
Koech, R. K., Smith, R. J. and Gillies, M. H.. 2011. "Design of an automatic furrow irrigation system utilising adaptive real-time control." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
The economics of sprinkler irrigation uniformity for lettuce production with in-season rainfall
Hussain, A., Raine, S. R. and Smith, R. J.. 2009. "The economics of sprinkler irrigation uniformity for lettuce production with in-season rainfall." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Queensland.
Evaluation of sap flow sensors to measure the transpiration rate of plants during sprinkler irrigation
Uddin, J., Smith, R. J., Hancock, N. H. and Foley, J.. 2011. "Evaluation of sap flow sensors to measure the transpiration rate of plants during sprinkler irrigation." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Eddy covariance measurements of the total evaporation during sprinkler irrigation - preliminary results
Uddin, J., Smith, R. J., Hancock, N. H. and Foley, J.. 2011. "Eddy covariance measurements of the total evaporation during sprinkler irrigation - preliminary results." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Measurements of evaporation during sprinkler irrigation
Uddin, Md. Jasim. 2012. Measurements of evaporation during sprinkler irrigation. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Estimating the furrow infiltration characteristic from a single advance point
Langat, P. K., Smith, R. J. and Raine, S. R.. 2008. "Estimating the furrow infiltration characteristic from a single advance point." Irrigation Science. 26 (5), pp. 367-374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-008-0102-7
A decision support model for travelling gun irrigation machines
Smith, Rod, Gillies, Malcolm H., Newell, Geoffrey and Foley, Joseph P.. 2008. "A decision support model for travelling gun irrigation machines." Biosystems Engineering. 100 (1), pp. 126-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2008.01.004
Accounting for temporal inflow variation in the inverse solution for infiltration in surface irrigation
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "Accounting for temporal inflow variation in the inverse solution for infiltration in surface irrigation ." Irrigation Science. 25 (2), pp. 87-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0037-9
Real-time prediction of soil infiltration characteristics for the management of furrow irrigation
Khatri, Kanya L. and Smith, R. J.. 2006. "Real-time prediction of soil infiltration characteristics for the management of furrow irrigation." Irrigation Science. 25 (1), pp. 33-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0032-1
Effect of water quality on soil structure and infiltration under furrow irrigation
Emdad, Mohammad R., Raine, Steven R., Smith, Rod J. and Fardad, Hossein. 2004. "Effect of water quality on soil structure and infiltration under furrow irrigation." Irrigation Science. 23 (2), pp. 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-004-0093-y
Irrigation application efficiency and deep drainage potential under surface irrigated cotton
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R. and Minkevich, John. 2005. "Irrigation application efficiency and deep drainage potential under surface irrigated cotton." Agricultural Water Management. 71 (2), pp. 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.07.008
Gas sampling efficiencies and aerodynamic characteristics of a laboratory wind tunnel for odour measurement
Sohn, J. H., Smith, R. J., Hudson, N. A. and Choi, H. L.. 2005. "Gas sampling efficiencies and aerodynamic characteristics of a laboratory wind tunnel for odour measurement." Biosystems Engineering. 92 (1), pp. 37-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.05.010
Infiltration parameters from surface irrigation advance and run-off data
Gillies, Malcolm H. and Smith, R. J.. 2005. "Infiltration parameters from surface irrigation advance and run-off data." Irrigation Science. 24 (1), pp. 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-005-0004-x
Automation and control in surface irrigation systems: current status and expected future trends
Koech, Richard, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2010. "Automation and control in surface irrigation systems: current status and expected future trends." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Simulation modelling in surface irrigation systems
Koech, Richard, Gillies, Malcolm and Smith, Rod. 2010. "Simulation modelling in surface irrigation systems." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Defining precision irrigation: a new approach to irrigation management
Smith, Rod and Baillie, Justine. 2009. "Defining precision irrigation: a new approach to irrigation management." Irrigation Australia 2009: Irrigation Australia Irrigation and Drainage Conference: Irrigation Today - Meeting the Challenge. Swan Hill, Australia 18 - 21 Oct 2009 Sydney, Australia.
Head ditch hydraulics and the variability of inflows to irrigation furrows
Smith, R. J. and Gillies, M. H.. 2010. "Head ditch hydraulics and the variability of inflows to irrigation furrows." Irrigation and Drainage. 59 (4), pp. 442-452. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.495
Droplet evaporation losses during sprinkler irrigation: an overview
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph P.. 2010. "Droplet evaporation losses during sprinkler irrigation: an overview." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Hydraulic characteristics of large diameter gated flexible fluming
Koech, R. K., Smith, R. J. and Gillies, Malcolm H.. 2010. "Hydraulic characteristics of large diameter gated flexible fluming ." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Furrow irrigation in the Australian cotton industry: alternative water delivery systems and their potential for automation
Koech, R. K., Smith, R. J. and Gillies, Malcolm H.. 2010. Furrow irrigation in the Australian cotton industry: alternative water delivery systems and their potential for automation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Improving performance of bay irrigation through higher flow rates
Gillies, Malcolm, Smith, Rod, Williamson, Bill and Shanahan, Matthew. 2010. "Improving performance of bay irrigation through higher flow rates." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
The validation of a simple Gaussian dispersion model for determining odour emission rates from area sources
Galvin, Geordie, Lowe, Scott and Smith, Rod. 2004. "The validation of a simple Gaussian dispersion model for determining odour emission rates from area sources." Developments in Chemical Engineering and Mineral Processing. 12 (5/6), pp. 545-558. https://doi.org/10.1002/apj.5500120509
Quantification of odours from piggery effluent ponds using an electronic nose and an artificial neural network
Sohn, Jae Ho, Smith, Rod, Yoong, Ernest, Leis, John W. and Galvin, Geordie. 2003. "Quantification of odours from piggery effluent ponds using an electronic nose and an artificial neural network." Biosystems Engineering. 86 (4), pp. 399-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2003.09.003
An evaluation of a novel wind tunnel design applied to the measurement of the kinetics of odour emissions from piggery effluent
Sohn, Jae Ho, Smith, Rod, Yoong, Ernest, Hudson, Neale A. and Kim, Tae I.. 2004. "An evaluation of a novel wind tunnel design applied to the measurement of the kinetics of odour emissions from piggery effluent." Water Science and Technology. 50 (4), pp. 49-55.
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2009. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 7 (1), pp. 79-90.
Evaluating the performance of bay irrigation in the GMID
Smith, R. J., Gillies, Malcolm H., Shanahan, Matthew, Campbell, B. and Williamson, Bill. 2009. "Evaluating the performance of bay irrigation in the GMID." Irrigation Australia 2009: Irrigation Australia Irrigation and Drainage Conference: Irrigation Today - Meeting the Challenge. Swan Hill, Australia 18 - 21 Oct 2009 Sydney, New South Wales.
Bankless channel irrigation systems: irrigation performance assessment
Grabham, Michael, Hornbuckle, John, Raine, Steven R. and Smith, Rod. 2009. "Bankless channel irrigation systems: irrigation performance assessment." Irrigation Australia 2009: Irrigation Australia Irrigation and Drainage Conference: Irrigation Today - Meeting the Challenge. Swan Hill, Australia 18 - 21 Oct 2009 Sydney, Australia.
Characterisation of the micro-tube emitters used in a novel micro-sprinkler
de Almeida, Ceres Duarte Guedes Cabral, Botrel, Tarlei Arriel and Smith, Rod J.. 2009. "Characterisation of the micro-tube emitters used in a novel micro-sprinkler." Irrigation Science. 27 (3), pp. 209-214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-008-0135-y
Empirical functions for dependent variables in cutback furrow irrigation
Navabian, M., Liaghat, A. M., Smith, R. J. and Abbasi, F.. 2009. "Empirical functions for dependent variables in cutback furrow irrigation." Irrigation Science. 27 (3), pp. 215-222. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-008-0138-8
Measurement and management of furrow irrigation at the field scale
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Measurement and management of furrow irrigation at the field scale." Irrigation Australia 2008: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Share the Water, Share the Benefits. Melbourne, Australia 20 - 22 May 2008
Managing the effect of infiltration variability on the performance of surface irrigation
Gillies, Malcolm H.. 2008. Managing the effect of infiltration variability on the performance of surface irrigation. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Toward a simple real-time control system for efficient management of furrow irrigation
Khatri, Kanya L. and Smith, R. J.. 2007. "Toward a simple real-time control system for efficient management of furrow irrigation." Irrigation and Drainage. 56 (4), pp. 463-475. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.319
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2007. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2007: Agriculture and Engineering - Challenge Today, Technology Tomorrow. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 26 Sep 2007 Australia.
Errors in predicting furrow irrigation performance using single measures of infiltration
Langat, Philip K., Raine, Steven R. and Smith, R. J.. 2007. "Errors in predicting furrow irrigation performance using single measures of infiltration." Irrigation Science. 25 (4), pp. 339-349. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0049-5
A decision support model for travelling gun irrigation machines
Smith, Rod, Gillies, Malcolm H., Newell, Geoffrey and Foley, Joseph P.. 2007. "A decision support model for travelling gun irrigation machines." CIGR 2006: Agricultural Engineering for a Better World. Bonn, Germany 03 - 07 Sep 2006
Real time control of surface irrigation: managing infiltration variations and enhancing furrow irrigation performance
Khatri, K. L., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Real time control of surface irrigation: managing infiltration variations and enhancing furrow irrigation performance." Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Brisbane.
Is it possible to extract infiltration rates for variable inflow furrow irrigation?
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Is it possible to extract infiltration rates for variable inflow furrow irrigation?" Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Simulation of performance for a simple real time control system of furrow irrigation
Khatri, K. L. and Smith, R. J.. 2006. "Simulation of performance for a simple real time control system of furrow irrigation." Lorenzini, G. (ed.) 1st International Conference on Sustainable Irrigation Management, Technologies and Policies. Bologna, Italy 05 - 07 Sep 2006 England.
Process studies of odour emissions from effluent ponds using machine-based odour measurement
Sohn, Jae Ho, Smith, R. J. and Yoong, Ernest. 2006. "Process studies of odour emissions from effluent ponds using machine-based odour measurement." Atmospheric Environment. 40 (7), pp. 1230-1241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.10.035
Evaluation of methods for determining infiltration parameters from irrigation advance data
Khatri, K. L. and Smith, R. J.. 2005. "Evaluation of methods for determining infiltration parameters from irrigation advance data." Irrigation and Drainage. 54 (4), pp. 467-482. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.198