Investigation of the effect of styrene content on the ultimate curing of vinylester resins by TGA-FTIR

Article


Cardona, F., Rogers, D., Davey, S. and Van Erp, G.. 2007. "Investigation of the effect of styrene content on the ultimate curing of vinylester resins by TGA-FTIR." Journal of Composite Materials. 41 (2), pp. 137-152. https://doi.org/10.1177/002199830?063357
Article Title

Investigation of the effect of styrene content on the ultimate curing of vinylester resins by TGA-FTIR

ERA Journal ID4918
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsCardona, F. (Author), Rogers, D. (Author), Davey, S. (Author) and Van Erp, G. (Author)
Journal TitleJournal of Composite Materials
Journal Citation41 (2), pp. 137-152
Number of Pages16
Year2007
Place of PublicationLondon, United Kingdom
ISSN0021-9983
1530-793X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1177/002199830?063357
Web Address (URL)http://jcm.sagepub.com/content/41/2/137.full.pdf+html
Abstract

The influence of styrene content on styrene added vinylester resin (VER) is investigated. The network structure and its thermal properties is investigated by DSC and the combination of TGA and FTIR (TGA–FTIR). The glass transition temperatures(Tgs) of the resins are found to decrease systematically with increasing styrene content, which decreases the cross-link density of the cured materials. The Tg of VERsamplescured97–98% is significantly lower, by as much as 25C, than the Tg of a fully cured (100%)sample. This is due to the plasticizing effect of unreacted styrene in the network. The combination of TGA and FTIR confirm the evolution of gaseous styrene moieties at the degradation temperature of vinylester groups, the relative amount of styrene emitted being higher with increasing styrene content. A good correlation is found between the thermal properties by DSC and the results obtained from the TGA–FTIR system.

KeywordsTGA–FTIR; styrene; vinylester; Tg; cross-link density; plasticizing effect
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020340306. Polymerisation mechanisms
401602. Composite and hybrid materials
401609. Polymers and plastics
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Byline AffiliationsFibre Composites Design and Development
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Omar, T., Van Erp, G., Aravinthan, T. and Key, P.. 2007. "Innovative all composite multi-pultrusion truss system for stressed arch deployable shelters." Rabboo, Fathi Abd and Fathelbab, Fahmy (ed.) AICSGE 6: 6th Alexandria International Conference on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering. Alexandria, Egypt 15 - 17 Apr 2007 Alexandria, Egypt.
Train crashworthiness and its impact on society
Brell, Edward, Van Erp, Gerard and Snook, Chris. 2002. "Train crashworthiness and its impact on society." Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 25 (2), pp. 103-112.
Fibre composite bridge decks: an alternative approach
Davey, Scott W., Van Erp, Gerard M. and Marsh, Roy. 2001. "Fibre composite bridge decks: an alternative approach." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 32 (9), pp. 1339 - 1343. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(01)00087-2
Can the influence of mechanical impedance improve structural crash worthiness?
Brell, Edward, Van Erp, Gerard and Snook, Chris. 1999. "Can the influence of mechanical impedance improve structural crash worthiness?" Bradford , Mark A., Bridge, Russell Q. and Foster, Stephen J. (ed.) 16th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials 1999. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Dec 1999 Rotterdam, Netherlands.
A Code of Practice for the structural design of fibre composites
Ayers, Stephen R. and van Erp, Gerard. 2004. "A Code of Practice for the structural design of fibre composites ." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings. 157 (1), pp. 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1680/stbu.157.1.3.36408
Studies on polymers and composites from lignin and fiber derived from sugar cane
Doherty, William, Halley, Peter J., Edye, Les, Rogers, David, Cardona, Francisco, Park, Yosup and Woo, Tim. 2007. "Studies on polymers and composites from lignin and fiber derived from sugar cane." Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 18 (8), pp. 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.879
A foundational investigation of vinyl ester / cenosphere composite materials for civil and structural engineering
Davey, Scott W.. 2004. A foundational investigation of vinyl ester / cenosphere composite materials for civil and structural engineering. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Plant based resins for fibre composites
Faigl, Pavel, Rogers, David, Maurin, Romain and Van Erp, Gerard. 2007. "Plant based resins for fibre composites." 4th Annual Composites Australia and Composites CRC Conference (CRC 2007): New Technology Taking Shape. Gold Coast, Australia 19 - 20 Apr 2007 Melbourne, Australia.
Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites post-cured in microwaves
Cardona, F., Ku, H., Pattarachaiyakoop, N., Rogers, D. and Trada, M.. 2007. "Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites post-cured in microwaves." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 21 (14), pp. 2137-2146. https://doi.org/10.1163/156939307783152867
Stressed arch modular deployable composite shelters: concept and development
Omar, T., Van Erp, G. and Key, P. W.. 2006. "Stressed arch modular deployable composite shelters: concept and development ." Mirmiran, A. and Nanni, A. (ed.) CICE 2006: 3rd International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering. Miami, United States 13 - 15 Dec 2006 Miami, Fl, USA.
Modular deployable composite shelters - truss system
Omar, T., Van Erp, G. and Key, P.. 2007. "Modular deployable composite shelters - truss system ." Darby, A. P. and Ibell, T. P. (ed.) ACIC 2007: Advanced Composites in Construction Conference . Bath, United Kingdom 02 - 04 Apr 2007 York, UK.
M2S2 modular deployable composite shelters: concept and loading criteria
Omar, Tarek, Heldt, Tim, Key, P. and Van Erp, Gerard. 2006. "M2S2 modular deployable composite shelters: concept and loading criteria." Australian Journal of Structural Engineering. 6 (3), pp. 217-226.
Design and analysis of a composite beam for infrastructure applications - Part III: experimental results and nonlinear FE analysis
Springolo, Mario, Khennane, Amar and Van Erp, Gerard. 2006. "Design and analysis of a composite beam for infrastructure applications - Part III: experimental results and nonlinear FE analysis ." International Journal of Materials and Product Technology. 25 (4), pp. 331-347.
Design and analysis of a composite beam for infrastructure applications - Part II: preliminary investigation in shear and torsion
Springolo, Mario, Van Erp, Gerard and Khennane, Amar. 2006. "Design and analysis of a composite beam for infrastructure applications - Part II: preliminary investigation in shear and torsion ." International Journal of Materials and Product Technology. 25 (4), pp. 313-331.
Design and analysis of a composite beam for infrastructure applications - Part I: preliminary investigation in bending
Springolo, Mario, Van Erp, Gerard and Khennane, Amar. 2006. "Design and analysis of a composite beam for infrastructure applications - Part I: preliminary investigation in bending ." International Journal of Materials and Product Technology. 25 (4), pp. 297-313. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMPT.2006.008885
Vinylester/cenosphere composite materials for civil and structural engineering
Davey, Scott W., Heldt, Tim, Van Erp, Gerard and Ayers, Stephen R.. 2005. "Vinylester/cenosphere composite materials for civil and structural engineering." FRP International : The Official Newsletter of the International Institute for FRP in Construction. 2 (3), pp. 2-5.
Development of modular deployable composite shelters
Omar, T., Heldt, T., Key, P. and Van Erp, G.. 2005. "Development of modular deployable composite shelters." Stewart, Mark G. and Dockrill, Brad (ed.) 2005 Australian Structural Engineering Conference (ASEC 2005). Newcastle, Australia 11 - 14 Sep 2005 Sydney, Australia.
Train crashworthiness and its impact on society
Brell, Edward, Van Erp, Gerard and Snook, Chris. 1999. "Train crashworthiness and its impact on society." International Journal of Crashworthiness. 4 (4), pp. 419-431. https://doi.org/10.1533/cras.1999.0116