Effects of catalysts and post-curing conditions in the polymer network of epoxy and phenolic resins: preliminary results

Article


Munoz, J.-C., Ku, H., Cardona, F. and Rogers, D.. 2008. "Effects of catalysts and post-curing conditions in the polymer network of epoxy and phenolic resins: preliminary results ." Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 202 (1-3), pp. 486-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.10.025
Article Title

Effects of catalysts and post-curing conditions in the polymer network of epoxy and phenolic resins: preliminary results

ERA Journal ID3689
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsMunoz, J.-C. (Author), Ku, H. (Author), Cardona, F. (Author) and Rogers, D. (Author)
Journal TitleJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Journal Citation202 (1-3), pp. 486-492
Number of Pages7
Year2008
Place of PublicationLausanne, Switzerland
ISSN0924-0136
1873-4774
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.10.025
Web Address (URL)http:/www.elsevier.com/locate/jmatprotec
Abstract

In the earlier study about polymer network of phenolic and epoxies resins mixed with linseed oil, only Phencat 15 was used as the catalyst for the phenolic resin. In this study, Phencat 382 and UH (a urea hydrochloride solution based on a 1 : 1 mole ratio of urea : hydrochloric acid 32%) will be used as catalysts to study their effects on the polymer network of phenolic and epoxy resins mixed with epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) (58%). The effect of each one of these catalysts on the curing and the properties of the formed network were investigated. It was discovered that Phencat 382 was the best catalyst for the composites. It was also discovered that ELO can play its role as plasticiser in the blends of epoxy and phenolic resins and does improve the flexural strength and other mechanical properties of the prepared resins. The storage modulus, flexural modulus, stress at peak and glass transition temperature decreased with increasing percentage by weight of ELO added irrespective of the catalysts used, while the strain yield increased. The cross-link density decreased with the increasing amount of ELO in the resins. The best properties were obtained for the 80/20 epoxy/phenolic resin blends after post-curing for 4 hours.

Keywordsflexural modulus; catalysts; epoxy resin; phenolic resin; cross link density; linseed oil
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400505. Construction materials
401602. Composite and hybrid materials
401609. Polymers and plastics
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Byline AffiliationsCentre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composites
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Ku, H., Trada, M., Cecil, T. and Wong, P.. 2010. "Tensile tests of phenol formaldehyde glass-powder-reinforced composites: pilot study." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 116 (1), pp. 10-17. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.31424
Kinetics of in situ epoxidation of hemp oil under heterogeneous reaction conditions: an overview with preliminary results
Cooney, T. I., Cardona, F. and Tran-Cong, T.. 2011. "Kinetics of in situ epoxidation of hemp oil under heterogeneous reaction conditions: an overview with preliminary results." Cowled, Craig J. L. (ed.) 1st International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering, Designing and Developing the Built Environment for Sustainable Wellbeing (eddBE 2011). Brisbane, Australia 27 - 29 Apr 2011 Brisbane, Australia.
Mechanical properties of epoxidized hemp oil based biocomposites: preliminary results
Manthey, N. W., Cardona, F. and Aravinthan, T.. 2011. "Mechanical properties of epoxidized hemp oil based biocomposites: preliminary results." Cowled, Craig J. L. (ed.) 1st International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering, Designing and Developing the Built Environment for Sustainable Wellbeing (eddBE 2011). Brisbane, Australia 27 - 29 Apr 2011 Brisbane, Australia.
Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe
Ku, H., Ahfock, T. and Yusaf, T.. 2011. "Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe." European Journal of Engineering Education. 36 (3), pp. 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2011.578244
Cure kinetics of an epoxidized hemp oil based bioresin system
Manthey, Nathan W., Cardona, Francisco, Aravinthan, Thiru and Cooney, Tyson. 2011. "Cure kinetics of an epoxidized hemp oil based bioresin system." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 122 (1), pp. 444-451. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.34086
A review of current development in natural fiber composites for structural and infrastructure applications
Ticoalu, A., Aravinthan, T. and Cardona, F.. 2010. "A review of current development in natural fiber composites for structural and infrastructure applications." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Literature review of past and present performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sector
Ku, H. S-L., Mustapha, U. and Goh, S.. 2010. "Literature review of past and present performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sector ." IMechE 2010: Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Lyon, France 04 Nov 2010 United Kingdom. SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544054JEM1818
Preliminary results on literature review skills of students doing capstone projects
Ku, Harry S. and Goh, Steven C.. 2010. "Preliminary results on literature review skills of students doing capstone projects." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Effects of natural fibre surface on composite properties: a review
Kabir, M. M., Wang, H., Aravinthan, T., Cardona, F. and Lau, K. -T.. 2011. "Effects of natural fibre surface on composite properties: a review." Cowled, Craig J. L. (ed.) 1st International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering, Designing and Developing the Built Environment for Sustainable Wellbeing (eddBE 2011). Brisbane, Australia 27 - 29 Apr 2011 Brisbane, Australia.
Effect of chemical treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of hemp fibre reinforced thermoset sandwich composites
Kabir, M. M., Wang, H., Cardona, F. and Aravinthan, T.. 2011. "Effect of chemical treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of hemp fibre reinforced thermoset sandwich composites." Fragomeni, Sam, Venkatesan, Srikanth, Lam, Nelson T. K. and Setunge, Sujeeva (ed.) 21st Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM 21): Incorporating Sustainable Practice in Mechanics of Structures and Materials. Melbourne, Australia 07 - 10 Dec 2010 Leiden, Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1201/b10571-78
A review on the tensile properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites
Ku, H., Wang, H., Pattarachaiyakoop, N. and Trada, M.. 2011. "A review on the tensile properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites ." Composites Part B: Engineering. 42 (4), pp. 856-873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.01.010
Thermal properties of sawdust reinforced vinyl ester composites post-cured in microwaves: a pilot study
Ku, H., Prajapati, M. and Cardona, F.. 2011. "Thermal properties of sawdust reinforced vinyl ester composites post-cured in microwaves: a pilot study ." Composites Part B: Engineering. 42 (4), pp. 898-906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.01.008
Qualitative methodologies for dummies: engineers in investigating the quality of final year engineering research project
Goh, Steven and Ku, Harry. 2010. "Qualitative methodologies for dummies: engineers in investigating the quality of final year engineering research project." Hudson, Peter, Chandra, Vinesh, King, Donna and Lee, Kar-Tin (ed.) 1st Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Education Conference (STEM 2010). Brisbane, Australia 26 - 27 Nov 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Experimental investigation into gomuti fibres/polyester composites
Ticoalu, A., Aravinthan, T. and Cardona, F.. 2011. "Experimental investigation into gomuti fibres/polyester composites." Fragomeni, Sam, Venkatesan, Srikanth, Lam, Nelson T. K. and Setunge, Sujeeva (ed.) 21st Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM 21): Incorporating Sustainable Practice in Mechanics of Structures and Materials. Melbourne, Australia 07 - 10 Dec 2010 Leiden, Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1201/b10571-80
Effect of tannin on flexural properties of phenol formaldehyde glycerol reinforced composites: preliminary results
Cardona, F., Ku, H. and Chouzenoux, L.. 2010. "Effect of tannin on flexural properties of phenol formaldehyde glycerol reinforced composites: preliminary results ." Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 29 (24), pp. 3543-3553. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684410381152
Natural fibre composites with QLD based fibres and vegetable oils
Manthey, N. W., Cardona, F., Aravinthan, T., Wang, H. and Cooney, T.. 2011. "Natural fibre composites with QLD based fibres and vegetable oils." Fragomeni, Sam, Venkatesan, Srikanth, Lam, Nelson T. K. and Setunge, Sujeeva (ed.) 21st Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM 21): Incorporating Sustainable Practice in Mechanics of Structures and Materials. Melbourne, Australia 07 - 10 Dec 2010 Leiden, Netherlands.
Natural fibre composites with epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) resins: a review
Manthey, N. W., Cardona, F., Aravinthan, T., Wang, H. and Cooney, T.. 2010. "Natural fibre composites with epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) resins: a review." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Modified PF resins for composite structures with improved mechanical properties
Cardona, F., Aravinthan, T. and Moscou, C.. 2010. "Modified PF resins for composite structures with improved mechanical properties." Polymers and Polymer Composites. 18 (6), pp. 297-306.
Using computer software packages to enhance the teaching in engineering management science: part 3 - simulation
Ku, H. and Fulcher, R.. 2012. "Using computer software packages to enhance the teaching in engineering management science: part 3 - simulation ." Computer Applications in Engineering Education. 20 (3), pp. 547-552. https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.20423
Using computer software packages to enhance the teaching in engineering management science: part 2 - programming techniques
Ku, H. and Fulcher, R.. 2012. "Using computer software packages to enhance the teaching in engineering management science: part 2 - programming techniques ." Computer Applications in Engineering Education. 20 ( 1), pp. 114-123. https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.20379
A pilot study on the flexural properties of vinyl ester composites filled with glass powder
Ku, H., Trada, M. and Huq, R.. 2010. "A pilot study on the flexural properties of vinyl ester composites filled with glass powder ." Advanced Materials Research. 123-125, pp. 3-6. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.123-125.3
Development of polymer network of phenolic and epoxies resins mixed with linseed oil: pilot study
Ku, H., Cardona, F., Rogers, D. and Munoz, J.-C.. 2010. "Development of polymer network of phenolic and epoxies resins mixed with linseed oil: pilot study ." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 19 (6), pp. 912-919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-009-9549-9
Final year engineering projects in Australia and Europe
Ku, H. and Goh, S.. 2010. "Final year engineering projects in Australia and Europe." European Journal of Engineering Education. 35 (2), pp. 161-173. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043790903497336
Optimum percentage of fly ash reinforcement in vinyl ester composites
Ku, H., Kota, V. and Trada, M.. 2010. "Optimum percentage of fly ash reinforcement in vinyl ester composites ." Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 22 (1), pp. 104-107. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2010)22:1(104)
A lucrative export - engineering education: down under
Ross, David, Ku, Harry S. and Penfold, Peter. 2009. "A lucrative export - engineering education: down under." DIAS Technology Review. 5 (2), pp. 14-23.
Flexural properties of sawdust reinforced phenolic composites: pilot study
Ku, Harry Siu-Lung, Cardona, Francisco, Trada, Mohar and Vigier, Gurlaume. 2009. "Flexural properties of sawdust reinforced phenolic composites: pilot study." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 114 (3), pp. 1927-1934. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.30610
Engineering education in China and Australia: addressing the demand-supply gap
Ku, Siu Lung Harry, Wen, Peng and Xiang, Wei. 2010. "Engineering education in China and Australia: addressing the demand-supply gap." Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Transactions. 17 (2), pp. 20-26.
Flexural properties of phenolic resin reinforced with glass powder
Ku, Harry S., Trada, Mohan, Zong, Xuejin and Wong, Peter. 2009. "Flexural properties of phenolic resin reinforced with glass powder." Liao, W. H. (ed.) ICAST 2009: 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies . Shatin, Hong Kong 20 - 22 Oct 2009 Hong Kong.
Flexural strength of phenol formaldehyde composites post-cured in microwaves: preliminary results
Trada, Mohan, Ku, Harry and Vedhar, Jayant. 2009. "Flexural strength of phenol formaldehyde composites post-cured in microwaves: preliminary results ." Advanced Materials Research. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.79-82.1399
Teaching of critical path networks using software packages
Ku, H.. 2009. "Teaching of critical path networks using software packages ." Wen, Peng, Li, Yuefeng, Polkowski, Lech, Yao, Yiyu, Tsumoto, Shusaku and Wang, Guoyin (ed.) 4th International Conference on Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology (RSKT 2009). Gold Coast, Australia 14 - 16 Jul 2009 Berlin, Germany. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02962-2_55
Natural fibre-reinforced composites for bioengineering and environmental engineering
Cheung, Hoi-Yan, Ho, Mei-Po, Lau, Kin-Tak, Cardona, Francisco and Hui, David. 2009. "Natural fibre-reinforced composites for bioengineering and environmental engineering." Composites Part B: Engineering. 40 (7), pp. 655-663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2009.04.014
Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites reinforced with e-spheres
Ku, H., Cardona, F., Pattarachaiyakoop, N. and Trada, M.. 2009. "Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites reinforced with e-spheres ." Journal of Composite Materials. 43 (7), pp. 741-754. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998308101296
Contrasts on fracture toughness and flexural strength of varying percentages of SLG-reinforced phenolic composites
Ku, H. S., Fok, S. C. and Siores, E.. 2009. "Contrasts on fracture toughness and flexural strength of varying percentages of SLG-reinforced phenolic composites." Journal of Composite Materials. 43 (8), pp. 885-895. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998308103159
Engineering education - undergraduate and masters: China and down under
Ku, Harry, Wen, Paul, Xiang, Wei and Goh, Steven. 2009. "Engineering education - undergraduate and masters: China and down under." Kestell, Colin, Grainger, Steven and Cheung, John (ed.) 20th Annual Conference for the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AaeE 2009): Engineering the Curriculum. Adelaide, Australia 06 - 09 Dec 2009 Adelaide, Australia.
A simplified empirical model for prediction of mechanical properties of random short fiber/vinylester composites
Epaarachchi, J., Ku, H. and Gohel, K.. 2010. "A simplified empirical model for prediction of mechanical properties of random short fiber/vinylester composites." Journal of Composite Materials. 44 (6), pp. 779-788. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998309346383
Flexural tests of phenol formaldehyde and SLG composites: pilot study
Cardona, F., Rogers, D., Gurney, R., Trada, M. and Ku, H.. 2009. "Flexural tests of phenol formaldehyde and SLG composites: pilot study ." Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 28 (22), pp. 2761-2769. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684408093871
Synthesis and characterization of modified phenolic resins for composites with enhanced mechanical properties
Cardona, F. and Moscou, C.. 2009. "Synthesis and characterization of modified phenolic resins for composites with enhanced mechanical properties." Aravinthan, Thiru, Karunasena, Warna (Karu) and Wang, Hao (ed.) 20th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM20): Futures in Mechanics of Structures and Materials. Toowoomba, Australia 02 - 05 Dec 2008 London, United Kingdom.
An investigation into the application of research strategies in the final-year undergraduate engineering and surveying projects
Cochrane, Sandra, Goh, Steven and Ku, Harry. 2009. "An investigation into the application of research strategies in the final-year undergraduate engineering and surveying projects." Kestell, Colin, Grainger, Steven and Cheung, John (ed.) 20th Annual Conference for the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AaeE 2009): Engineering the Curriculum. Adelaide, Australia 06 - 09 Dec 2009 Adelaide, Australia.
Use of wireless tablet PCs as an effective learning and teaching enhancement tool
Xiang, Wei, Goh, Steven, Pather, Selvan, Maxwell, Andrew, Wang, Hao and Ku, Harry. 2009. "Use of wireless tablet PCs as an effective learning and teaching enhancement tool." Foley, Chris (ed.) EDUCAUSE Australasia Conference 2009: Innovate, Collaborate and Sustain. Perth, Australia 03 - 06 May 2009 Wembley, Western Australia.
Mathematical modeling of the fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites reinforced with E-spheres
Ku, H., Xiang, W. and Pattarachaiyakoop, N.. 2009. "Mathematical modeling of the fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites reinforced with E-spheres ." Advanced Materials Research. 79-82, pp. 1165-1168. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.79-82.1165
Research design for investigation of Nigeria manufacturing management
Mustapha, U. M., Ku, H. and Goh, S.. 2009. "Research design for investigation of Nigeria manufacturing management." Wen, Peng, Li, Yuefeng, Polkowski, Lech, Yao, Yiyu, Tsumoto, Shusaku and Wang, Guoyin (ed.) 4th International Conference on Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology (RSKT 2009). Gold Coast, Australia 14 - 16 Jul 2009 Berlin, Germany. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02962-2_58
Tensile tests of phenol formaldehyde SLG reinforced composites: pilot study
Ku, H., Jacobson, W., Trada, M., Cardona, F. and Rogers, D.. 2008. "Tensile tests of phenol formaldehyde SLG reinforced composites: pilot study." Journal of Composite Materials. 42 (26), pp. 2783-2793. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998308096334
Effects of chopped hemp on mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins
Vandenbroucke, A., Cardona, F., Ku, H. and Rogers, D.. 2009. "Effects of chopped hemp on mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins ." Aravinthan, Thiru, Karunasena, Warna (Karu) and Wang, Hao (ed.) 20th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM 20): Futures in Mechanics of Structures and Materials. Toowoomba, Australia 02 - 05 Dec 2008 London, United Kingdom.
Relationship between electrical and mechanical loss tangents of SLG reinforced phenolic composites: pilot study
Ku, H., Cardona, F., Ball, J., Jacobson, W. and Trada, M.. 2008. "Relationship between electrical and mechanical loss tangents of SLG reinforced phenolic composites: pilot study ." Journal of Composite Materials. 42 (19), pp. 2083-2095. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998308094548
Hong Kong Higher Diploma in Engineering and Australian Bachelor of Technology in Engineering: similarities and differences
Morgan, Michael J., Fulcher, Robert and Ku, Harry S.. 1996. "Hong Kong Higher Diploma in Engineering and Australian Bachelor of Technology in Engineering: similarities and differences." Asia Engineer.
Articulation, credit transfer and flexible delivery of engineering degree courses: Australia, Malaysia and Hong Kong
Morgan, M. J., Fulcher, R. L. and Ku, H. S.. 1998. "Articulation, credit transfer and flexible delivery of engineering degree courses: Australia, Malaysia and Hong Kong." Jurutera: Institution of Engineers Malaysia Monthly Bulletin. 1998 (1), pp. 57-67.
Innovative residential schools for engineering degree courses
Morgan, Michael J., Fulcher, Robert and Ku, Harry S.. 1999. "Innovative residential schools for engineering degree courses ." Quarterly Journal of Singapore Institute of Engineering Technologists. 18 (4), pp. 53-58.
Loss tangent for low loss thermoplastic composites
Ku, Harry S., Ball, James A. R., Siores, Elias and Chan, Peter. 1999. "Loss tangent for low loss thermoplastic composites ." Science and Engineering of Composite Materials. 8 (3), pp. 123-128.
Microwave facilities for welding thermoplastic composites and preliminary results
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 1999. "Microwave facilities for welding thermoplastic composites and preliminary results." Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy. 34 (4), pp. 195-205.
Variable frequency microwave (VFM) processing facilities and application in processing thermoplastic matrix composites
Ku, Harry S., Siu, Fred, Siores, Elias, Ball, James A. R. and Blicblau, A. S.. 2000. "Variable frequency microwave (VFM) processing facilities and application in processing thermoplastic matrix composites ." Lee, W. B. (ed.) IMCC'2000: 9th International Manufacturing Conference in China: Innovation and Technology for the New Millennium. Hong Kong, China 16 - 17 Aug 2000 Hong Kong.
Microwave processing and permittivity measurement of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperature
Ku, Harry S., Ball, James A. R., Siores, Elias and Horsfield, Brendan. 1999. "Microwave processing and permittivity measurement of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperature ." Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 89-90, pp. 419-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00018-7
Weldability and heat affected zone (HAZ) evaluation for high energy rate joining of thermoplastic composites using microwaves
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 1997. "Weldability and heat affected zone (HAZ) evaluation for high energy rate joining of thermoplastic composites using microwaves ." Herszberg, Isreal (ed.) 11th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-11). Gold Coast, Australia 14 - 18 Jul 1997 Cambridge, United Kingdom.
An important step in microwave processing of materials: permittivity measurements of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperatures
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias, Ball, James A. R. and Horsfield, Brendan. 1998. "An important step in microwave processing of materials: permittivity measurements of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperatures." Salem, Sam (ed.) 1998 Pacific Conference on Manufacturing. Brisbane, Australia 18 - 21 Aug 1998 Brisbane, Australia.
Complex permittivity of low loss thermoplastic composites using a resonant cavity method
Ku, Harry S., Ball, James A. R., Siores, Elias and Chan, Peter. 1999. "Complex permittivity of low loss thermoplastic composites using a resonant cavity method ." Massard, Thierry and Vautrin, Alain (ed.) 12th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-12). Paris, France 05 - 09 Jul 1999 Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Characterisation of thermoplastic matrix composites (TPC) using variable frequency micorwave (VFM)
Ku, Harry S., MacRobert, Martin, Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2000. "Characterisation of thermoplastic matrix composites (TPC) using variable frequency micorwave (VFM)." Plastics Rubber and Composites. 29 (6), pp. 285-287.
Variable frequency microwave processing of thermoplastic composites
Ku, Harry S., MacRobert, Martin, Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2000. "Variable frequency microwave processing of thermoplastic composites ." Plastics Rubber and Composites. 29 (6), pp. 278-284.
Investigation by TGA-FTIR of the effect of styrene content and thickness on the UV-curing of vinylester resins
Cardona, F., Rogers, D. and Van Erp, G.. 2007. "Investigation by TGA-FTIR of the effect of styrene content and thickness on the UV-curing of vinylester resins." Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials. 20 (6), pp. 601-615. https://doi.org/10.1177/0892705707083950
Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites: pilot study
Ku, Harry, Rogers, David, Davey, Robert, Cardona, Francisco and Trada, Mohan. 2008. "Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites: pilot study." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 17 (1), pp. 85-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-007-9115-2
Contrast joints of glass-fibre with carbon-fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composite bonded by microwave irradiation
Ku, H. S.. 2008. "Contrast joints of glass-fibre with carbon-fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composite bonded by microwave irradiation." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 22 (1), pp. 69-84. https://doi.org/10.1163/156939308783122760
Processing of composites using variable and fixed frequency microwave facilities
Ku, Harry S. and Yusaf, Talal. 2008. "Processing of composites using variable and fixed frequency microwave facilities." Progress in Electromagnetic Research B. 5, pp. 185-205. https://doi.org/10.2528/PIERB08011304
Shrinkage reduction of thermoset fibre composites during hardening using microwaves irradiation for curing
Ku, Harry S., Van Erp, Gerard, Ball, James A. R., Ayers, Stephen R. and Siu, Fred. 2002. "Shrinkage reduction of thermoset fibre composites during hardening using microwaves irradiation for curing." Wong, S. V., Osman, M. R., Yusuff, R. M. and Ismail, N. (ed.) 2nd World Engineering Congress (WEC 2002). Sarawak, Malaysia 22 - 25 Jul 2002 Malaysia.
An evaluation of fracture toughness of vinyl ester composites cured under microwave conditions
Ku, H., Chan, W. L., Trada, M. and Baddeley, D.. 2007. "An evaluation of fracture toughness of vinyl ester composites cured under microwave conditions." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 16 (6), pp. 741-745. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-007-9104-5
Managing the delivery of 'Manufacturing Processes' in an Australian regional university known for excellence in e-learning
Ross, David and Ku, Harry S.. 2007. "Managing the delivery of 'Manufacturing Processes' in an Australian regional university known for excellence in e-learning ." Delhi Institute of Advanced Studies Technology Review. 4 (1), pp. 46-54.
Relationship between microwave irradiation and constituents of composites during joining process
Ku, H. S., Ball, J. A. R. and Siores, E.. 2000. "Relationship between microwave irradiation and constituents of composites during joining process." Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. 7 (3), pp. 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1080/1023697X.2000.10667833
Applications of microwaves in non-destructive testing
Ku, H. S., Siu, F., Siores, E. and Ball, J. A. R.. 2001. "Applications of microwaves in non-destructive testing." 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (2001). Brisbane, Australia 17 - 21 Sep 2001 Melbourne, Australia.
Studies on polymers and composites from lignin and fiber derived from sugar cane
Doherty, William, Halley, Peter J., Edye, Les, Rogers, David, Cardona, Francisco, Park, Yosup and Woo, Tim. 2007. "Studies on polymers and composites from lignin and fiber derived from sugar cane." Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 18 (8), pp. 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.879
The process of updating engineering management science in an Australian regional university excellence in developing e-learning
Ku, Harry S. and Fulcher, Robert. 2007. "The process of updating engineering management science in an Australian regional university excellence in developing e-learning ." European Journal of Engineering Education. 32 (5), pp. 527-538. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043790701433319
Investigation of the effect of styrene content on the ultimate curing of vinylester resins by TGA-FTIR
Cardona, F., Rogers, D., Davey, S. and Van Erp, G.. 2007. "Investigation of the effect of styrene content on the ultimate curing of vinylester resins by TGA-FTIR." Journal of Composite Materials. 41 (2), pp. 137-152. https://doi.org/10.1177/002199830?063357
Plant based resins for fibre composites
Faigl, Pavel, Rogers, David, Maurin, Romain and Van Erp, Gerard. 2007. "Plant based resins for fibre composites." 4th Annual Composites Australia and Composites CRC Conference (CRC 2007): New Technology Taking Shape. Gold Coast, Australia 19 - 20 Apr 2007 Melbourne, Australia.
Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites post-cured in microwaves
Cardona, F., Ku, H., Pattarachaiyakoop, N., Rogers, D. and Trada, M.. 2007. "Fracture toughness of phenol formaldehyde composites post-cured in microwaves." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 21 (14), pp. 2137-2146. https://doi.org/10.1163/156939307783152867
Characterisation of chip-on-board (COB) encapsulate epoxies used in the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) industry using variable frequency microwave (VFM) facilities
Ku, H. S., Siu, F., Mok, P. L., Siores, E. and Ball, J. A. R.. 2002. "Characterisation of chip-on-board (COB) encapsulate epoxies used in the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) industry using variable frequency microwave (VFM) facilities." Wong, S. V., Osman, M. R., Yusuff, R. M. and Ismail, N. (ed.) 2nd World Engineering Congress (WEC 2002). Sarawak, Malaysia 22 - 25 Jul 2002 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Applications of fixed and variable frequency microwave (VFM) facilities in polymeric materials processing and joining
Ku, H. S., Siu, F., Siores, E. and Ball, J. A. R.. 2002. "Applications of fixed and variable frequency microwave (VFM) facilities in polymeric materials processing and joining ." Wong, S. V., Osman, M. R., Yusuff, R. M. and Ismail, N. (ed.) 2nd World Engineering Congress (WEC 2002). Sarawak, Malaysia 22 - 25 Jul 2002 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Processing of polymer matrix composites using variable frequency microwave (VFM)
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias, Ball, James A. R. and Chan, Peter. 2001. "Processing of polymer matrix composites using variable frequency microwave (VFM) ." Zhang, Yao (ed.) 13th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-13) . Beijing, China 25 - 29 Jun 2001 China.
Contrast joints of glass-fibre with carbon-fibre reinforced polystyrene composite bonded by microwave irradiation
Ku, Harry S.. 2003. "Contrast joints of glass-fibre with carbon-fibre reinforced polystyrene composite bonded by microwave irradiation ." Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. 10 (2), pp. 10-16.
Review - microwave processing of materials: part III
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2001. "Review - microwave processing of materials: part III." Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. 8 (3), pp. 44-50.
Review - microwave processing of materials: part II
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2001. "Review - microwave processing of materials: part II." Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. 8 (3), pp. 38-43.
Review - microwave processing of materials: part I
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2001. "Review - microwave processing of materials: part I." Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. 8 (3), pp. 31-37.
Permittivity measurement of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperature
Ku, Harry S., Horsfield, Brendan, Ball, James A. R. and Siores, Elias. 2001. "Permittivity measurement of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperature." Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy. 36 (2), pp. 101-111.
Applications of fixed and variable frequency microwave (VFM) facilities in polymeric materials processing and joining
Ku, H. S., Siu, F., Siores, E., Ball, J. A. R. and Blicblau, A. S.. 2001. "Applications of fixed and variable frequency microwave (VFM) facilities in polymeric materials processing and joining." 5th Asia Pacific Conference on Materials Processing. Seoul, South Korea 25 Jun 2001 Lausanne, Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00642-2
Heat distribution and thermal analysis of joining thermoplastic composites using microwave energy
Ku, Harry S., Li, Chun Wai and Lee, Kin Fung. 2002. "Heat distribution and thermal analysis of joining thermoplastic composites using microwave energy." Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. Journal. 64 (2), pp. 6-12.
Microwave energy effects on polymer-matrix and fibre reinforcement of composites during bonding process by microwaves
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2002. "Microwave energy effects on polymer-matrix and fibre reinforcement of composites during bonding process by microwaves." Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. Journal. 63 (4), pp. 20-27.
Lap shear strength comparison between two types of random carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded using variable frequency microwaves (VFM) irradiation
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2002. "Lap shear strength comparison between two types of random carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded using variable frequency microwaves (VFM) irradiation." Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing. 9 (6), pp. 353-361.
Joining of thirty three percent by weight random glass fibre reinforced polystyrene using variable frequency microwave
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias, Ball, James A. R. and Taube, Alex. 2002. "Joining of thirty three percent by weight random glass fibre reinforced polystyrene using variable frequency microwave." Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. Journal. 63 (2), pp. 18-24.
Risks involved in curing vinyl ester resins using microwaves irradiation
Ku, Harry S.. 2002. "Risks involved in curing vinyl ester resins using microwaves irradiation." Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing. 10 (2), pp. 97-106.
Productivity improvements through the use of industrial microwave technologies
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias, Taube, Alex and Ball, James A. R.. 2002. "Productivity improvements through the use of industrial microwave technologies." Computers and Industrial Engineering. 42 (2-4), pp. 281-290.
Curing vinyl ester particle-reinforced composites using microwaves
Ku, H.. 2003. "Curing vinyl ester particle-reinforced composites using microwaves." Journal of Composite Materials. 37 (22), pp. 2027-2042. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998303036266
Thermal analysis comparison between two random glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded by adhesives using microwaves: preliminary results
Ku, Harry S., Lee, Kin Fung and Li, Chun Wai. 2003. "Thermal analysis comparison between two random glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded by adhesives using microwaves: preliminary results." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 17 (6), pp. 901-918. https://doi.org/10.1163/156939303322503501
Thermal analysis of joining thermoplastic matrix composites using microwaves
Ku, Harry S., Lee, Kin Fung and Li, Chun Wai. 2003. "Thermal analysis of joining thermoplastic matrix composites using microwaves." Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. 10 (1), pp. 14-20.
Lap shear strength comparison between different random glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded by adhesives using variable frequency microwaves (VFM) irradiation
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias, Ball, James A. R., Taube, Alex and Siu, Fred. 2003. "Lap shear strength comparison between different random glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded by adhesives using variable frequency microwaves (VFM) irradiation." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part L: Journal of Materials, Design and Applications. 217 (1), pp. 65-75.
Joining of thirty three percent by weight random carbon fibre reinforced low density polyethylene using variable frequency microwave
Ku, Harry S.. 2003. "Joining of thirty three percent by weight random carbon fibre reinforced low density polyethylene using variable frequency microwave ." Journal of The Institution of Engineers, Singapore. 43 (1), pp. 20-25.
Thermal analysis of joining Nylon 66 composites using microwave irradiations
Ku, Harry S., Widjaya, Budiman, Lee, Kin Fung and Li, Chun Wai. 2003. "Thermal analysis of joining Nylon 66 composites using microwave irradiations." Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering. 27 (3), pp. 259-278.
Shrinkage reduction of thermoset matrix particle reinforced composites during curing using microwaves irradiation
Ku, Harry S. and Siores, Elias. 2004. "Shrinkage reduction of thermoset matrix particle reinforced composites during curing using microwaves irradiation." Transactions, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. 11 (3), pp. 29-34.
Productivity improvement of composites processing through the use of industrial microwave technologies
Ku, Harry S.. 2006. "Productivity improvement of composites processing through the use of industrial microwave technologies." Progress in Electromagnetics Research (PIER). 66, pp. 267-285. https://doi.org/10.2528/PIER06111901
Young's modulus of vinyl ester composites cured by microwave irradiation: preliminary results
Ku, Harry S., Puttgunta, V. C. and Trada, Mohan. 2006. "Young's modulus of vinyl ester composites cured by microwave irradiation: preliminary results." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 20 (14), pp. 1911-1924. https://doi.org/10.1163/156939306779322675
Mechanical properties of vinyl ester composites cured by microwave irradiation: pilot study
Ku, H., Trada, M. and Puttgunta, V. C.. 2007. "Mechanical properties of vinyl ester composites cured by microwave irradiation: pilot study." Key Engineering Materials. 334-33, pp. 537-540. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.334-335.537
Yield and tensile strength of vinyl ester composites cured by microwaves
Ku, H., Trada, M., Puttgunta, V. C. and Kota, V.. 2007. "Yield and tensile strength of vinyl ester composites cured by microwaves ." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 21 (4), pp. 517-526. https://doi.org/10.1163/156939307780616847
Design of multi-purpose carbide end mill
Ku, Harry S. and Chia, Wee Chong. 2006. "Design of multi-purpose carbide end mill." Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. Journal. 67 (2), pp. 34-40.
Thermal analysis comparison between three random glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded by adhesives using microwaves
Ku, Harry S., Widjaya, Budiman, Lee, Kin Fung and Li, Chun Wai. 2004. "Thermal analysis comparison between three random glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites bonded by adhesives using microwaves ." Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 23 (3), pp. 1443-1460.
Contrast joints of glass-fibre with carbon-fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composite bonded by microwave irradiation
Ku, Harry S.. 2005. "Contrast joints of glass-fibre with carbon-fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composite bonded by microwave irradiation." Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 24 (10), pp. 1035-1049. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684405048203
Application of variable frequency microwave (VFM) to adhesives
Ku, Harry S., Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R.. 2005. "Application of variable frequency microwave (VFM) to adhesives." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. 19 (11), pp. 1467-1484.