A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing

Article


Downs, N. J. and Harrison, S. L.. 2018. "A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing." British Journal of Dermatology. 178 (4), pp. 958-964. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.15938
Article Title

A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing

ERA Journal ID15829
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsDowns, N. J. (Author) and Harrison, S. L. (Author)
Journal TitleBritish Journal of Dermatology
Journal Citation178 (4), pp. 958-964
Number of Pages7
Year2018
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0007-0963
1365-2133
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.15938
Web Address (URL)https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/bjd.15938
Abstract

Background: National standards for clothing designed to protect the wearer from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been implemented in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and the USA. Industry standards reflect the need to protect the skin by covering a considerable proportion of the potentially exposed body surface area (BSA) and by reducing UVR-transmission through fabric (the Ultraviolet Protection Factor; UPF).

Objectives: This research aimed to develop a new index for rating sun-protective clothing that incorporates the BSA coverage of the garment in addition to the UPF of the fabric.

Methods: A mannequin model was fixed to an optical bench and marked with horizontal lines at 1 cm intervals. An algorithm (the Garment Protector Factor; GPF) was developed based on the number of lines visible on the clothed versus unclothed mannequin and the UPF of the garment textile. This data was collected in 2015-16 and analysed in 2016.

Results: The GPF weights fabric UPF by BSA coverage above the minimum required by international sun-protective clothing standards for upper-body, lower-body and full-body garments. GPF increases with BSA coverage of the garment and fabric UPF. Three nominal categories are proposed for the GPF: 0 ≤ GPF < 3 for garments that 'meet' minimum standards; 3 ≤ GPF < 6 for garments providing 'good' sun-protection; and GPF ≥ 6 indicating 'excellent' protection.

Conclusions: Adoption of the proposed rating scheme should encourage manufacturers to design sun-protective garments that exceed the minimum standard for BSA coverage, with positive implications for skin cancer prevention, consumer education and sun-protection awareness.

Keywordssun-protective clothing, GPF, UPF, standard, skin cancer
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020420605. Preventative health care
350505. Occupational and workplace health and safety
519999. Other physical sciences not elsewhere classified
Public Notes

File reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher/author.

Byline AffiliationsFaculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences
James Cook University
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Harrison, Simone and Downs, Nathan. 2015. "Progress towards an industry standard for sun-protective clothing incorporating body coverage." 2nd Global Advances and Controversies in Skin Cancer 2015 (GAC-SC) in association with the 7th UQ/HealthCert Skin Cancer Conference. Brisbane, Australia 29 - 31 Oct 2015 Australia.
Queensland teacher sun survey: measurements and procedures for recording occupational UV exposures in Townsville and Toowoomba
Downs, Nathan, Harrison, Simone and Parisi, Alfio. 2015. "Queensland teacher sun survey: measurements and procedures for recording occupational UV exposures in Townsville and Toowoomba." Townsville Health Symposium 2015. Townsville, Australia 07 - 09 Oct 2015 Australia.
Development of a reproducible evaluation and classification system for sun-protective garments incorporating body surface coverage
Harrison, Simone and Downs, Nathan. 2015. "Development of a reproducible evaluation and classification system for sun-protective garments incorporating body surface coverage." 2015 International Conference on Textile Science and Engineering (CTSE 2015). Suzhou, China 23 - 25 Oct 2015
Classroom teachers and occupational UV exposure characteristics: Toowoomba and Townsville
Downs, Nathan, Harrison, Simone, Garzon Chavez, Daniel and Parisi, Alfio. 2015. "Classroom teachers and occupational UV exposure characteristics: Toowoomba and Townsville." 3rd International Conference on UV and Skin Cancer Prevention 2015. Melbourne, Victoria 07 - 11 Dec 2015
Dosimeter based on 8-Methoxypsoralen for UVA exposures over extended periods
Wainwright, Lisa, Parisi, Alfio V. and Downs, Nathan. 2015. "Dosimeter based on 8-Methoxypsoralen for UVA exposures over extended periods." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology. 148, pp. 246-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.04.012
Development of a reproducible rating system for sun protective clothing that incorporates body surface coverage
Harrison, Simone L. and Downs, Nathan. 2015. "Development of a reproducible rating system for sun protective clothing that incorporates body surface coverage." World Journal of Engineering and Technology. 3, pp. 208-214. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2015.33C031
Solar radiation and the UV index: an application of numerical integration, trigonometric functions, online education and the modelling process
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio, Galligan, Linda, Turner, Joanna, Amar, Abdurazaq, King, Rachel, Ultra, Filipina and Butler, Harry. 2016. "Solar radiation and the UV index: an application of numerical integration, trigonometric functions, online education and the modelling process." International Journal of Research in Education and Science. 2 (1), pp. 179-189.
Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection solar ultraviolet
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio, Butler, Harry, Turner, Joanna and Wainwright, Lisa. 2015. "Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection solar ultraviolet." Photochemistry and Photobiology. 91 (2), pp. 438-449. https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12394
From ultraviolet to Prussian blue: a spectral response for the cyanotype process and a safe educational activity to explain UV exposure for all ages
Turner, J., Parisi, A. V., Downs, N. and Lynch, M.. 2014. "From ultraviolet to Prussian blue: a spectral response for the cyanotype process and a safe educational activity to explain UV exposure for all ages." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 13 (12), pp. 1753-1764. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4pp00166d
Ultraviolet exposure measurements on a coral reef by application of polyphenylene oxide film dosimeters
Downs, Nathan J., Schouten, Peter W. and Parisi, Alfio V.. 2012. "Ultraviolet exposure measurements on a coral reef by application of polyphenylene oxide film dosimeters." Balenovic, Damijan and Stimac, Emilije (ed.) Radiation exposure: sources, impact and reduction strategies. Hauppauge, NY. United States. Nova Science Publishers. pp. 189-198
Evaluation of the cloudy sky solar UVA radiation exposures
Parisi, A. V., Downs, N. and Turner, J.. 2014. "Evaluation of the cloudy sky solar UVA radiation exposures." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology. 138, pp. 141-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.05.012
Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results
Downs, N. J., Parisi, A. V. and Igoe, D.. 2014. "Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology. 131, pp. 84-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.01.012
Actinic exposure film dosimetry: indicators of occupational exposure risk for office workers and school teachers
Downs, N., Parisi, A., Igoe, D., Wainwright, L. and Butler, H.. 2013. "Actinic exposure film dosimetry: indicators of occupational exposure risk for office workers and school teachers." Byrne, Scott and Chen, Min (ed.) 6th Asia & Oceania Conference on Photobiology (AOCP 2013): Life on a Sun-Drenched Planet. Sydney, Australia 10 - 13 Nov 2013
Seasonal variations in the subsurface ultraviolet-B on an inshore Pacific coral reef ecosystem
Downs, Nathan J., Schouten, Peter W. and Parisi, Alfio V.. 2013. "Seasonal variations in the subsurface ultraviolet-B on an inshore Pacific coral reef ecosystem." Photochemistry and Photobiology. 89 (5), pp. 1234-1243. https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12101
Making small-scale classroom greenhouse gas flux calculations using a handmade gas capture hood
Schouten, Peter W., Sharma, Ashok, Burn, Stewart, Goodman, Nigel, Parisi, Alfio, Downs, Nathan and Lemckert, Charles. 2013. "Making small-scale classroom greenhouse gas flux calculations using a handmade gas capture hood." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 59 (1), pp. 48-53.
Dosimetric investigation of the solar erythemal UV radiation protection provided by beards and moustaches
Parisi, A. V., Turnbull, D. J., Downs, N. and Smith, D.. 2012. "Dosimetric investigation of the solar erythemal UV radiation protection provided by beards and moustaches." Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 150 (3), pp. 278-282. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncr418
A practical science investigation for middle school students: designing a simple cost effective chemical solar radiation dosimeter
Downs, Nathan, Larsen, Kim, Parisi, Alfio, Schouten, Peter and Brennan, Chris. 2012. "A practical science investigation for middle school students: designing a simple cost effective chemical solar radiation dosimeter." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 58 (1), pp. 48-51.
Determination of the usage of shade structures via a dosimetry technique
Parisi, Alfio V., Eley, Robert and Downs, Nathan. 2012. "Determination of the usage of shade structures via a dosimetry technique." Photochemistry and Photobiology. 88 (4), pp. 1012-1015. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01111.x
Influence of high levels of cloud cover on vitamin D effective and erythemal solar UV irradiances
Parisi, Alfio V., Turnbull, David J. and Downs, Nathan J.. 2012. "Influence of high levels of cloud cover on vitamin D effective and erythemal solar UV irradiances." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 11 (12), pp. 1855-1859. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2pp25160d
Annual measurement of solar UVB at a reef site using a polyphenylene oxide dosimeter
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio V. and Schouten, Peter. 2012. "Annual measurement of solar UVB at a reef site using a polyphenylene oxide dosimeter." Yellowlees, D. and Hughes, T. P. (ed.) 12th International Coral Reef Symposium. Cairns, Australia 09 - 13 Jul 2012 Townsville, Australia.
Mean exposure fractions of human body solar UV exposure patterns for application in different ambient climates
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2012. "Mean exposure fractions of human body solar UV exposure patterns for application in different ambient climates." Photochemistry and Photobiology. 88 (1), pp. 223-226. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01025.x
Alternative methods for the reduction of evaporation: practical exercises for the science classroom
Schouten, Peter, Putland, Sam, Lemckert, Charles J., Parisi, Alfio V. and Downs, Nathan. 2012. "Alternative methods for the reduction of evaporation: practical exercises for the science classroom." Physics Education. 47 (2), pp. 202-210. https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-9120/47/2/202
Understanding the UVA environment at a sub-tropical site and its consequent impact on human UVA exposure
Kimlin, Michael G., Parisi, Alfio, Sabburg, Jeff and Downs, Nathan. 2002. "Understanding the UVA environment at a sub-tropical site and its consequent impact on human UVA exposure." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 1 (7), pp. 478-482. https://doi.org/10.1039/b200844k
Human UVA exposures estimated from ambient UVA measurements
Kimlin, Michael G., Parisi, Alfio and Downs, Nathan. 2003. "Human UVA exposures estimated from ambient UVA measurements." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 2 (4), pp. 365-369. https://doi.org/10.1039/b207953d
Comparison of human facial UV exposure at high and low latitudes and the potential impact on dermal vitamin D production
Kimlin, M. G., Downs, N. J. and Parisi, A. V.. 2003. "Comparison of human facial UV exposure at high and low latitudes and the potential impact on dermal vitamin D production." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 2 (4), pp. 370-375. https://doi.org/10.1039/b211830k
Variation of the enhanced biologically damaging solar UV due to clouds
Parisi, Alfio and Downs, Nathan. 2004. "Variation of the enhanced biologically damaging solar UV due to clouds." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 3 (7), pp. 643-647. https://doi.org/10.1039/b402035a
Basal and squamous cell carcinoma risks for golfers: an assessment of the influence of tee time for latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio and Schouten, Peter. 2011. "Basal and squamous cell carcinoma risks for golfers: an assessment of the influence of tee time for latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology. 105 (1), pp. 98-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.07.007
Variable wind speed and evaporation rates: a practical and modelling exercise for high school physics and multi-strand science classes
Schouten, Peter, Lemckert, Charles, Parisi, Alfio, Downs, Nathan, Underhill, Ian and Turner, Geoff. 2011. "Variable wind speed and evaporation rates: a practical and modelling exercise for high school physics and multi-strand science classes." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 57 (2), pp. 47-51.
Chemical films and monolayers on the water surface and their interactions with ultraviolet radiation: a pilot investigation
Schouten, Peter, Lemckert, Charles, Turnbull, David, Parisi, Alfio, Downs, Nathan, Underhill, Ian and Turner, Geoff. 2011. "Chemical films and monolayers on the water surface and their interactions with ultraviolet radiation: a pilot investigation." Measurement Science and Technology. 22 (6), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/22/6/065703
Solar UV radiation in schools: issues and risks for children and adolescents
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2011. "Solar UV radiation in schools: issues and risks for children and adolescents." Household and Personal Care Today. 4, pp. 10-12.
Solar ultraviolet radiation incident upon reef snorkelers determined by consideration of the partial immersion of dosimeters in the natural ocean environment
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio and Schouten, Peter. 2011. "Solar ultraviolet radiation incident upon reef snorkelers determined by consideration of the partial immersion of dosimeters in the natural ocean environment." Measurement Science and Technology. 22 (1), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/22/1/015801
Sunlight and ultraviolet radiation
Parisi, Alfio, Schouten, Peter, Turnbull, David J., Turner, Joanna and Downs, Nathan. 2010. "Sunlight and ultraviolet radiation." Tuncer, A. Murat (ed.) Cancer report 2010. Ankara, Turkey. New Hope in Health Foundation.
Lawn bowls and solar ultraviolet radiation in Australia: exposures, risks and potential benefits for the production of vitamin D
Downs, Nathan, Turnbull, David, Parisi, Alfio, Schouten, Peter and Turner, Joanna. 2010. "Lawn bowls and solar ultraviolet radiation in Australia: exposures, risks and potential benefits for the production of vitamin D." AHMR 2010: 5th Australian Health and Medical Research Congress. Melbourne, Australia 14 - 18 Nov 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Techniques for solar dosimetry in different environments
Parisi, Alfio V., Turnbull, David J., Schouten, Peter, Downs, Nathan and Turner, Joanna. 2010. "Techniques for solar dosimetry in different environments." Gao, Wei, Schmoldt, Daniel L. and Slusser, James R. (ed.) UV radiation in global climate change: measurements, modeling and effects on ecosystems. Heidelberg, Germany. Springer. pp. 192-204
Sunlight and solar cells: teaching digital design and communication through the development of a simple monitoring station
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2010. "Sunlight and solar cells: teaching digital design and communication through the development of a simple monitoring station." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 56 (4), pp. 52-58.
Solar UV exposures measured simultaneously to all arbitrarily oriented leaves on a plant
Parisi, Alfio, Schouten, Peter, Downs, Nathan and Turner, Joanna. 2010. "Solar UV exposures measured simultaneously to all arbitrarily oriented leaves on a plant." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology. 99 (2), pp. 87-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2010.02.010
Sun exposure, shade and vitamin D: a practical activity for the Australian climate and curriculum
Turnbull, David, Parisi, Alfio and Downs, Nathan. 2010. "Sun exposure, shade and vitamin D: a practical activity for the Australian climate and curriculum." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 56 (3), pp. 43-45.
Extensions in pen ink dosimetry: ultraviolet calibration applications for primary and secondary schools
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio, Powell, Samantha, Brennan, Chris and Turner, Joanna. 2010. "Extensions in pen ink dosimetry: ultraviolet calibration applications for primary and secondary schools." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 56 (1), pp. 51-56.
Measuring ultraviolet radiation underwater: a practical application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law for high school physics
Schouten, Peter, Parisi, Alfio and Downs, Nathan. 2009. "Measuring ultraviolet radiation underwater: a practical application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law for high school physics." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 55 (4), pp. 50-54.
Measurements of the anatomical distribution of erythemal ultraviolet: a study comparing exposure distribution to the site incidence of solar keratoses, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2009. "Measurements of the anatomical distribution of erythemal ultraviolet: a study comparing exposure distribution to the site incidence of solar keratoses, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 8 (8), pp. 1195-1201. https://doi.org/10.1039/b901741k
Ultraviolet exposures in different playground settings: a cohort study of measurements performed in a school population
Downs, Nathan J. and Parisi, Alfio V.. 2009. "Ultraviolet exposures in different playground settings: a cohort study of measurements performed in a school population." Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine. 25 (4), pp. 196-201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0781.2009.00441.x
Solar UV exposures measured simultaneously to all arbitrarily oriented leaves on a plant
Parisi, A. V., Schouten, P., Downs, N. J. and Turner, J.. 2009. "Solar UV exposures measured simultaneously to all arbitrarily oriented leaves on a plant." MOCA 2009: Our Warming Planet. Montreal, Canada 19 - 29 Jul 2009 Montreal, Canada.
Modelling the environmental and anatomical solar untraviolet distribution in a school playground
Downs, Nathan. 2009. Modelling the environmental and anatomical solar untraviolet distribution in a school playground. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Measurements of the upper body ultraviolet exposure to golfers: non-melanoma skin cancer risk, and the potential benefits of exposure to sunlight
Downs, Nathan, Schouten, Peter, Parisi, Alfio and Turner, Joanna. 2009. "Measurements of the upper body ultraviolet exposure to golfers: non-melanoma skin cancer risk, and the potential benefits of exposure to sunlight." Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine. 25 (6), pp. 317-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0781.2009.00472.x
Using the polyphenylene oxide dosimeter for extended underwater UV measurements
Schouten, Peter, Parisi, Alfio, Turnbull, David J. and Downs, Nathan. 2008. "Using the polyphenylene oxide dosimeter for extended underwater UV measurements." 18th National Congress of the Australian Institute of Physics. Adelaide, Australia 30 Nov - 05 Dec 2008 Parkville, Vic, Australia.
Modelling personal UV exposure in a school playground
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2008. "Modelling personal UV exposure in a school playground." 2008 Australian Health and Medical Research Congress. Brisbane, Australia 16 - 21 Nov 2008 Australia.
Techniques for solar dosimetry in different ecosystems
Parisi, Alfio, Turnbull, David J., Schouten, Peter, Downs, Nathan and Turner, Joanna. 2008. "Techniques for solar dosimetry in different ecosystems." 18th International Congress of Biometeorology (ICB2008). Tokyo 22 - 26 Sep 2008 Milwaukee, United States.
Influence of cloud and solar zenith angle on the diffuse solar erythemal UV short wavelength cut-offs and maximum spectral irradiance wavelengths
Parisi, Alfio V., Turnbull, David J., de Byl, Chris, Schouten, Peter, Turner, Joanna and Downs, Nathan. 2009. "Influence of cloud and solar zenith angle on the diffuse solar erythemal UV short wavelength cut-offs and maximum spectral irradiance wavelengths." Radiation Protection in Australasia. 26 (1), pp. 2-9.
Pen ink as an ultraviolet dosimeter
Downs, Nathan, Turner, Joanna, Parisi, Alfio and Spence, Jenny. 2008. "Pen ink as an ultraviolet dosimeter." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 54 (4), pp. 41-44.
Modelling ultraviolet exposures in a school environment
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio, Turner, Joanna and Turnbull, David. 2008. "Modelling ultraviolet exposures in a school environment." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 7 (6), pp. 700-710. https://doi.org/10.1039/b801685b
Erythemal ultraviolet and Vitamin D effective exposures received by amateur golfers
Schouten, Peter, Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio and Turner, Joanna. 2008. "Erythemal ultraviolet and Vitamin D effective exposures received by amateur golfers." 2008 Australian Health and Medical Research Congress. Brisbane, Australia 16 - 21 Nov 2008 Australia.
Modelling the erythemally effective UV to students in a school environment
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2008. "Modelling the erythemally effective UV to students in a school environment." 18th National Congress of the Australian Institute of Physics. Adelaide, Australia 30 Nov - 05 Dec 2008 Parkville, Vic, Australia.
Golfers and UV exposures: an application of miniaturised polysulphone dosimetry
Downs, Nathan, Schouten, Peter, Parisi, Alfio and Turner, Joanna. 2008. "Golfers and UV exposures: an application of miniaturised polysulphone dosimetry." 18th National Congress of the Australian Institute of Physics. Adelaide, Australia 30 Nov - 05 Dec 2008 Parkville, Vic, Australia.
Imaging the environmental ultraviolet
Downs, N. J. and Parisi, A. V.. 2008. "Imaging the environmental ultraviolet." Australian Physics. 45 (4), pp. 132-137.
Measurement variation and the factors influencing the UV index
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio, McDonnell, Brendan and Thornton, Peter. 2008. "Measurement variation and the factors influencing the UV index." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 54 (2), pp. 8-13.
Patterns in surface distribution of human exposure to solar ultraviolet
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2007. "Patterns in surface distribution of human exposure to solar ultraviolet." Gröbner, Julian (ed.) Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos / World Radiation Center: A Conference Celebrating One Century of UV Radiation Research. Davos, Switzerland 18 - 20 Sep 2007 Davos, Switzerland.
Influence of summer daylight saving time on scattered erythemal solar ultraviolet exposures
Parisi, A. V., Turner, J., Turnbull, D. J., Schouten, P. and Downs, N.. 2008. "Influence of summer daylight saving time on scattered erythemal solar ultraviolet exposures." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology. 91 (1), pp. 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2008.01.010
Mapping of the solar ultraviolet exposures to the human face
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2006. "Mapping of the solar ultraviolet exposures to the human face." 31st Annual Conference Australasian Radiation Protection Society. Coogee, Australia 27 - 29 Nov 2006
Contoured exposure assessment of biologically effective solar ultraviolet radiation
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2007. "Contoured exposure assessment of biologically effective solar ultraviolet radiation." 32nd Annual Conference of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS 2007). Brisbane, Australia 22 - 24 Oct 2007
Patterns in the received facial UV exposure of school children measured at a subtropical latitude
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2008. "Patterns in the received facial UV exposure of school children measured at a subtropical latitude." Photochemistry and Photobiology. 84 (1), pp. 90-100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2007.00203.x
Variations in the erythemal ultraviolet exposure to the human facial region
Downs, Nathan, Parisi, Alfio and Kimlin, Michael G.. 2001. "Variations in the erythemal ultraviolet exposure to the human facial region." 26th Annual Conference of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society. Gold Coast, Australia 18 - 20 Sep 2001
Comparing variations in the UV facial exposure received by school children in south-east Queensland
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2006. "Comparing variations in the UV facial exposure received by school children in south-east Queensland." 17th National Congress of the Australian Institute of Physics. Brisbane, Australia 03 - 08 Dec 2006 Parkville, Vic, Australia.
Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet
Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio. 2007. "Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet." Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 6 (1), pp. 90-98. https://doi.org/10.1039/b607553c
Modelling human facial UV exposure
Downs, Nathan J., Kimlin, Michael G., Parisi, Alfio V. and McGrath, John J.. 2001. "Modelling human facial UV exposure." Radiation Protection in Australasia. 17 (3), pp. 103-109.
Measured and modelled contributions to UV exposures by the albedo of surfaces in an urban environment
Parisi, Alfio, Sabburg, Jeff, Kimlin, Michael G. and Downs, Nathan. 2003. "Measured and modelled contributions to UV exposures by the albedo of surfaces in an urban environment." Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 76 (3-4), pp. 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-003-0012-9
Effect of clouds on the diffuse component of the solar terrestrial erythemal UV
Turnbull, David J., Parisi, Alfio and Downs, Nathan. 2006. "Effect of clouds on the diffuse component of the solar terrestrial erythemal UV." Radiation Protection in Australasia. 23 (1), pp. 2-9.
Cloud cover and horizontal plane eye damaging solar UV exposures
Parisi, A. V. and Downs, N.. 2004. "Cloud cover and horizontal plane eye damaging solar UV exposures." International Journal of Biometeorology: the description, causes, and implications of climatic change. 49, pp. 130-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-004-0213-7