Belowground ecology of scarabs feeding on grass roots: current knowledge and future directions for management in Australasia

Article


Frew, Adam, Barnett, Kirk, Nielsen, Uffe N., Riegler, Markus and Johnson, Scott N.. 2016. "Belowground ecology of scarabs feeding on grass roots: current knowledge and future directions for management in Australasia." Frontiers in Plant Science. 7 (321), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00321
Article Title

Belowground ecology of scarabs feeding on grass roots: current knowledge and future directions for management in Australasia

ERA Journal ID200524
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsFrew, Adam (Author), Barnett, Kirk (Author), Nielsen, Uffe N. (Author), Riegler, Markus (Author) and Johnson, Scott N. (Author)
Journal TitleFrontiers in Plant Science
Journal Citation7 (321), pp. 1-15
Number of Pages15
Year2016
PublisherFrontiers Media SA
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
ISSN1664-462X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00321
Web Address (URL)https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00321/full
Abstract

Many scarab beetles spend the majority of their lives belowground as larvae, feeding on grass roots. Many of these larvae are significant pests, causing damage to crops and grasslands. Damage by larvae of the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum), for example, can cause financial losses of up to AU$40 million annually to the Australian sugarcane industry. We review the ecology of some scarab larvae in Australasia, focusing on three subfamilies; Dynastinae, Rutelinae, and Melolonthinae, containing key pest species. Although considerable research on the control of some scarab pests has been carried out in Australasia, for some species, the basic biology and ecology remains largely unexplored. We synthesize what is known about these scarab larvae and outline key knowledge gaps to highlight future research directions with a view to improve pest management. We do this by presenting an overview of the scarab larval host plants and feeding behavior; the impacts of abiotic (temperature, moisture, and fertilization) and biotic (pathogens, natural enemies, and microbial symbionts) factors on scarab larvae and conclude with how abiotic and biotic factors can be applied in agriculture for improved pest management, suggesting future research directions. Several host plant microbial symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytes, can improve plant tolerance to scarabs and reduce larval performance, which have shown promise for use in pest management. In addition to this, several microbial scarab pathogens have been isolated for commercial use in pest management with particularly promising results. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae caused a 50% reduction in cane beetle larvae while natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes have also shown potential as a biocontrol. Key abiotic factors, such as soil water, play an important role in affecting both scarab larvae and these control agents and should therefore feature in future multi-factorial experiments. Continued research should focus on filling knowledge gaps including host plant preferences, attractive trap crops, and naturally occurring pathogens that are locally adapted, to achieve high efficacy in the field.

KeywordsAnoplognathus; belowground herbivory; Cyclocephala signaticollis; Dermolepida albohirtum; Heteronychus arator; pasture; pest management; Sericesthis nigrolineata
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020310308. Terrestrial ecology
410299. Ecological applications not elsewhere classified
410603. Soil biology
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Western Sydney
Western Sydney University
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/q56x4/belowground-ecology-of-scarabs-feeding-on-grass-roots-current-knowledge-and-future-directions-for-management-in-australasia

Download files


Published Version
Frew_etal_2016.pdf
License: CC BY 4.0
File access level: Anyone

  • 148
    total views
  • 73
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 2
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Belowground crop responses to root herbivory are associated with the community structure of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Ng, Anna, Wilson, Bree A.L. and Frew, Adam. 2023. "Belowground crop responses to root herbivory are associated with the community structure of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi." Applied Soil Ecology. 185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2022.104797
Friends to the rescue: using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to future-proof Australian agriculture
Heuck, Meike Katharina, Birnbaum, Christina and Frew, Adam. 2023. "Friends to the rescue: using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to future-proof Australian agriculture." Microbiology Australia. 44 (1), pp. 5-8. https://doi.org/10.1071/MA23002
Host filtering, not competitive exclusion, may be the main driver of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly under high phosphorus
Frew, Adam, Heuck, Meike and Aguilar-Trigueros, Carlos A.. 2023. "Host filtering, not competitive exclusion, may be the main driver of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly under high phosphorus." Functional Ecology. 37 (7), pp. 1856-1869. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.14349
Australia offers unique insight into the ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: An opportunity not to be lost
Frew, Adam and Aguilar-Trigueros, Carlos A.. 2023. "Australia offers unique insight into the ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: An opportunity not to be lost." Austral Ecology: a journal of ecology in the Southern Hemisphere. 48 (8), pp. 1713-1720. https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.13451
Water availability alters the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and determines plant mycorrhizal benefit
Frew, Adam. 2023. "Water availability alters the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and determines plant mycorrhizal benefit." Plants, People, Planet. 5 (5), pp. 683-689. https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp3.10372
Silicon accumulation suppresses arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon
Johnson, Scott N., Powell, Jef R., Frew, Adam and Cibils–Stewart, Ximena. 2022. "Silicon accumulation suppresses arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon." Plant and Soil: international journal on plant-soil relationships. 477 (1-2), pp. 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-022-05463-9
Root herbivory reduces species richness and alters community structure of root-colonising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Frew, Adam. 2022. "Root herbivory reduces species richness and alters community structure of root-colonising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2022.108723
Plant herbivore protection by arbuscular mycorrhizas: a role for fungal diversity?
Frew, Adam, Antunes, Pedro M., Cameron, Duncan D., Hartley, Susan E., Johnson, Scott N., Rillig, Matthias C. and Bennett, Alison E.. 2022. "Plant herbivore protection by arbuscular mycorrhizas: a role for fungal diversity?" New Phytologist. 233 (3), pp. 1022-1031. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17781
Aboveground herbivory suppresses the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, reducing plant phosphorus uptake
Frew, Adam. 2021. "Aboveground herbivory suppresses the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, reducing plant phosphorus uptake." Applied Soil Ecology. 168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2021.104133
Different mycorrhizal fungal communities differentially affect plant phenolic-based resistance to insect herbivory
Frew, Adam and Wilson, Bree A. L.. 2021. "Different mycorrhizal fungal communities differentially affect plant phenolic-based resistance to insect herbivory." Rhizosphere. 19, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rhisph.2021.100365
Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their role in moderating plant allometric partitioning
Frew, Adam, Price, Jodi N., Oja, Jane, Vasar, Martti and Opik, Maarja. 2021. "Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their role in moderating plant allometric partitioning." Mycorrhiza. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-021-01025-6
Targeted plant defense: silicon conserves hormonal defense signaling impacting chewing but not fluid‐feeding herbivores
Johnson, Scott N., Hartley, Susan E., Ryalls, James M. W., Frew, Adam and Hall, Casey R.. 2021. "Targeted plant defense: silicon conserves hormonal defense signaling impacting chewing but not fluid‐feeding herbivores." Ecology. 102 (3), pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3250
Increasing species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefits some plants, but not others
Frew, Adam. 2019. "Increasing species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefits some plants, but not others." 2019 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2019). Launceston, Australia 24 - 29 Nov 2019
How fungi’s knack for networking boosts ecological recovery after bushfires
Frew, Adam, Le Brocque, Andy, Nimmo, Dale, Egidi, Eleonora, Price, Jodi and Greenwood, Leanne. 2020. "How fungi’s knack for networking boosts ecological recovery after bushfires." The Conversation. 20 March 2020, pp. 1-8.
Contrasting effects of commercial and native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants on plant biomass allocation, nutrients, and phenolics
Frew, Adam. 2021. "Contrasting effects of commercial and native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants on plant biomass allocation, nutrients, and phenolics." Plants, People, Planet. 3 (5), pp. 536-540. https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp3.10128
Aboveground resource allocation in response to root herbivory as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2020. "Aboveground resource allocation in response to root herbivory as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis." Plant and Soil: international journal on plant-soil relationships. 447 (1-2), pp. 463-473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-04399-x
Fire Effects on Soil Properties by P Pereira, J Mataix-Solera, X Ubeda, G Reain & A Cerda
Frew, Adam. 2020. "Fire Effects on Soil Properties by P Pereira, J Mataix-Solera, X Ubeda, G Reain & A Cerda." Austral Ecology: a journal of ecology in the Southern Hemisphere. 45, pp. 659-659. https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12843
‘Soil probiotics’ promise bigger, healthier crops, but there’s a downside
Frew, Adam. 2018. "‘Soil probiotics’ promise bigger, healthier crops, but there’s a downside." The Conversation. 23 October 2018, pp. 1-9.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote silicon accumulation in plant roots, reducing the impacts of root herbivory
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Allsopp, Peter G., Sallam, Nader and Johnson, Scott N.. 2017. "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote silicon accumulation in plant roots, reducing the impacts of root herbivory." Plant and Soil: international journal on plant-soil relationships. 419 (1-2), pp. 423-433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3357-z
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity increases growth and phosphorus uptake in C3 and C4 crop plants
Frew, Adam. 2019. "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity increases growth and phosphorus uptake in C3 and C4 crop plants." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 135, pp. 248-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.05.015
Mycorrhizal‐mediated plant–herbivore interactions in a high CO2 world
Frew, Adam and Price, Jodi N.. 2019. "Mycorrhizal‐mediated plant–herbivore interactions in a high CO2 world." Functional Ecology. 33 (8), pp. 1376-1385. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13347
Silicon reduces herbivore performance via different mechanisms, depending on host–plant species
Frew, Adam, Weston, Leslie A. and Gurr, Geoff M.. 2019. "Silicon reduces herbivore performance via different mechanisms, depending on host–plant species." Austral Ecology: a journal of ecology in the Southern Hemisphere. 44 (6), pp. 1092-1097. https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12767
Dryland management regimes alter forest habitats and understory arthropod communities
Johnson, S. N., Lopaticki, G., Aslam, T. J., Barnett, K., Frew, A., Hartley, S. E., Hiltpold, I., Nielsen, U. N. and Ryalls, J. M. W.. 2018. "Dryland management regimes alter forest habitats and understory arthropod communities." Annals of Applied Biology. 172 (3), pp. 282-294. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12419
Benefits from below: silicon supplementation maintains legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios
Johnson, Scott N., Ryalls, James M. W., Gherlenda, Andrew N., Frew, Adam and Hartley, Susan E.. 2018. "Benefits from below: silicon supplementation maintains legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios." Frontiers in Plant Science. 9, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00202
The role of silicon in plant biology: a paradigm shift in research approach
Frew, Adam, Weston, Leslie A., Reynolds, Olivia L. and Gurr, Geoff M.. 2018. "The role of silicon in plant biology: a paradigm shift in research approach." Annals of Botany. 121 (7), pp. 1265-1273. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcy009
Mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient uptake but disarm defences in plant roots, promoting plant-parasitic nematode populations
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Glauser, Gaetan, Bennett, Alison E. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2018. "Mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient uptake but disarm defences in plant roots, promoting plant-parasitic nematode populations." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 126, pp. 123-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.08.019
Silicon‐induced root nodulation and synthesis of essential amino acids in a legume is associated with higher herbivore abundance
Johnson, Scott N., Hartley, Susan E., Ryalls, James M. W., Frew, Adam, DeGabriel, Jane L., Duncan, Michael and Gherlenda, Andrew G.. 2017. "Silicon‐induced root nodulation and synthesis of essential amino acids in a legume is associated with higher herbivore abundance." Functional Ecology. 31 (10), pp. 1903-1909. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12893
Do eucalypt plantation management practices create understory reservoirs of scarab beetle pests in the soil?
Frew, Adam, Nielsen, Uffe N., Riegler, Markus and Johnson, Scott N.. 2013. "Do eucalypt plantation management practices create understory reservoirs of scarab beetle pests in the soil?" Forest Ecology and Management. 306, pp. 275-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.06.051
Host plant colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stimulates immune function whereas high root silicon concentrations diminish growth in a soil-dwelling herbivore
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Hiltpold, Ivan, Allsopp, Peter G., Sallam, Nader and Johnson, Scott N.. 2017. "Host plant colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stimulates immune function whereas high root silicon concentrations diminish growth in a soil-dwelling herbivore." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 112, pp. 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.05.008
Increased root herbivory under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is reversed by silicon‐based plant defences
Frew, Adam, Allsopp, Peter G., Gherlenda, Andrew G. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2017. "Increased root herbivory under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is reversed by silicon‐based plant defences." Journal of Applied Ecology. 54 (5), pp. 1310-1319. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12822
New frontiers in belowground ecology for plant protection from root-feeding insects
Johnson, Scott N., Benefer, Carly M., Frew, Adam, Griffiths, Bryan S., Hartley, Susan E., Karley, Alison J., Rasmann, Sergio, Schumann, Mario, Sonnemann, Illja and Robert, Christelle A. M.. 2016. "New frontiers in belowground ecology for plant protection from root-feeding insects." Applied Soil Ecology. 108, pp. 96-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.07.017
Trade-offs between silicon and phenolic defenses may explain enhanced performance of root herbivores on phenolic-rich plants
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Sallam, Nader, Allsopp, Peter G. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2016. "Trade-offs between silicon and phenolic defenses may explain enhanced performance of root herbivores on phenolic-rich plants." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 42 (8), pp. 768-771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-016-0734-7
The importance of testing multiple environmental factors in legume–insect research: replication, reviewers, and rebuttal
Johnson, Scott N., Gherlenda, Andrew N., Frew, Adam and Ryalls, James M. W.. 2016. "The importance of testing multiple environmental factors in legume–insect research: replication, reviewers, and rebuttal." Frontiers in Plant Science. 7 (489), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00489