Friends to the rescue: using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to future-proof Australian agriculture

Article


Heuck, Meike Katharina, Birnbaum, Christina and Frew, Adam. 2023. "Friends to the rescue: using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to future-proof Australian agriculture." Microbiology Australia. 44 (1), pp. 5-8. https://doi.org/10.1071/MA23002
Article Title

Friends to the rescue: using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to future-proof Australian agriculture

ERA Journal ID40629
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsHeuck, Meike Katharina, Birnbaum, Christina and Frew, Adam
Journal TitleMicrobiology Australia
Journal Citation44 (1), pp. 5-8
Number of Pages4
Year2023
PublisherCSIRO Publishing
Place of PublicationAustralia
ISSN1324-4272
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1071/MA23002
Web Address (URL)https://www.publish.csiro.au/ma/MA23002
AbstractWith a rising global population and the challenges of climate change, there is an increasing need to find solutions to maintain crop yields in an ecologically sustainable way. Although many studies have focussed on this issue, comparatively few are conducted in the southern hemisphere. This is worrisome because the geographical and geomorphological conditions within Australia differ greatly from the northern hemisphere. To ensure food security, approaches can rely on conventional agricultural methods as well as commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal inoculants. Both approaches lack the capacity to be successful in the long term or could have unknown negative effects on the naturally occurring microbial communities. We advocate for a sustainable and holistic approach that combines the effective management of functionally diverse AM fungal communities with precision farming techniques while integrating landscape elements into agricultural fields. In addition, landowners and scientists should collaborate and communicate their work with industry and government to take forward the shift to a more-sustainable agriculture. In this way, we will be better able to secure our food production while restoring our soil ecosystems.
Keywordsarbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Australia; conventional agriculture; food security; multifunctionality
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020310703. Microbial ecology
Byline AffiliationsWestern Sydney University
School of Agriculture and Environmental Science
Centre for Crop Health
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/z25yz/friends-to-the-rescue-using-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-to-future-proof-australian-agriculture

Download files


Published Version
MA23002.pdf
License: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
File access level: Anyone

  • 21
    total views
  • 21
    total downloads
  • 3
    views this month
  • 3
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Global Diversity and Distribution of Rhizosphere and Root-Associated Fungi in Coastal Wetlands: A Systematic Review
Lumibao, Candice Y., Harris, Georgia and Birnbaum, Christina. 2024. "Global Diversity and Distribution of Rhizosphere and Root-Associated Fungi in Coastal Wetlands: A Systematic Review." Estuaries and Coasts. 47 (4), pp. 905-916. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-024-01343-w
Integrating soil microbial communities into fundamental ecology, conservation, and restoration: examples from Australia
Birnbaum, Christina, Dearnaley, John, Egidi, Eleonora, Frew, Adam, Hopkins, Anna, Powell, Jeff, Aguilar-Trigueros, Carlos, Liddicoat, Craig, Albornoz, Felipe, Heuck, Meike K., Dadzie, Frederick A., Florence, Luke, Singh, Pankaj, Mansfield, Tomas, Rajapaksha, Kumari, Stewart, Jana, Rallo, Paola, Peddle, Shawn D. and Chiarenza, Giancarlo. 2024. "Integrating soil microbial communities into fundamental ecology, conservation, and restoration: examples from Australia." New Phytologist. 241 (3), pp. 974-981. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.19440
Herbivory-driven shifts in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly: increased fungal competition and plant phosphorus benefits
Frew, Adam, Opik, Maarja, Oja, Jane, Vahter, Tanel, Hiiesalu, Inga and Aguilar-Trigueros, Carlos A.. 2024. "Herbivory-driven shifts in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly: increased fungal competition and plant phosphorus benefits." New Phytologist. 241 (5), pp. 1891-1899. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.19474
From invisible to visible: Terrestrial biodiversity assessments and conservation policies must include soil organisms in Australia
Birnbaum, Christina and Dearnaley, John. 2023. "From invisible to visible: Terrestrial biodiversity assessments and conservation policies must include soil organisms in Australia." Science. 381 (6658). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.adg7870
Belowground crop responses to root herbivory are associated with the community structure of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Ng, Anna, Wilson, Bree A.L. and Frew, Adam. 2023. "Belowground crop responses to root herbivory are associated with the community structure of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi." Applied Soil Ecology. 185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2022.104797
Host filtering, not competitive exclusion, may be the main driver of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly under high phosphorus
Frew, Adam, Heuck, Meike and Aguilar-Trigueros, Carlos A.. 2023. "Host filtering, not competitive exclusion, may be the main driver of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly under high phosphorus." Functional Ecology. 37 (7), pp. 1856-1869. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.14349
Australia offers unique insight into the ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: An opportunity not to be lost
Frew, Adam and Aguilar-Trigueros, Carlos A.. 2023. "Australia offers unique insight into the ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: An opportunity not to be lost." Austral Ecology: a journal of ecology in the Southern Hemisphere. 48 (8), pp. 1713-1720. https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.13451
Water availability alters the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and determines plant mycorrhizal benefit
Frew, Adam. 2023. "Water availability alters the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and determines plant mycorrhizal benefit." Plants, People, Planet. 5 (5), pp. 683-689. https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp3.10372
Aiding coastal wetland restoration via the belowground soil microbiome: an overview
Birnbaum, Christina and Trevathan-Tackett, Stacey M.. 2023. "Aiding coastal wetland restoration via the belowground soil microbiome: an overview." Restoration Ecology. 31 (7). https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13824
Degradation Reduces Microbial Richness and Alters Microbial Functions in an Australian Peatland
Birnbaum, Christina, Wood, Jennifer, Lilleskov, Erik, Lamit, Louis James, Shannon, James, Brewer, Matthew and Grover, Samantha. 2022. "Degradation Reduces Microbial Richness and Alters Microbial Functions in an Australian Peatland." Microbial Ecology: an international journal. 85 (3), pp. 875-891. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-022-02071-z
Silicon accumulation suppresses arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon
Johnson, Scott N., Powell, Jef R., Frew, Adam and Cibils–Stewart, Ximena. 2022. "Silicon accumulation suppresses arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon." Plant and Soil: international journal on plant-soil relationships. 477 (1-2), pp. 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-022-05463-9
Root herbivory reduces species richness and alters community structure of root-colonising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Frew, Adam. 2022. "Root herbivory reduces species richness and alters community structure of root-colonising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2022.108723
Plant herbivore protection by arbuscular mycorrhizas: a role for fungal diversity?
Frew, Adam, Antunes, Pedro M., Cameron, Duncan D., Hartley, Susan E., Johnson, Scott N., Rillig, Matthias C. and Bennett, Alison E.. 2022. "Plant herbivore protection by arbuscular mycorrhizas: a role for fungal diversity?" New Phytologist. 233 (3), pp. 1022-1031. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17781
Aboveground herbivory suppresses the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, reducing plant phosphorus uptake
Frew, Adam. 2021. "Aboveground herbivory suppresses the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, reducing plant phosphorus uptake." Applied Soil Ecology. 168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2021.104133
Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change in Coastal Wetlands: Will Climate Change Influence Wetlands by Affecting Plant Invasion?
Birnbaum, Christina, Waryszak, Pawel and Farrer, Emily C.. 2021. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change in Coastal Wetlands: Will Climate Change Influence Wetlands by Affecting Plant Invasion? " Wetlands: the journal of the Society of Wetland Scientists. 41 (5). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-021-01456-z
Different mycorrhizal fungal communities differentially affect plant phenolic-based resistance to insect herbivory
Frew, Adam and Wilson, Bree A. L.. 2021. "Different mycorrhizal fungal communities differentially affect plant phenolic-based resistance to insect herbivory." Rhizosphere. 19, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rhisph.2021.100365
Plant and microbial impacts of an invasive species vary across an environmental gradient
Farrer, Emily C., Birnbaum, Christina, Waryszak, Pawel, Halbrook, Susannah R., Brady, Monica V., Bumby, Caitlin R., Candaele, Helena, Kulick, Nelle K., Lee, Sean F. H., Schroeder, Carolyn S., Smith, McKenzie K. H. and Wilber, William. 2021. "Plant and microbial impacts of an invasive species vary across an environmental gradient ." Journal of Ecology. 109 (5), pp. 2163-2176. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13629
Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their role in moderating plant allometric partitioning
Frew, Adam, Price, Jodi N., Oja, Jane, Vasar, Martti and Opik, Maarja. 2021. "Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their role in moderating plant allometric partitioning." Mycorrhiza. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-021-01025-6
Targeted plant defense: silicon conserves hormonal defense signaling impacting chewing but not fluid‐feeding herbivores
Johnson, Scott N., Hartley, Susan E., Ryalls, James M. W., Frew, Adam and Hall, Casey R.. 2021. "Targeted plant defense: silicon conserves hormonal defense signaling impacting chewing but not fluid‐feeding herbivores." Ecology. 102 (3), pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3250
Increasing species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefits some plants, but not others
Frew, Adam. 2019. "Increasing species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefits some plants, but not others." 2019 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2019). Launceston, Australia 24 - 29 Nov 2019
How fungi’s knack for networking boosts ecological recovery after bushfires
Frew, Adam, Le Brocque, Andy, Nimmo, Dale, Egidi, Eleonora, Price, Jodi and Greenwood, Leanne. 2020. "How fungi’s knack for networking boosts ecological recovery after bushfires." The Conversation. 20 March 2020, pp. 1-8.
Phragmites australis Associates with Belowground Fungal Communities Characterized by High Diversity and Pathogen Abundance
Schroeder, Carolyn S., Halbrook, Susannah, Birnbaum, Christina, Waryszak, Pawel, Wilber, William and Farrer, Emily C.. 2020. "Phragmites australis Associates with Belowground Fungal Communities Characterized by High Diversity and Pathogen Abundance ." Diversity. 12 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/d12090363
Contrasting effects of commercial and native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants on plant biomass allocation, nutrients, and phenolics
Frew, Adam. 2021. "Contrasting effects of commercial and native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants on plant biomass allocation, nutrients, and phenolics." Plants, People, Planet. 3 (5), pp. 536-540. https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp3.10128
Availability of soil mutualists may not limit non-native Acacia invasion but could increase their impact on native soil communities
Wandrag, Elizabeth M., Birnbaum, Christina, Klock, Metha M., Barrett, Luke G. and Thrall, Peter H.. 2020. "Availability of soil mutualists may not limit non-native Acacia invasion but could increase their impact on native soil communities ." Journal of Applied Ecology. 57 (4), pp. 786-793. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13577
Aboveground resource allocation in response to root herbivory as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2020. "Aboveground resource allocation in response to root herbivory as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis." Plant and Soil: international journal on plant-soil relationships. 447 (1-2), pp. 463-473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-04399-x
Fire Effects on Soil Properties by P Pereira, J Mataix-Solera, X Ubeda, G Reain & A Cerda
Frew, Adam. 2020. "Fire Effects on Soil Properties by P Pereira, J Mataix-Solera, X Ubeda, G Reain & A Cerda." Austral Ecology: a journal of ecology in the Southern Hemisphere. 45, pp. 659-659. https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12843
‘Soil probiotics’ promise bigger, healthier crops, but there’s a downside
Frew, Adam. 2018. "‘Soil probiotics’ promise bigger, healthier crops, but there’s a downside." The Conversation. 23 October 2018, pp. 1-9.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote silicon accumulation in plant roots, reducing the impacts of root herbivory
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Allsopp, Peter G., Sallam, Nader and Johnson, Scott N.. 2017. "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote silicon accumulation in plant roots, reducing the impacts of root herbivory." Plant and Soil: international journal on plant-soil relationships. 419 (1-2), pp. 423-433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3357-z
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity increases growth and phosphorus uptake in C3 and C4 crop plants
Frew, Adam. 2019. "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity increases growth and phosphorus uptake in C3 and C4 crop plants." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 135, pp. 248-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.05.015
Mycorrhizal‐mediated plant–herbivore interactions in a high CO2 world
Frew, Adam and Price, Jodi N.. 2019. "Mycorrhizal‐mediated plant–herbivore interactions in a high CO2 world." Functional Ecology. 33 (8), pp. 1376-1385. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13347
Silicon reduces herbivore performance via different mechanisms, depending on host–plant species
Frew, Adam, Weston, Leslie A. and Gurr, Geoff M.. 2019. "Silicon reduces herbivore performance via different mechanisms, depending on host–plant species." Austral Ecology: a journal of ecology in the Southern Hemisphere. 44 (6), pp. 1092-1097. https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12767
Dryland management regimes alter forest habitats and understory arthropod communities
Johnson, S. N., Lopaticki, G., Aslam, T. J., Barnett, K., Frew, A., Hartley, S. E., Hiltpold, I., Nielsen, U. N. and Ryalls, J. M. W.. 2018. "Dryland management regimes alter forest habitats and understory arthropod communities." Annals of Applied Biology. 172 (3), pp. 282-294. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12419
Benefits from below: silicon supplementation maintains legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios
Johnson, Scott N., Ryalls, James M. W., Gherlenda, Andrew N., Frew, Adam and Hartley, Susan E.. 2018. "Benefits from below: silicon supplementation maintains legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios." Frontiers in Plant Science. 9, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00202
The role of silicon in plant biology: a paradigm shift in research approach
Frew, Adam, Weston, Leslie A., Reynolds, Olivia L. and Gurr, Geoff M.. 2018. "The role of silicon in plant biology: a paradigm shift in research approach." Annals of Botany. 121 (7), pp. 1265-1273. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcy009
Mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient uptake but disarm defences in plant roots, promoting plant-parasitic nematode populations
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Glauser, Gaetan, Bennett, Alison E. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2018. "Mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient uptake but disarm defences in plant roots, promoting plant-parasitic nematode populations." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 126, pp. 123-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.08.019
Silicon‐induced root nodulation and synthesis of essential amino acids in a legume is associated with higher herbivore abundance
Johnson, Scott N., Hartley, Susan E., Ryalls, James M. W., Frew, Adam, DeGabriel, Jane L., Duncan, Michael and Gherlenda, Andrew G.. 2017. "Silicon‐induced root nodulation and synthesis of essential amino acids in a legume is associated with higher herbivore abundance." Functional Ecology. 31 (10), pp. 1903-1909. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12893
Do eucalypt plantation management practices create understory reservoirs of scarab beetle pests in the soil?
Frew, Adam, Nielsen, Uffe N., Riegler, Markus and Johnson, Scott N.. 2013. "Do eucalypt plantation management practices create understory reservoirs of scarab beetle pests in the soil?" Forest Ecology and Management. 306, pp. 275-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.06.051
Host plant colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stimulates immune function whereas high root silicon concentrations diminish growth in a soil-dwelling herbivore
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Hiltpold, Ivan, Allsopp, Peter G., Sallam, Nader and Johnson, Scott N.. 2017. "Host plant colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stimulates immune function whereas high root silicon concentrations diminish growth in a soil-dwelling herbivore." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 112, pp. 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.05.008
Increased root herbivory under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is reversed by silicon‐based plant defences
Frew, Adam, Allsopp, Peter G., Gherlenda, Andrew G. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2017. "Increased root herbivory under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is reversed by silicon‐based plant defences." Journal of Applied Ecology. 54 (5), pp. 1310-1319. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12822
New frontiers in belowground ecology for plant protection from root-feeding insects
Johnson, Scott N., Benefer, Carly M., Frew, Adam, Griffiths, Bryan S., Hartley, Susan E., Karley, Alison J., Rasmann, Sergio, Schumann, Mario, Sonnemann, Illja and Robert, Christelle A. M.. 2016. "New frontiers in belowground ecology for plant protection from root-feeding insects." Applied Soil Ecology. 108, pp. 96-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.07.017
Trade-offs between silicon and phenolic defenses may explain enhanced performance of root herbivores on phenolic-rich plants
Frew, Adam, Powell, Jeff R., Sallam, Nader, Allsopp, Peter G. and Johnson, Scott N.. 2016. "Trade-offs between silicon and phenolic defenses may explain enhanced performance of root herbivores on phenolic-rich plants." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 42 (8), pp. 768-771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-016-0734-7
The importance of testing multiple environmental factors in legume–insect research: replication, reviewers, and rebuttal
Johnson, Scott N., Gherlenda, Andrew N., Frew, Adam and Ryalls, James M. W.. 2016. "The importance of testing multiple environmental factors in legume–insect research: replication, reviewers, and rebuttal." Frontiers in Plant Science. 7 (489), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00489
Belowground ecology of scarabs feeding on grass roots: current knowledge and future directions for management in Australasia
Frew, Adam, Barnett, Kirk, Nielsen, Uffe N., Riegler, Markus and Johnson, Scott N.. 2016. "Belowground ecology of scarabs feeding on grass roots: current knowledge and future directions for management in Australasia." Frontiers in Plant Science. 7 (321), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00321
Soil fungal responses to experimental warming and drying in a Mediterranean shrubland
Birnbaum, Christina, Hopkins, Anna J.M., Fontaine, Joseph B. and Enright, Enright. 2019. "Soil fungal responses to experimental warming and drying in a Mediterranean shrubland ." Science of the Total Environment. 683, pp. 524-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.222
Symbiotic N2-Fixer Community Composition, but Not Diversity, Shifts in Nodules of a Single Host Legume Across a 2-Million-Year Dune Chronosequence
Birnbaum, Christina, Bissett, Andrew, Teste, Francois P. and Laliberte, Etienne. 2018. "Symbiotic N2-Fixer Community Composition, but Not Diversity, Shifts in Nodules of a Single Host Legume Across a 2-Million-Year Dune Chronosequence ." Microbial Ecology: an international journal. 76 (4), pp. 1009-1020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-018-1185-1
Effect of plant root symbionts on performance of native woody species in competition with an invasive grass in multispecies microcosms
Birnbaum, Christina, Morald, Tim K., Tibbett, Mark, Bennett, Richard G. and Standish, Rachel J.. 2018. "Effect of plant root symbionts on performance of native woody species in competition with an invasive grass in multispecies microcosms ." Ecology and Evolution. 8 (17), pp. 8652-8664. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4397
Topsoil Stockpiling in Restoration: Impact of Storage Time on Plant Growth and Symbiotic Soil Biota
Birnbaum, Christina, Bradshaw, Laura Elizabeth, Ruthrof, Katinka Xoliswa and Fontaine, Joseph Benjamin. 2017. "Topsoil Stockpiling in Restoration: Impact of Storage Time on Plant Growth and Symbiotic Soil Biota ." Ecological Restoration. 35 (3), pp. 237-245. https://doi.org/10.3368/er.35.3.237
Nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in invasive legume nodules and associated soils are similar across introduced and native range populations in Australia
Birnbaum, Christina, Bissett, Andrew, Thrall, Peter H. and Leishman, Michelle R.. 2016. "Nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in invasive legume nodules and associated soils are similar across introduced and native range populations in Australia ." Journal of Biogeography. 43 (8), pp. 1631-1644. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12752
Sequential Disturbance Effects of Hailstorm and Fire on Vegetation in a Mediterranean-Type Ecosystem
Gower, K., Fontaine, J.B., Birnbaum, C. and Enright, N.J.. 2015. "Sequential Disturbance Effects of Hailstorm and Fire on Vegetation in a Mediterranean-Type Ecosystem ." Ecosystems. 18 (7), pp. 1121-1134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9886-5
Regeneration failure threatens persistence of Persoonia elliptica (Proteaceae) in Western Australian jarrah forests
Nield, Andrew P., Monaco, Sophie, Birnbaum, Christina and Enright, Neal J.. 2015. "Regeneration failure threatens persistence of Persoonia elliptica (Proteaceae) in Western Australian jarrah forests ." Plant Ecology. 216 (2), pp. 189-198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-014-0427-7
Invasive legumes encounter similar soil fungal communities in their non-native and native ranges in Australia
Birnbaum, Christina, Bissett, Andrew, Thrall, Peter H. and Leishman, Michelle R.. 2014. "Invasive legumes encounter similar soil fungal communities in their non-native and native ranges in Australia ." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 76, pp. 210-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.05.017
Plant-soil feedbacks do not explain invasion success of Acacia species in introduced range populations in Australia
Birnbaum, C. and Leishman, M. R.. 2013. "Plant-soil feedbacks do not explain invasion success of Acacia species in introduced range populations in Australia ." Biological Invasions. 15 (12), pp. 2609-2625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-013-0478-z
Mutualisms are not constraining cross-continental invasion success of Acacia species within Australia
Birnbaum, Christina, Barrett, Luke G., Thrall, Peter H. and Leishman, Michelle R.. 2012. "Mutualisms are not constraining cross-continental invasion success of Acacia species within Australia ." Diversity and Distributions. 18 (10), pp. 962-976. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00920.x