The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: A Laser Search Pipeline for the Automated Planet Finder

Article


Zuckerman, Anna, Ko, Zoe, Isaacson, Howard, Croft, Steve, Price, Danny, Lebofsky, Matt and Siemion, Andrew. 2023. "The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: A Laser Search Pipeline for the Automated Planet Finder." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 165 (3). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/acb342
Article Title

The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: A Laser Search Pipeline for the Automated Planet Finder

ERA Journal ID1057
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsZuckerman, Anna, Ko, Zoe, Isaacson, Howard, Croft, Steve, Price, Danny, Lebofsky, Matt and Siemion, Andrew
Journal TitleThe Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics
Journal Citation165 (3)
Article Number114
Number of Pages17
Year2023
PublisherIOP Publishing
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN0004-637X
1538-4357
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/acb342
Web Address (URL)https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/acb342/meta
AbstractThe Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence has traditionally been conducted at radio wavelengths, but optical searches are well-motivated and increasingly feasible due to the growing availability of high-resolution spectroscopy. We present a data analysis pipeline to search Automated Planet Finder (APF) spectroscopic observations from the Levy Spectrometer for intense, persistent, narrow-bandwidth optical lasers. We describe the processing of the spectra, the laser search algorithm, and the results of our laser search on 1983 spectra of 388 stars as part of the Breakthrough Listen search for technosignatures. We utilize an empirical spectra-matching algorithm called SpecMatch-Emp to produce residuals between each target spectrum and a set of best-matching catalog spectra, which provides the basis for a more sensitive search than previously possible. We verify that SpecMatch-Emp performs well on APF-Levy spectra by calibrating the stellar properties derived by the algorithm against the SpecMatch-Emp library and against Gaia catalog values. We leverage our unique observing strategy, which produces multiple spectra of each target per night of observing, to increase our detection sensitivity by programmatically rejecting events that do not persist between observations. With our laser search algorithm, we achieve a sensitivity equivalent to the ability to detect an 84 kW laser at the median distance of a star in our data set (78.5 ly). We present the methodology and vetting of our laser search, finding no convincing candidates consistent with potential laser emission in our target sample. © 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
KeywordsSearch for extraterrestrial intelligence; Technosignatures; Stellar spectral lines; Astrobiology; Stellar classification; High-resolution spectroscopy
ANZSRC Field of Research 20205101. Astronomical sciences
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of California Berkeley, United States
Brown University, United States
Centre for Astrophysics
SETI Institute, United States
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Australia
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
University of Malta
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Wang, Xian-Yu, Rice, Malena, Wang, Songhu, Pu, Bonan, Stefánsson, Gudmundur, Mahadevan, Suvrath, Radzom, Brandon, Giacalone, Steven, Wu, Zhen-Yu, Esposito, Thomas M., Dalba, Paul A., Avsar, Arin, Holden, Bradford, Skiff, Brian, Polakis, Tom, Voeller, Kevin, Logsdon, Sarah E., Klusmeyer, Jessica, Schweiker, Heidi, ..., Laughlin, Gregory. 2022. "The Aligned Orbit of WASP-148b, the only Known Hot Jupiter with a nearby Warm Jupiter Companion, from NEID and HIRES." The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 926 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ac4f44
A Tendency Toward Alignment in Single-star Warm-Jupiter Systems
Rice, Malena, Wang, Songhu, Wang, Xian-Yu, Stefánsson, Guđmundur, Isaacson, Howard, Howard, Andrew W., Logsdon, Sarah E., Schweiker, Heidi, Dai, Fei, Brinkman, Casey, Giacalone, Steven and Holcomb, Rae. 2022. "A Tendency Toward Alignment in Single-star Warm-Jupiter Systems." The Astronomical Journal. 164 (3). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac8153
New Dynamical State and Habitability of the HD 45364 Planetary System
Li, Zhexing, Kane, Stephen R., Dalba, Paul A., Howard, Andrew W. and Isaacson, Howard T.. 2022. "New Dynamical State and Habitability of the HD 45364 Planetary System." The Astronomical Journal. 164 (4). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac8d63
Tentative Evidence for Water Vapor in the Atmosphere of the Neptune-sized Exoplanet HD 106315c
Kreidberg, Laura, Molliere, Paul, Crossfield, Ian J. M., Thorngren, Daniel P., Kawashima, Yui Kawashima, Morley, Caroline V., Benneke, Björn, Mikal-Evans, Thomas, Berardo, David, Kosiarek, Molly R., Gorjian, Varoujan, Ciardi, David R., Christiansen, Jessie L., Dragomir, Diana, Dressing, Courtney D., Fortney, Jonathan J., Fulton, Benjamin J., Greene, Thomas P., Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K, ..., Weiss, Lauren M.. 2022. "Tentative Evidence for Water Vapor in the Atmosphere of the Neptune-sized Exoplanet HD 106315c." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 164 (4). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac85be
The ‘Giraffe’: discovery of a stripped red giant in an interacting binary with an ∼2 M⊙ lower giant
Jayasinghe, T., Thompson, Todd A, Kochanek, C S, Stanek, K Z, Rowan, D M, Martin, D V, El-Badry, Kareem, Vallely, P J, Hinkle, J T, Huber, D, Isaacson, H, Tayar, J, Auchettl, K, Ilyin, I, Howard, A W and Badenes, C. 2022. "The ‘Giraffe’: discovery of a stripped red giant in an interacting binary with an ∼2 M⊙ lower giant ." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 516 (4), pp. 5945-5963. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stac2187
LkHα 225 (V1318 Cyg) South in Outburst
Hillenbrand, Lynne A., Isaacson, Howard, Rodriguez, Antonio C., Connelley, Michael, Reipurth, Bo, Kuhn, Michael A., Beck, Tracy and Perez, Diego Rodriguez. 2022. "LkHα 225 (V1318 Cyg) South in Outburst ." The Astronomical Journal. 163 (3). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac4752
Searching for Broadband Pulsed Beacons from 1883 Stars Using Neural Networks
Gajjar, Vishal, LeDuc, Dominic, Chen, Jiani, Siemion, Andrew P. V., Sheikh, Sofia Z., Brzycki, Bryan, Croft, Steve, Czech, Daniel, DeBoer, David, DeMarines, Julia, Drew, Jamie, Isaacson, Howard, Lacki, Brian C., Lebofsky, Matt, MacMahon, David H. E., Ng, Cherry, de Pater, Imke, Perez, Karen I., Price, Danny C., ..., Worden, S. Pete. 2022. "Searching for Broadband Pulsed Beacons from 1883 Stars Using Neural Networks." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 932 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac6dd5
Scaling K2. V. Statistical Validation of 60 New Exoplanets from K2 Campaigns 2-18
Christiansen, Jessie L., Bhure, Sakhee, Zink, Jon K., Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K., Adkins, Britt Duffy, Hedges, Christina, Morton, Timothy D., Bieryla, Allyson, Ciardi, David R., Cochran, William D., Dressing, Courtney D., Everett, Mark E., Isaacson, Howard, Livingston, John H., Ziegler, Carl, Berlind, Perry, Calkins, Michael L., Esquerdo, Gilbert A., Latham, David W., ..., Petigura, Erik A. P. 2022. "Scaling K2. V. Statistical Validation of 60 New Exoplanets from K2 Campaigns 2-18." The Astronomical Journal. 163 (6). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac5c4c
Kepler-1656b's Extreme Eccentricity: Signature of a Gentle Giant
Angelo, Isabel, Naoz, Smadar, Petigura, Erik, MacDougall, Mason, Stephan, Alexander P., Isaacson, Howard and Howard, Andrew W.. 2022. "Kepler-1656b's Extreme Eccentricity: Signature of a Gentle Giant." The Astronomical Journal. 163 (5). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac6094
Stellar Spin-Orbit Alignment for Kepler-9, a Multi-transiting Planetary System with Two Outer Planets Near 2:1 Resonance
Wang, Songhu, Addison, Brett, Fischer, Debra A., Brewer, John M., Isaacson, Howard, Howard, Andrew W. and Laughlin, Gregory. 2018. "Stellar Spin-Orbit Alignment for Kepler-9, a Multi-transiting Planetary System with Two Outer Planets Near 2:1 Resonance." The Astronomical Journal. 155 (2), pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aaa2fb
HAT-P-68b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter around a K5 Dwarf Star
Lindor, Bethlee M., Hartman, Joel D, Bakos, Gáspár Á., Bhatti, Waqas, Csubry, Zoltan, Penev, Kaloyan, Bieryla, Allyson, Latham, David W., Torres, Guillermo, Buchhave, Lars A., de Val-Borro,, Howard, Andrew W., Isaacson, Howard, Fulton, Benjamin J., Boisse, Isabelle, Santerne, Alexandre, Hebrard, Guillaume, Kovács, Támás, Huang, Chelsea, ..., Sári, Pál Sári. 2021. "HAT-P-68b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter around a K5 Dwarf Star." The Astronomical Journal. 161, p. 64. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/abc700
Transits of Known Planets Orbiting a Naked-eye Star
Kane, Stephen R., Yalcinkaya, Selcuk, Osborn, Hugh P., Dalba, Paul A., Nielsen, Louise D., Vanderburg, Andrew, Mocnik, Teo, Hinkel, Natalie R., Ostberg, Colby, Esmer, Ekrem Murat, Udry, Stephane, Fetherolf, Tara, Basturk, Ozgur, Ricker, George R., Vanderspek, Roland, Latham, David W., Seager, Sara, Winn, Joshua N., Jenkins, Jon M., ..., Wright, Jason T.. 2020. "Transits of Known Planets Orbiting a Naked-eye Star." The Astronomical Journal. 160 (3), pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aba835
HD 202772A b: a transiting hot Jupiter around a bright, mildly evolved star in a visual binary discovered by TESS
Wang, Songhu, Jones, Matias, Shporer, Avi, Fulton, Benjamin J., Paredes, Leonardo A., Trifonov, Trifon, Kossakowski, Diana, Eastman, Jason, Redfield, Seth, Gunther, Maximilian N., Kreidberg, Laura, Huang, Chelsea X., Millholland, Sarah, Seligman, Darryl, Fischer, Debra, Brahm, Rafael, Wang, Xian-Yu, Cruz, Bryndis, Henry, Todd, ..., Laughlin, Gregory. 2019. "HD 202772A b: a transiting hot Jupiter around a bright, mildly evolved star in a visual binary discovered by TESS." The Astronomical Journal. 157 (2), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aaf1b7
Radial Velocity Discovery of an Eccentric Jovian World Orbiting at 18 au
Blunt, Blunt, Endl, Michael, Weiss, Lauren M., Cochran, William D, Howard, Andrew W., MacQueen, Phillip J., Fulton, Benjamin J., Henry, Gregory W., Johnson, Marshall C., Kosiarek, Molly R., Lawson, Kellen D., Macintosh, Macintosh, Mills, Sean M., Nielsen, Eric L., Petigura, Erik A., Schneider, Glenn, Vanderburg, Andrew, Wisniewski, Wisniewski, Wittenmyer, Rob, ..., Shen, Zili. 2019. "Radial Velocity Discovery of an Eccentric Jovian World Orbiting at 18 au." The Astronomical Journal. 158 (5), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab3e63
HATS-50b through HATS-53b: four transiting hot Jupiters orbiting G-type stars discovered by the HATSouth survey
Henning, Th., Mancini, L., Sarkis, P., Bakos, G. A., Hartman, J. D., Bayliss, D., Bento, J., Bhatti, W., Brahm, R., Ciceri, S., Csubry, Z., de Val-Borro, M., Espinoza, N., Fulton, B. J., Howard, A. W., Isaacson, H. T., Jordan, A., Marcy, G. W., Penev, K., ..., Sari, P.. 2018. "HATS-50b through HATS-53b: four transiting hot Jupiters orbiting G-type stars discovered by the HATSouth survey." The Astronomical Journal. 155 (2), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aaa254
KELT-11b: a highly inflated sub-Saturn exoplanet transiting the V=8 subgiant HD 93396
Pepper, Joshua, Rodriguez, Joseph E., Collins, Karen A., Johnson, John Asher, Fulton, Benjamin J., Howard, Andrew W., Beatty, Thomas G., Stassun, Keivan G., Isaacson, Howard, Colon, Knicole D., Lund, Michael B., Kuhn, Rudolf B., Siverd, Robert J., Gaudi, B. Scott, Tan, T. G., Curtis, Ivan, Stockdale, Christopher, Mawet, Dimitri, Bottom, Michael, ..., Hintz, Eric. 2017. "KELT-11b: a highly inflated sub-Saturn exoplanet transiting the V=8 subgiant HD 93396." The Astronomical Journal. 153 (5). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa6572
Four sub-Saturns with dissimilar densities: windows into planetary cores and envelopes
Petigura, Erik A., Sinukoff, Evan, Lopez, Eric D., Crossfield, Ian J. M., Howard, Andrew W., Brewer, John M., Fulton, Benjamin J., Isaacson, Howard T., Ciardi, David R., Howell, Steve B., Everett, Mark E., Horch, Elliott P., Hirsch, Lea A., Weiss, Lauren M. and Schlieder, Joshua E.. 2017. "Four sub-Saturns with dissimilar densities: windows into planetary cores and envelopes." The Astronomical Journal. 153 (4). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa5ea5
Mass constraints of the WASP-47 planetary system from radial velocities
Sinukoff, Evan, Howard, Andrew W., Petigura, Erik A., Fulton, Benjamin J., Isaacson, Howard, Weiss, Lauren M., Brewer, John M., Hansen, Brad M. S., Hirsch, Lea, Christiansen, Jessie L., Crepp, Justin R., Crossfield, Ian J. M., Schlieder, Joshua E., Ciardi, David R., Beichman, Charles A., Knutson, Heather A., Benneke, Bjoern, Dressing, Courtney D., Livingston, John H., ..., Rogers, Leslie A.. 2017. "Mass constraints of the WASP-47 planetary system from radial velocities." The Astronomical Journal. 153 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/153/2/70
A Transiting Jupiter analog
Kipping, D. M., Torres, G., Henze, C., Teachey, A., Ciardi, D., Isaacson, H., Petigura, E., Marcy, G. W., Buchhave, L.A., Chen, J., Bryson, S. T. and Sandford, E.. 2016. "A Transiting Jupiter analog." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 820 (2), pp. 112-126. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/820/2/112
197 candidates and 104 validated planets in K2's first five fields
Crossfield, Ian J., Ciardi, David R., Petigura, Erik A., Sinukoff, Evan, Schlieder, Joshua E., Howard, Andrew W., Beichman, Charles A., Isaacson, Howard, Dressing, Courtney D., Christiansen, Jessie L., Fulton, Benjamin J., Lepine, Sebastien, Weiss, Lauren, Hirsch, Lea, Livingston, John, Baranec, Christoph, Law, Nicholas M., Riddle, Reed, Ziegler, Carl, ..., Defrere, Denis. 2016. "197 candidates and 104 validated planets in K2's first five fields." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 226 (1), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3847/0067-0049/226/1/7
Planetary candidates observed by Kepler. III. Analysis of the first 16 months of data
Batalha, Natalie M., Rowe, Jason F., Bryson, Stephen T., Barclay, Thomas, Burke, Christopher J., Caldwell, Douglas A., Christiansen, Jessie L., Mullally, Fergal, Thompson, Susan E., Brown, Timothy M., Dupree, Andrea K., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Fortney, Jonathan J., Gilliland, Ronald L., Isaacson, Howard, Latham, David W., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Quinn, Samuel N., ..., Welsh, William F.. 2013. "Planetary candidates observed by Kepler. III. Analysis of the first 16 months of data." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 204 (2), pp. 24-44. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/204/2/24
Characteristics of Kepler planetary candidates based on the first data set
Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Basri, Gibor, Batalha, Natalie, Boss, Alan, Brown, Timothy M., Caldwell, Douglas, Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Cochran, William D., DeVore, Edna, Dunham, Edward W., Dupree, Andrea K., Gautier, Thomas N., Geary, John C., Gilliland, Ronald, Gould, Alan, Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Kjeldsen, Hans, ..., Wu, Hayley. 2011. "Characteristics of Kepler planetary candidates based on the first data set." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 728 (2), pp. 117-136. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/117
Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data
Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Bryson, Stephen T., Lissauer, Jack J., Rowe, Jason, Haas, Michael, Basri, Gibor, Marcy, Geoffrey W., Howard, Andrew, Isaacson, Howard, Walkowicz, Lucianne, Batalha, Natalie, Brown, Timothy M., Shporer, Avi, Caldwell, Douglas, DeVore, Edna, Jenkins, Jon M., Doyle, Laurance, Tarter, Jill, ..., Prsa, Andrej. 2011. "Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 736 (1). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/19
Kepler-22b: a 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star
Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Batalha, Natalie, Bryson, Stephen T., Rowe, Jason, Fressin, Francois, Torres, Guillermo, Caldwell, Douglas A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Cochran, William D., DeVore, Edna, Gautier, Thomas N., Geary, John C., Gilliland, Ronald, Gould, Alan, Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Latham, David W., Lissauer, Jack J., ..., Rapin, William. 2012. "Kepler-22b: a 2.4 earth-radius planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 745 (2), pp. 120-135. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/120
KEPLER-21b: a 1.6 REarth planet transiting the bright oscillating F subgiant star HD179070
Howell, Steve B., Rowe, Jason F., Bryson, Stephen T., Quinn, Samuel N., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Ciardi, David R., Chaplin, William J., Metcalfe, Travis S., Monteiro, Mario J. P. F. G., Appourchaux, Thierry, Basu, Sarbani, Creevey, Orlagh L., Gilliland, Ronald L., Quirion, Pierre Olivier, Stello, Denis, Kjeldsen, Hans, Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Elsworth, Yvonne, ..., Henze, Christopher E.. 2012. "KEPLER-21b: a 1.6 REarth planet transiting the bright oscillating F subgiant star HD179070." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 746 (2), pp. 123-140. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/123
Kepler-62: A five-planet system with planets of 1.4 and 1.6 Earth radii in the habitable zone
Borucki, William J., Agol, Eric, Fressin, Francois, Kaltenegger, Lisa, Rowe, Jason, Isaacson, Howard, Fischer, Debra, Batalha, Natalie, Lissauer, Jack J., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Fabrycky, Daniel, Desert, Jean Michel, Bryson, Stephen T., Barclay, Thomas, Bastien, Fabienne, Boss, Alan, Brugamyer, Erik, Buchhave, Lars A., Burke, Chris, ..., Winn, Joshua N.. 2013. "Kepler-62: A five-planet system with planets of 1.4 and 1.6 Earth radii in the habitable zone." Science. 340 (6132), pp. 587-590. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1234702
Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems
Rowe, Jason F., Bryson, Stephen T., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Lissauer, Jack J., Jontof-Hutter, Daniel, Mullally, Fergal, Gilliland, Ronald L., Isaacson, Howard, Ford, Eric, Howell, Steve B., Borucki, William J., Haas, Michael, Huber, Daniel, Steffen, Jason H., Thompson, Susan E., Quintana, Elisa, Barclay, Thomas, Still, Martin, Fortney, Jonathan, ..., Geary, John. 2014. "Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. Light curve analysis and announcement of hundreds of new multi-planet systems." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 784 (1), pp. 45-64. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/45
Discovery and validation of Kepler-452b: A 1.6 R⊕; super earth exoplanet in the habitable zone of a G2 star
Jenkins, Jon M., Twicken, Joseph D., Batalha, Natalie M., Caldwell, Douglas A., Cochran, William D., Endl, Michael, Latham, David W., Esquerdo, Gilbert A., Seader, Shawn, Bieryla, Allyson, Petigura, Erik, Ciardi, David R., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Huber, Daniel, Rowe, Jason F., Torres, Guillermo, Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars, ..., Borucki, William J.. 2015. "Discovery and validation of Kepler-452b: A 1.6 R⊕; super earth exoplanet in the habitable zone of a G2 star." The Astronomical Journal. 150 (2), pp. 56-74. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/150/2/56
Two small temperate planets transiting nearby M dwarfs in K2 campaigns 0 and 1
Schlieder, Joshua E., Crossfield, Ian J M, Petigura, Erik A., Howard, Andrew W., Aller, Kimberly M., Sinukoff, Evan, Isaacson, Howard T., Fulton, Benjamin J., Ciardi, David R., Bonnefoy, Mickael, Ziegler, Carl, Morton, Timothy D., Lepine, Sebastien, Obermeier, Christian, Liu, Michael C., Bailey, Vanessa P., Baranec, Christoph, Beichman, Charles A., Defrere, Denis, ..., Skemer, Andrew. 2016. "Two small temperate planets transiting nearby M dwarfs in K2 campaigns 0 and 1." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 818 (1), pp. 87-101. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/818/1/87
Two transiting low density sub-Saturns from K2
Petigura, Erik A., Howard, Andrew W., Lopez, Eric D., Deck, Katherine M., Fulton, Benjamin J., Crossfield, Ian J. M., Ciardi, David R., Chiang, Eugene, Lee, Eve J., Isaacson, Howard, Beichman, Charles A., Hansen, Brad M. S., Schlieder, Joshua E. and Sinukoff, Evan. 2016. "Two transiting low density sub-Saturns from K2." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 818 (1), pp. 36-46. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/818/1/36
Modeling Kepler transit light curves as false positives: rejection of blend scenarios for Kepler-9, and validation of Kepler-9 d, a super-earth-size planet in a multiple system
Torres, Guillermo, Fressin, Francois, Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Brown, Timothy M., Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars A., Charbonneau, David, Ciardi, David R., Dunham, Edward W., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Holman, Matthew J., Howell, Steve B., Isaacson, Howard, Jenkins, Jon M., Koch, David G., ..., Welsh, William F.. 2011. "Modeling Kepler transit light curves as false positives: rejection of blend scenarios for Kepler-9, and validation of Kepler-9 d, a super-earth-size planet in a multiple system." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 727 (1), pp. 24-41. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/727/1/24
Kepler's first rocky planet: Kepler-10b
Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars A., Caldwell, Douglas A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, Ciardi, David, Dunham, Edward W., Fressin, Francois, Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Haas, Michael R., Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Kjeldsen, Hans, Koch, David G., Latham, David W., Lissauer, Jack J., Marcy, Geoffrey W., ..., Gould, Alan. 2011. "Kepler's first rocky planet: Kepler-10b." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 729 (1), pp. 27-47. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/729/1/27
A first comparison of Kepler planet candidates in single and multiple systems
Latham, David W., Rowe, Jason F., Quinn, Samuel N., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Brown, Timothy M., Bryson, Stephen T., Buchhave, Lars A., Caldwell, Douglas A., Carter, Joshua A., Christiansen, Jessie L., Ciardi, David R., Cochran, William D., Dunham, Edward W., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Holman, Matthew J., ..., Wohler, Bill. 2011. "A first comparison of Kepler planet candidates in single and multiple systems." The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 732 (2), pp. L24-L27. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/732/2/L24
Kepler-18b, c, and d: a system of three planets confirmed by transit timing variations, light curve validation, Warm-Spitzer photometry, and radial velocity measurements
Cochran, William D., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Torres, Guillermo, Fressin, Francois, Desert, Jean Michel, Ragozzine, Darin, Sasselov, Dimitar, Fortney, Jonathan J., Rowe, Jason F., Brugamyer, Erik J., Bryson, Stephen T., Carter, Joshua A., Ciardi, David R., Howell, Steve B., Steffen, Jason H., Borucki, William J., Koch, David G., Winn, Joshua N., Welsh, William F., ..., Batalha, Natalie. 2011. "Kepler-18b, c, and d: a system of three planets confirmed by transit timing variations, light curve validation, Warm-Spitzer photometry, and radial velocity measurements." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 7-25. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/7
Kepler-14b: A massive hot Jupiter transiting an F star in a close visual binary
Buchhave, Lars A., Latham, David W., Carter, Joshua A., Desert, Jean Michel, Torres, Guillermo, Adams, Elisabeth R., Bryson, Stephen T., Charbonneau, David B., Ciardi, David R., Kulesa, Craig, Dupree, Andrea K., Fischer, Debra A., Fressin, Francois, Gautier, Thomas N., Gilliland, Ronald L., Howell, Steve B., Isaacson, Howard, Jenkins, Jon M., Marcy, Geoffrey W., ..., Van Cleve, Jeffrey. 2011. "Kepler-14b: A massive hot Jupiter transiting an F star in a close visual binary." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/3
Discovery and atmospheric characterization of giant planet Kepler-12b: An inflated radius outlier
Fortney, Jonathan J., Demory, Brice Olivier, Desert, Jean Michel, Rowe, Jason, Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Buchhave, Lars A., Ciardi, David, Gautier, Thomas N., Batalha, Natalie M., Caldwell, Douglas A., Bryson, Stephen T., Nutzman, Philip, Jenkins, Jon M., Howard, Andrew, Charbonneau, David, Knutson, Heather A., Howell, Steve B., Everett, Mark, ..., Geary, John C.. 2011. "Discovery and atmospheric characterization of giant planet Kepler-12b: An inflated radius outlier." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 9-20. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/9
Kepler-15b: a hot Jupiter enriched in heavy elements and the first Kepler mission planet confirmed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope
Endl, Michael, MacQueen, Phillip J., Cochran, William D., Brugamyer, Erik J., Buchhave, Lars A., Rowe, Jason, Lucas, Phillip, Isaacson, Howard, Bryson, Steve, Howell, Steve B., Fortney, Jonathan J., Hansen, Terese, Borucki, William J., Caldwell, Douglas, Christiansen, Jessie L., Ciardi, David R., Demory, Brice Olivier, Everett, Mark, Ford, Eric B., ..., Twicken, Joseph D.. 2011. "Kepler-15b: a hot Jupiter enriched in heavy elements and the first Kepler mission planet confirmed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope." Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 197 (1), pp. 13-23. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/13
The kepler-19 system: a transiting 2.2 R ⊕ planet and a second planet detected via transit timing variations
Ballard, Sarah, Fabrycky, Daniel, Fressin, Francois, Charbonneau, David, Desert, Jean Michel, Torres, Guillermo, Marcy, Geoffrey, Burke, Christopher J., Isaacson, Howard, Henze, Christopher, Steffen, Jason H., Ciardi, David R., Howell, Steven B., Cochran, William D., Endl, Michael, Bryson, Stephen T., Rowe, Jason F., Holman, Matthew J., Lissauer, Jack J., ..., Borucki, William J.. 2011. "The kepler-19 system: a transiting 2.2 R ⊕ planet and a second planet detected via transit timing variations." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 743 (2), pp. 200-219. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/200
Transit timing observations from Kepler- III. Confirmation of four multiple planet systems by a Fourier-domain study of anticorrelated transit timing variations
Steffen, Jason H., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Carter, Joshua A., Desert, Jean Michel, Fressin, Francois, Holman, Matthew J., Lissauer, Jack J., Moorhead, Althea V., Rowe, Jason F., Ragozzine, Darin, Welsh, William F., Batalha, Natalie M., Borucki, William J., Buchhave, Lars A., Bryson, Steve, Caldwell, Douglas A., Charbonneau, David, Ciardi, David R., ..., Van Cleve, Jeffery. 2012. "Transit timing observations from Kepler- III. Confirmation of four multiple planet systems by a Fourier-domain study of anticorrelated transit timing variations." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 421 (3), pp. 2342-2354. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20467.x
Kepler-20: a sun-like star with three sub-neptune exoplanets and two earth-size candidates
Gautier, Thomas N., Charbonneau, David, Rowe, Jason F., Marcy, Geoffrey W., Isaacson, Howard, Torres, Guillermo, Fressin, Francois, Rogers, Leslie A., Desert, Jean Michel, Buchhave, Lars A., Latham, David W., Quinn, Samuel N., Ciardi, David R., Fabrycky, Daniel C., Ford, Eric B., Gilliland, Ronald L., Walkowicz, Lucianne M., Bryson, Stephen T., Cochran, William D., ..., Van Cleve, Jeffrey. 2012. "Kepler-20: a sun-like star with three sub-neptune exoplanets and two earth-size candidates." The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics. 749 (1), pp. 15-33. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/15
Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler
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A sub-Mercury-sized exoplanet
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A super-earth-sized planet orbiting in or near the habitable zone around a sun-like star
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Masses, radii, and orbits of small Kepler planets: the transition from gaseous to rocky planets
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Kepler-424 b: a 'lonely' hot Jupiter that found a companion
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Validation of 12 small Kepler transiting planets in the habitable zone
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A nearby M star with three transiting super-earths discovered by K2
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KIC 9533489: A genuine γ Doradus - δ Scuti Kepler hybrid pulsator with transit events
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Two transiting earth-size planets near resonance orbiting a nearby cool star
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Eleven multiplanet systems from K2 campaigns 1 and 2 and the masses of two hot super-Earths
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Three temperate Neptunes orbiting nearby stars
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K2 discovers a busy bee: an unusual transiting Neptune found in the beehive cluster
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Transiting circumbinary planets Kepler-34 b and Kepler-35 b
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An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities
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The same frequency of planets inside and outside open clusters of stars
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An Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone of a cool star
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A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5-10-million-year-old star
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HAT-P-57b: A Short-period Giant Planet Transiting a Bright Rapidly Rotating A8V Star Confirmed Via Doppler Tomography
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A High Obliquity Orbit for the Hot-Jupiter HATS-14b Transiting a 5400K Star
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HATS-8b: A low-density transiting super-Neptune
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HATS-7b: A Hot Super Neptune Transiting a Quiet K Dwarf Star
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A sun in the spectroscopic binary IM Pegasi, the guide star for the Gravity Probe B mission
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