Correlations between physical and chemical defences in plants: tradeoffs, syndromes, or just many different ways to skin a herbivorous cat?

Article


Moles, Angela T., Peco, Begona, Wallis, Ian R., Foley, William J., Poore, Alistair G.B., Seabloom, Eric W., Vesk, Peter A., Bisigato, Alejandro J., Cella-Pizarro, Lucrecia, Clark, Connie J., Cohen, Philippe S., Cornwell, William K., Edwards, Will, Ejrnaes, Rasmus, Gonzales-Ojeda, Therany, Graae, Bente J., Hay, Gregory, Lumbwe, Fainess C., Magana-Rodriguez, Benjamın, ..., Hui, Francis K. C.. 2013. "Correlations between physical and chemical defences in plants: tradeoffs, syndromes, or just many different ways to skin a herbivorous cat?" New Phytologist. 198 (1), pp. 252-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12116
Article Title

Correlations between physical and chemical defences in plants: tradeoffs, syndromes, or just many different ways to skin a herbivorous cat?

ERA Journal ID2625
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsMoles, Angela T. (Author), Peco, Begona (Author), Wallis, Ian R. (Author), Foley, William J. (Author), Poore, Alistair G.B. (Author), Seabloom, Eric W. (Author), Vesk, Peter A. (Author), Bisigato, Alejandro J. (Author), Cella-Pizarro, Lucrecia (Author), Clark, Connie J. (Author), Cohen, Philippe S. (Author), Cornwell, William K. (Author), Edwards, Will (Author), Ejrnaes, Rasmus (Author), Gonzales-Ojeda, Therany (Author), Graae, Bente J. (Author), Hay, Gregory (Author), Lumbwe, Fainess C. (Author), Magana-Rodriguez, Benjamın (Author), Moore, Ben D. (Author), Peri, Pablo L. (Author), Poulsen, John R. (Author), Stegen, James C. (Author), Veldtman, Ruan (Author), Zeipel, Hugovon (Author), Andrew, Nigel R. (Author), Boulter, Sarah L. (Author), Borer, Elizabeth T. (Author), Cornelissen, Johannes H. C. (Author), Farji-Brener, Alejandro G. (Author), DeGabriel, Jane L. (Author), Jurado, Enrique (Author), Kyhn, Line A. (Author), Low, Bill (Author), Mulder, Christa P. H. (Author), Reardon-Smith, Kathryn (Author), Rodriguez-Velazquez, Jorge (Author), De Fortier, An (Author), Zheng, Zheng (Author), Blendinger, Pedro G. (Author), Enquist, Brian J. (Author), Facelli, Jose M. (Author), Knight, Tiffany (Author), Majer, Jonathan D. (Author), Martinez-Ramos, Miguel (Author), McQuillan, Peter (Author) and Hui, Francis K. C. (Author)
Journal TitleNew Phytologist
Journal Citation198 (1), pp. 252-263
Number of Pages12
Year2013
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0028-646X
1469-8137
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12116
Web Address (URL)https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.12116
Abstract

Most plant species have a range of traits that deter herbivores. However, understanding of how different defences are related to one another is surprisingly weak. Many authors argue that defence traits trade off against one another, while others argue that they form coordinated
defence syndromes.

We collected a dataset of unprecedented taxonomic and geographic scope (261 species spanning 80 families, from 75 sites across the globe) to investigate relationships among four chemical and six physical defences.

Five of the 45 pairwise correlations between defence traits were significant and three of these were tradeoffs. The relationship between species’ overall chemical and physical defence levels was marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.08), and remained nonsignificant after accounting for phylogeny, growth form and abundance. Neither categorical principal component analysis (PCA) nor hierarchical cluster analysis supported the idea that species displayed defence syndromes.

Our results do not support arguments for tradeoffs or for coordinated defence syndromes. Rather, plants display a range of combinations of defence traits. We suggest this lack of consistent defence syndromes may be adaptive, resulting from selective pressure to deploy a different combination of defences to coexisting species.

Keywordscyanogenesis; extrafloral nectaries; hair; leaf toughness; lipid; plant–herbivore interactions; spines; tannin
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020310403. Biological adaptation
310402. Biogeography and phylogeography
310899. Plant biology not elsewhere classified
Public Notes

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Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of New South Wales
Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain
Australian National University
University of Minnesota, United States
University of Melbourne
National Patagonian Centre, Argentina
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, United States
Stanford University, United States
Vrije University Amsterdam, Netherlands
James Cook University
Aarhus University, Denmark
National University of Saint Anthony the Abad in Cuzco, Peru
Umea University, Sweden
University of South Australia
University of Zambia
Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
National University of Austral Patagonia, Argentina
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, United States
Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Mid Sweden University, Sweden
Griffith University
National Scientific and Technical Research Council, Argentina
Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Low Ecological Services, Australia
University of Alaska Fairbanks, United States
Australian Centre for Sustainable Catchments
National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
University of Zululand, South Africa
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
National University of Tucuman, Argentina
University of Arizona, United States
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
University of Washington, United States
Curtin University
University of Tasmania
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Reardon-Smith, Kate, Mushtaq, Shahbaz, Stone, Roger, Cliffe, Neil, Farley, Helen, Ostini, Jenny, Doyle, Joanne, Martin, Neil, Maraseni, Tek, Marcussen, Torben, Loch, Adam and Lindesay, Janette. 2014. "Virtual world technologies to enhance climate risk management on Australian sugar cane farms." Climate Adaptation (NCCARF 2014): Future Challenges. Gold Coast, Australia 30 Sep - 02 Oct 2014 Gold Coast, Australia.
Integrated assessment of water-energy-GHG emissions tradeoffs in an irrigated lucerne production system in eastern Australia
Mushtaq, S., Maraseni, T. N., Reardon-Smith, K., Bundschuh, J. and Jackson, T.. 2015. "Integrated assessment of water-energy-GHG emissions tradeoffs in an irrigated lucerne production system in eastern Australia." Journal of Cleaner Production. 103, pp. 491-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.05.037
Identifying groundwater thresholds for drought resilience in floodplain tree species in the northern Murray-Darling Basin
Reardon-Smith, Kate, Kath, Jarrod, Le Brocque, Andy and Dyer, Fiona. 2014. "Identifying groundwater thresholds for drought resilience in floodplain tree species in the northern Murray-Darling Basin." Andersen, Alan (ed.) 2014 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2014). Alice Springs, Australia 28 Sep - 03 Oct 2014 Canberra, Australia.
Lippia (Phyla canescens) and its response to fire
Galea, Lucy, Le Brocque, Andy and Reardon-Smith, Kate. 2014. "Lippia (Phyla canescens) and its response to fire." Andersen, Alan (ed.) 2014 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2014). Alice Springs, Australia 28 Sep - 03 Oct 2014 Canberra, Australia.
Re-evaluating the rationale for irrigation technology adoption through an integrated trade-off analysis: case study of a cotton farming system in Australia
Maraseni, T. N., Mushtaq, S. and Reardon-Smith, K.. 2014. "Re-evaluating the rationale for irrigation technology adoption through an integrated trade-off analysis: case study of a cotton farming system in Australia." Journal of Water and Climate Change. 5 (3), pp. 328-340. https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2014.046
Groundwater decline drives riparian woodland dysfunction in a northern Murray-Darling intensive production landscape
Reardon-Smith, K. M., Le Brocque, A. F. and House, A. P. N.. 2011. "Groundwater decline drives riparian woodland dysfunction in a northern Murray-Darling intensive production landscape." Bird, Michael and Simmons, Craig (ed.) 4th Australasian Hydrogeology Research Conference. Cairns, Australia 12 - 14 Jul 2011 Adelaide, Australia.
Using stable isotopes to identify soil moisture sources of key species in riparian woodlands of the northern Murray-Darling Basin
Reardon-Smith, K. M., Le Brocque, A. F., Hollins, S. and Silburn, D. M.. 2011. "Using stable isotopes to identify soil moisture sources of key species in riparian woodlands of the northern Murray-Darling Basin." 11th Australasian Environmental Isotope Conference. Cairns, Australia 12 - 14 Jul 2011 Adelaide, Australia.
The development of virtual world tools to enhance learning and real world decision making in the Australian sugar farming industry
Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Farley, Helen, Cliffe, Neil, Mushtaq, Shahbaz, Stone, Roger, Doyle, Joanne, Martin, Neil, Ostini, Jenny, Maraseni, Tek, Marcussen, Torben, Loch, Adam and Lindesay, Janette. 2014. "The development of virtual world tools to enhance learning and real world decision making in the Australian sugar farming industry." International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning. 7 (3), pp. 17-23. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v7i3.4002
Groundwater depth thresholds for tree condition
Kath, Jarrod, Reardon-Smith, Kate, Le Brocque, Andi, Dafny, Elad, Dyer, Fiona, Fritz, L. and Batterham, Megan. 2013. "Groundwater depth thresholds for tree condition." 52nd Australian Society for Limnology Congress (ASL 2013): From Theory to Practice in Water Science. Canberra, Australia 02 - 05 Dec 2013 Canberra, Australia.
Groundwater decline and tree change in floodplain landscapes: identifying non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition
Kath, J., Reardon-Smith, K., Le Brocque, A. F., Dyer, F. J., Dafny, E., Fritz, L. and Batterham, M.. 2014. "Groundwater decline and tree change in floodplain landscapes: identifying non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2, pp. 148-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2014.09.002
Using a virtual world to enable real world decision making
Reardon-Smith, Kate, Farley, Helen, Stone, Roger, Mushtaq, Shahbaz, Cliffe, Neil, Doyle, Joanne, Martin, Neil, Maraseni, Tek, Marcussen, Torben, Lindesay, Janette, Loch, Adam and Kealley, Matt. 2013. "Using a virtual world to enable real world decision making." Lamb, David (ed.) 1st Digital Rural Futures Conference: Smart Farms - Smart Regions (DRF 2013). Armidale, Australia 26 - 28 Jun 2013 Armidale, Australia.
Extending extension: virtual shed meetings in a digital age
Farley, Helen, Reardon-Smith, Kate, Mushtaq, Shahbaz, Cliffe, Neil, Lindesay, Janette and Loch, Adam. 2013. "Extending extension: virtual shed meetings in a digital age." Lamb, David (ed.) 1st Digital Rural Futures Conference: Smart Farms - Smart Regions (DRF 2013). Armidale, Australia 26 - 28 Jun 2013 Armidale, Australia.
A blueprint for sustainable groundwater management in Balochistan, Pakistan
Mushtaq, Shahbaz, Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Stone, Roger and Khair, Syed Mohammad. 2013. "A blueprint for sustainable groundwater management in Balochistan, Pakistan." Griffiths, Jacqui and Lambert, Rebecca (ed.) Free flow: reaching water security through cooperation . Paris, France. Unesco. pp. 222-224
Trialling a web-based 'discussion-support' tool in the Australian sugar industry: stakeholder responses are encouraging
Cliffe, Neil, Stone, Roger, Coutts, Jeff, Mushtaq, Shahbaz and Reardon-Smith, Kathryn. 2013. "Trialling a web-based 'discussion-support' tool in the Australian sugar industry: stakeholder responses are encouraging." Westbrooke, Victoria (ed.) Australia-Pacific Extension Network International Conference (APEN ICNZ 2013): Transformative Change: Chosen or Unchosen Pathways to Innovation, Resilience and Prosperity . Christchurch, New Zealand 26 - 28 Aug 2013
A rural agricultural-sustainable energy community model and its application to Felton Valley, Australia
Berrill, T., Reardon-Smith, K., McCreath, R., Mushtaq, S. and Bundschuh, J.. 2013. "A rural agricultural-sustainable energy community model and its application to Felton Valley, Australia ." Yan, J. (ed.) 5th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE 2013). Pretoria, South Africa 01 - 04 Jul 2013
Identifying and managing key weed threats, their sources and vectors, in relation to priority remnant ecosystems in the Condamine catchment
Reardon-Smith, K.. 2009. Identifying and managing key weed threats, their sources and vectors, in relation to priority remnant ecosystems in the Condamine catchment.
The tradeoffs between water savings and GHG emissions in irrigated agriculture
Mushtaq, Shahbaz, Maraseni, Tek and Reardon-Smith, Kate. 2013. "The tradeoffs between water savings and GHG emissions in irrigated agriculture." Quarisa, Iva (ed.) Irrigation Australia Regional Conference 2013: Sharing Irrigation Knowledge for Better Outcomes. Griffith, Australia 28 - 30 May 2013 Sydney, Australia.
Climate change and water security: estimating the greenhouse gas costs of achieving water security through investments in modern irrigation technology
Mushtaq, S., Maraseni, T. N. and Reardon-Smith, K.. 2013. "Climate change and water security: estimating the greenhouse gas costs of achieving water security through investments in modern irrigation technology." Agricultural Systems. 117, pp. 78-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.12.009
Sweet success: making machinima to engage sugarcane farmers in discussions about climate risk
Farley, Helen and Reardon-Smith, Kate. 2012. "Sweet success: making machinima to engage sugarcane farmers in discussions about climate risk." 2012 Apple University Consortuim CreateWorld Conference: Developing People Who Use and Support Apple Technology in Higher Education. Brisbane, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2012 Australia.
Integrated analysis for a carbon- and water-constrained future: an assessment of drip irrigation in a lettuce production system in eastern Australia
Maraseni, T. N., Mushtaq, S. and Reardon-Smith, K.. 2012. "Integrated analysis for a carbon- and water-constrained future: an assessment of drip irrigation in a lettuce production system in eastern Australia." Journal of Environmental Management. 111, pp. 220-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.07.020
Predictive modelling of riparian woodland response to altered and novel disturbances in multi-use production landscapes
Reardon-Smith, K. M. and Le Brocque, A. F.. 2012. "Predictive modelling of riparian woodland response to altered and novel disturbances in multi-use production landscapes." Lepetit, Julien (ed.) Water and Climate: Policy Implementation Challenges - 2nd Practical Responses to Climate Change Conference 2012. Canberra, Australia 01 - 03 May 2012 Canberra, Australia.
Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector
Maraseni, T. N., Mushtaq, S. and Reardon-Smith, K.. 2012. "Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector." Environmental Research Letters. 7 (3), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034006
Putting plant resistance traits on the map: a test of the idea that plants are better defended at lower latitudes
Moles, Angela T., Wallis, Ian R., Foley, William J., Warton, David I., Stegen, James C., Bisigato, Alejandro J., Cella-Pizarro, Lucrecia, Clark, Connie J., Cohen, Philippe S., Cornwell, William K., Edwards, Will, Ejrnaes, Rasmus, Gonzales-Ojeda, Therany, Graae, Bente J., Hay, Gregory, Lumbwe, Fainess C., Magana-Rodriguez, Benjamin, Moore, Ben D., Peri, Pablo L., ..., Prior, Lynda D.. 2011. "Putting plant resistance traits on the map: a test of the idea that plants are better defended at lower latitudes." New Phytologist. 191 (3), pp. 777-788. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03732.x
Using stable isotopes to identify soil moisture sources of key species in drought-stressed riparian woodlands
Reardon-Smith, Kate, Le Brocque, Andy, Hollins, Suzanne and Silburn, Mark. 2011. "Using stable isotopes to identify soil moisture sources of key species in drought-stressed riparian woodlands." 2011 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2011). Hobart, Australia 21 - 25 Nov 2011 Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.
Modelling riparian woodland response to altered and novel disturbance regimes in production landscapes
Reardon-Smith, Kate, Le Brocque, Andy and House, Alan. 2011. "Modelling riparian woodland response to altered and novel disturbance regimes in production landscapes." 2011 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2011). Hobart, Australia 21 - 25 Nov 2011 Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.
Impact of altered flow regimes and weed invasion on riparian communities in the Condamine catchment, south-east Queensland
Reardon-Smith, Kate, Zammit, Charlie and Le Brocque, Andy. 2004. "Impact of altered flow regimes and weed invasion on riparian communities in the Condamine catchment, south-east Queensland." 2004 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2004). Adelaide, South Australia 07 - 10 Dec 2004 Brisbane, Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.
Disturbance and resilience of floodplain woodlands in a production landscape
Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Le Brocque, Andrew F. and House, Alan. 2009. "Disturbance and resilience of floodplain woodlands in a production landscape." 10th International Congress of Ecology: Ecology in a Changing Environment. Brisbane, Australia 16 - 21 Aug 2009 Australia.
Riparian woodlands in crisis? Disturbance ecology on the Condamine floodplain
Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Le Brocque, Andrew F. and House, Alan. 2008. "Riparian woodlands in crisis? Disturbance ecology on the Condamine floodplain." 11th International Riversymposium: A Future of Extremes. Brisbane, Australia 01 - 04 Sep 2008 Brisbane, Australia.
Riparian woodland dysfunction is driven by groundwater decline in a northern Murray-Darling intensive production landscape
Reardon-Smith, Kate, Le Brocque, Andy and House, Alan. 2010. "Riparian woodland dysfunction is driven by groundwater decline in a northern Murray-Darling intensive production landscape." 2010 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2010). Canberra, Australia 06 - 10 Dec 2010 Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.
Disturbance and resilience in riparian woodlands on the highly modified Upper Condamine floodplain
Reardon-Smith, Kathryn Mary. 2011. Disturbance and resilience in riparian woodlands on the highly modified Upper Condamine floodplain. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Richness, complexity & condition of remnants in the eastern Darling Downs, Queensland
Le Brocque, Andrew F., Zammit, Charlie and Reardon-Smith, Kathryn. 2003. "Richness, complexity & condition of remnants in the eastern Darling Downs, Queensland." Oliver, Ian, Kristiansen, Paul and Silberbauer, Letitia (ed.) 2003 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2003). Armidale, Australia 08 - 10 Dec 2003 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.
Declining birds in Australian agricultural landscapes may benefit from aspects of the European agri-environment model
Attwood, Simon J., Park, Sarah E., Maron, Martine, Collard, Stuart J., Robinson, Doug, Reardon-Smith, Kathryn M. and Cockfield, Geoff. 2009. "Declining birds in Australian agricultural landscapes may benefit from aspects of the European agri-environment model ." Biological Conservation. 142 (10), pp. 1981-1991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.04.008
Landscape ecology theory does not apply to recruitment in Eucalyptus populnea woodlands
Batterham, Megan C., Le Brocque, Andrew F. and Reardon-Smith, Kathryn. 2008. "Landscape ecology theory does not apply to recruitment in Eucalyptus populnea woodlands." 2008 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2008). Sydney, Australia 01 - 05 Dec 2008 Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.
Change is the new stability: disturbance and riparian woodlands in a production landscape
Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Le Brocque, Andrew F. and House, Alan. 2008. "Change is the new stability: disturbance and riparian woodlands in a production landscape." 2008 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2008). Sydney, Australia 01 - 05 Dec 2008 Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.
Predictive mapping of blackberry in the Condamine Catchment using logistic regression and spatial analysis
Apan, Armando, Wells, N., Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Richardson, L., McDougall, Kevin and Basnet, Badri Bahadur. 2008. "Predictive mapping of blackberry in the Condamine Catchment using logistic regression and spatial analysis." McDougall, Kevin (ed.) Queensland Spatial Conference 2008. Surfers Paradise, Australia 17 - 19 Jul 2008 Brisbane, Australia.
Arresting woodland bird decline in Australian agricultural landscapes: potential application of the European agri-environment model
Park, S. E., Attwood, S. J., Maron, M., Collard, S. J. and Reardon-Smith, K.. 2007. "Arresting woodland bird decline in Australian agricultural landscapes: potential application of the European agri-environment model." Jongman, Rob and Bunce, R. G. H. (ed.) IALE 2007: 25 Years Landscape Ecology: Scientific Principles in Practice. Wageningen, Netherlands 08 - 12 Jul 2007 Wageningden, Netherlands.
Vegetation community responses to altered flow regimes and weed invasion in reparian woodlands of the upper condamine floodplain, Eastern Australia
Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Le Brocque, Andrew F., House, Alan and Zammit, Charlie. 2005. "Vegetation community responses to altered flow regimes and weed invasion in reparian woodlands of the upper condamine floodplain, Eastern Australia." Miller, Craig (ed.) 2005 Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA 2005). Brisbane, Australia 28 Nov - 02 Dec 2005 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Ecological Society of Australia.