The Parauncinula polyspora Draft Genome Provides Insights into Patterns of Gene Erosion and Genome Expansion in Powdery Mildew Fungi

Article


Frantzeskakis, Lamprinos, Nemeth, Mark Z., Barsoum, Mirna, Kusch, Stefan, Kiss, Levente, Takamatsu, Susumu and Panstruga, Ralph. 2019. "The Parauncinula polyspora Draft Genome Provides Insights into Patterns of Gene Erosion and Genome Expansion in Powdery Mildew Fungi." mBio. 10 (5), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01692-19
Article Title

The Parauncinula polyspora Draft Genome Provides Insights
into Patterns of Gene Erosion and Genome Expansion in
Powdery Mildew Fungi

ERA Journal ID123204
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsFrantzeskakis, Lamprinos (Author), Nemeth, Mark Z. (Author), Barsoum, Mirna (Author), Kusch, Stefan (Author), Kiss, Levente (Author), Takamatsu, Susumu (Author) and Panstruga, Ralph (Author)
Journal TitlemBio
Journal Citation10 (5), pp. 1-17
Article Number01692-19
Number of Pages17
Year2019
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN2150-7511
2161-2129
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01692-19
Web Address (URL)https://mbio.asm.org/content/10/5/e01692-19
Abstract

Due to their comparatively small genome size and short generation time, fungi are exquisite model systems to study eukaryotic genome evolution. Powdery mildew fungi present an exceptional case because of their strict host dependency (termed obligate biotrophy) and the atypical size of their genomes (>100 Mb). This size expansion is largely due to the pervasiveness of transposable elements on 70% of the genome and is associated with the loss of multiple conserved ascomycete genes required for a free-living lifestyle. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that drove these changes, and information on ancestral powdery mildew genomes is lacking. We report genome analysis of the early-diverged and exclusively sexually reproducing powdery mildew fungus Parauncinula polyspora, which we performed on the basis of a natural leaf epiphytic metapopulation sample. In contrast to other sequenced species of this taxonomic group, the assembled P. polyspora draft genome is surprisingly small (<30 Mb), has a higher content of conserved ascomycete genes, and is sparsely equipped with transposons (<10%), despite the conserved absence of a common defense mechanism involved in constraining repetitive elements. We speculate that transposable element spread might have been limited by this pathogen’s unique reproduction strategy and host features and further hypothesize that the loss of conserved ascomycete genes may promote the evolutionary isolation and host niche specialization of powdery mildew fungi. Limitations associated with this evolutionary trajectory might have been in part counteracted by the evolution of plastic, transposon-rich genomes and/or the expansion of gene families encoding secreted virulence proteins.

Keywordsgenome evolution, plant pathogen, fungal genomics, transposable elements, repeat-induced point mutation
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020310705. Mycology
Byline AffiliationsRWTH Aachen University, Germany
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
Centre for Crop Health
Open access urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Funding source
Grant ID
Australia-Germany Joint Research Scheme
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Sporulation rate in culture and mycoparasitic activity, but not mycohost specificity, are the key factors for selecting Ampelomyces strains for biocontrol of grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)
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Molecular identification and pathogenicity assessment of a rust fungus infecting common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in its native North American range
Kassai-Jager, Edit, Seier, Marion K., Evans, Harry C. and Kiss, Levente. 2016. "Molecular identification and pathogenicity assessment of a rust fungus infecting common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in its native North American range." European Journal of Plant Pathology. 145 (1), pp. 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-015-0815-4