Macadamia Nutshell Biochar for Nitrate Removal: Effect of Biochar Preparation and Process Parameters

Article


Bakly, Salam, Al-juboori, Raed A. and Bowtell, Les. 2019. "Macadamia Nutshell Biochar for Nitrate Removal: Effect of Biochar Preparation and Process Parameters ." C: journal of carbon research. 5 (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/c5030047
Article Title

Macadamia Nutshell Biochar for Nitrate Removal: Effect of Biochar Preparation and Process Parameters

ERA Journal ID211966
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBakly, Salam, Al-juboori, Raed A. and Bowtell, Les
Journal TitleC: journal of carbon research
Journal Citation5 (3)
Article Number47
Number of Pages20
YearSep 2019
PublisherMDPI AG
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
ISSN2311-5629
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/c5030047
Web Address (URL)https://www.mdpi.com/2311-5629/5/3/47
Abstract

Agricultural runoff is a major cause of degradation to freshwater sources. Nitrate is of particular interest, due to the abundant use of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agricultural practices globally. This study investigated the nitrate removal of biochar produced from an agricultural waste product, macadamia nutshell (MBC). Kinetic experiments and structural analyses showed that MBC pyrolsed at 900 °C exhibited inferior NO3− removal compared to that pyrolsed at 1000 °C, which was subsequently used in the column experiments. Concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg/L, with flowrates of 2, 5 and 10 mL/min, were examined over a 360 min treatment time. Detailed statistical analyses were applied using 23 factorial design. Nitrate removal was significantly affected by flowrate, concentration and their interactions. The highest nitrate removal capacity of 0.11 mg/g MBC was achieved at a NO3− concentration of 15 mg/L and flowrate of 2 mL/min. The more crystalline structure and rough texture of MBC prepared at 1000 °C resulted in higher NO3− removal compared to MBC prepared at 900 °C. The operating parameters with the highest NO3− removal were used to study the removal capacity of the column. Breakthrough and exhaustion times of the column were 25 and 330 min respectively. Approximately 92% of the column bed was saturated after exhaustion.

Keywordsmacadamia nutshell biochar; nitrate; statistical analyses; column experiments; kinetic experiments; adsorption capacity
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020300204. Agricultural management of nutrients
400911. Power electronics
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Southern Queensland
Federation University
University of Southern Queensland
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