Assessment of Densified Fuel Quality Parameters: A Case Study for Wheat Straw Pellet

Article


Nath, Bidhan, Chen, Guangnan, Bowtell, Les and Mahmood, Raid Ahmed. 2023. "Assessment of Densified Fuel Quality Parameters: A Case Study for Wheat Straw Pellet." Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts. 8 (1), pp. 45-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobab.2022.10.001
Article Title

Assessment of Densified Fuel Quality Parameters: A Case Study for Wheat Straw Pellet

Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsNath, Bidhan (Author), Chen, Guangnan (Author), Bowtell, Les (Author) and Mahmood, Raid Ahmed (Author)
Journal TitleJournal of Bioresources and Bioproducts
Journal Citation8 (1), pp. 45-58
Number of Pages19
Year2023
PublisherElsevier
KeAi Publishing Communications Ltd.
Place of PublicationChina
ISSN2369-9698
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobab.2022.10.001
Web Address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2369969822000585
Abstract

An investigation was conducted to examine the impact of additive mixing with wheat straw (WS) for pellet making. This study manufactured seven types of pellets with different additive combinations to evaluate pellet quality characteristics and their relationships. A laboratory-type hammer mill and a pellet mill were used for feedstock preparation and pellet production. Experimental investigations showed that the lignin content increased from 7.0% to 13.1%, which was a primary need for pelletization. Also, the heating value rose from 17.02 to 20.36 MJ/kg. However, the ash content also increased from 7.09% to 16.2%. Results showed that dimension (length and diameter), durability, and tensile strength increased significantly with additives while the fines content decreased. The fines content had an inverse relationship with durability and strength. Wheat straw (60%), together with 10% sawdust (SD), 10% corn starch (CS), 10% bentonite clay (BC), and 10% biochar (BiC), was optimal with good pellet performance (T7). In addition, both the T5 pellets (70% WS, 10% SD, 10% BiC, and 10% BC) and the T6 pellets (70% WS, 10% SD, 10% BiC, and 10% CS) provide suitable quality according to EN plus 2015 standard requirements. The ash content of produced pellet was higher than the recommended value, which suggests that further research onto the alternative additive use for ash reduction is needed.

Keywordsbiomass; wheat straw; pellet quality; properties relationship; additive/binding material
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020409901. Agricultural engineering
401102. Environmentally sustainable engineering
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Agriculture and Environmental Science
School of Engineering
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Pulsed ultrasound as an energy saving mode for ultrasound treatment of surface water with terrestrial aquatic carbon
Al-juboori, Raed A., Yusaf, Talal and Bowtell, Les. 2018. "Pulsed ultrasound as an energy saving mode for ultrasound treatment of surface water with terrestrial aquatic carbon." Desalination and Water Treatment. 135, pp. 167-176. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.23173
The effectiveness of combined infrared and hot-air drying strategies for sweet potato
Onwude, Daniel I., Hashim, Norhashila, Abdan, Khalina, Janius, Rimfiel and Chen, Guangnan. 2019. "The effectiveness of combined infrared and hot-air drying strategies for sweet potato." Journal of Food Engineering. 241, pp. 75-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.08.008
Experimental and computational investigation of gravity separation in a vertical flash tank separator
Mahmood, Raid Ahmed. 2018. Experimental and computational investigation of gravity separation in a vertical flash tank separator . PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland. https://doi.org/10.26192/5c0da776f69cf
Effect of air gap membrane distillation parameters on the removal of fluoride from synthetic water
Naji, Osamah, Bowtell, Les, Al-juboori, Raed A., Aravinthan, Vasantha and Ghaffour, Noreddine. 2018. "Effect of air gap membrane distillation parameters on the removal of fluoride from synthetic water." Desalination and Water Treatment. 124, pp. 11-20. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.22694
Life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of different wheat production systems
Taki, Morteza, Soheili-Fard, Farshad, Rohani, Abbas and Chen, Guangnan. 2018. "Life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of different wheat production systems." Journal of Cleaner Production. 197 (1), pp. 195-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.173
Cradle to grave environmental-economic analysis of tea life cycle in Iran
Soheili-Fard, Farshad, Kouchaki-Penchah, Hamed, Ghasemi Nejad Raini, Mahmoud and Chen, Guangnan. 2018. "Cradle to grave environmental-economic analysis of tea life cycle in Iran." Journal of Cleaner Production. 196, pp. 953-960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.083
Mechanization of agricultural production in developing countries
Onwude, Daniel I., Chen, Guangnan, Hashim, Norhashila, Esdaile, Jeff R., Gomes, Chandima, Khaled, Alfadhl Y., Alonge, Akindele F. and Ikrang, Elijah. 2018. "Mechanization of agricultural production in developing countries." Chen, Guangnan (ed.) Advances in agricultural machinery and technologies. Boca Raton, Florida, United States. CRC Press. pp. 3-26
Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?
Bundschuh, Jochen, Chen, Guangnan, Tomaszewska, Barbara, Ghaffour, Noreddine, Mushtaq, Shahbaz, Hamawand, Ihsan, Reardon-Smith, Kathryn, Maraseni, Tek, Banhazi, Thomas, Mahmoudi, Hacene, Goosen, Mattheus and Antille, Diogones L.. 2017. "Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?" Bundschuh, Jochen, Chen, Guangnan, Chandrasekharam, D. and Piechocki, Janusz (ed.) Geothermal, wind and solar energy applications in agriculture and aquaculture. Leiden, Netherlands. CRC Press. pp. 1-32
Development in energy generation technologies and alternative fuels for agriculture
Piechocki, Janusz, Sołowiej, Piotr, Neugebauer, Maciej and Chen, Guangnan. 2018. "Development in energy generation technologies and alternative fuels for agriculture." Chen, Guangnan (ed.) Advances in agricultural machinery and technologies. Boca Raton, Florida, United States. CRC Press. pp. 89-112
Advances in agricultural machinery and technologies
Chen, Guangnan. 2018. Advances in agricultural machinery and technologies. Boca Raton, Florida, United States. CRC Press.
Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) greenhouse shading: new insights for solar radiation manipulation
Roslan, N., Ya'acob, M. E., Radzi, M. A. M., Hashimoto, Y., Jamaludin, D. and Chen, G.. 2018. "Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) greenhouse shading: new insights for solar radiation manipulation." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 92, pp. 171-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.04.095
Combination of computer vision and backscattering imaging for predicting the moisture content and colour changes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during drying
Onwude, Daniel I., Hashim, Norhashila, Abdan, Khalina, Janius, Rimfiel and Chen, Guangnan. 2018. "Combination of computer vision and backscattering imaging for predicting the moisture content and colour changes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during drying." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 150, pp. 178-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2018.04.015
Face-to-face instruction combined with online resources improves retention of clinical skills among undergraduate nursing students
Terry, Victoria R., Terry, Peter C., Moloney, Clint and Bowtell, Les. 2018. "Face-to-face instruction combined with online resources improves retention of clinical skills among undergraduate nursing students." Nurse Education Today. 61, pp. 15-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2017.10.014
The potential of computer vision, optical backscattering parameters and artificial neural network modelling in monitoring the shrinkage of sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L.) during drying
Onwude, Daniel I., Hashim, Norhashila, Abdan, Khalina, Janius, Rimfiel and Chen, Guangnan. 2018. "The potential of computer vision, optical backscattering parameters and artificial neural network modelling in monitoring the shrinkage of sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L.) during drying." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 98 (4), pp. 1310-1324. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8595
Investigation of ethanol production potential from lignocellulosic material without enzymatic hydrolysis using the ultrasound technique
Kandasamy, Manoj, Hamawand, Ihsan, Bowtell, Leslie, Seneweera, Saman, Chakrabarty, Sayan, Yusaf, Talal, Shakoor, Zaidoon, Algayyim, Sattar and Eberhard, Friederike. 2017. "Investigation of ethanol production potential from lignocellulosic material without enzymatic hydrolysis using the ultrasound technique." Energies. 10 (1), pp. 62-73. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010062
Investigating the influence of novel drying methods on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.): Kinetics, energy consumption, color, and microstructure
Onwude, Daniel I., Hashim, Norhashila, Abdan, Khalina, Janius, Rimfiel and Chen, Guangnan. 2018. "Investigating the influence of novel drying methods on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.): Kinetics, energy consumption, color, and microstructure." Journal of Food Process Engineering. 41 (4). https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12686
Gasification of non-woody biomass: a literature review
Widjaya, Elita R., Chen, Guangnan, Bowtell, Les and Hills, Catherine. 2018. "Gasification of non-woody biomass: a literature review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 89, pp. 184-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.023
Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer for combined infrared and hot-air drying of sweet potato
Onwude, Daniel I., Hashim, Norhashila, Abdan, Khalina, Janius, Rimfiel, Chen, Guangnan and Kumar, Chandan. 2018. "Modelling of coupled heat and mass transfer for combined infrared and hot-air drying of sweet potato." Journal of Food Engineering. 228, pp. 12-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.02.006
Evaluation of the air-borne ultrasound on fluidized bed drying of shelled corn: effectiveness, grain quality, and energy consumption
Abdoli, Bahareh, Zare, Dariush, Jafari, Abdolabbas and Chen, Guangnan. 2018. "Evaluation of the air-borne ultrasound on fluidized bed drying of shelled corn: effectiveness, grain quality, and energy consumption." Drying Technology: an international journal. 36 (14), pp. 1749-1766. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2018.1423568
Non-thermal hybrid drying of fruits and vegetables: A review of current technologies
Onwude, Daniel I., Hashim, Norhashila, Janius, Rimfiel, Abdan, Khalina, Chen, Guangnan and Oladejo, Ayobami O.. 2017. "Non-thermal hybrid drying of fruits and vegetables: A review of current technologies." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 43, pp. 223-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2017.08.010
Opportunities of adopting renewable energy for the nursery industry in Australia
Chen, Guangnan, Schmidt, Erik, Maraseni, Tek, Bundschuh, Jochen, Banhazi, Thomas and Antille, Diogones L.. 2017. "Opportunities of adopting renewable energy for the nursery industry in Australia." Bundschuh, Jochen, Chen, Guangnan, Chandrasekharam, D. and Piechocki, Janusz (ed.) Geothermal, wind and solar energy applications in agriculture and aquaculture. Leiden, Netherlands. CRC Press. pp. 115-126
Sustainable energy and climate protection solutions in agriculture
Bundschuh, Jochen, Chen, Guangnan, Yusaf, Talal, Yan, Jinyue and Chen, Shulin. 2014. "Sustainable energy and climate protection solutions in agriculture ." Applied Energy. 114, pp. 735-736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.11.037
Geothermal, wind and solar energy applications in agriculture and aquaculture
Bundschuh, Jochen, Chen, Guangnan, Chandrasekharam, D. and Piechocki, Janusz. 2017. Geothermal, wind and solar energy applications in agriculture and aquaculture. Leiden, Netherlands. CRC Press.
Effect of controlled traffic farming on energy saving in Australian grain cropping systems
Luhaib, Adnan A. A., Antille, Diogenes L., Tullberg, Jeff N., Chen, Guangnan and Hussein, Mahmood A.. 2017. "Effect of controlled traffic farming on energy saving in Australian grain cropping systems." 2017 ASABE Annual International Meeting. Spokane, United States 16 - 19 Jul 2017 Spokane, Washington. https://doi.org/10.13031/aim.201700583
Agronomic performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fertiliser use efficiency as affected by controlled and non-controlled traffic of farm machinery
Hussein, Mahmood A. H., Antille, Diogenes L., Chen, Guangnan, Luhaib, Adnan A. A., Kodur, Shreevatsa and Tullberg, Jeff N.. 2017. "Agronomic performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fertiliser use efficiency as affected by controlled and non-controlled traffic of farm machinery." 2017 ASABE Annual International Meeting. Spokane, United States 16 - 19 Jul 2017 Spokane, Washington. https://doi.org/10.13031/aim.201700586
Energy conversion efficiency of pulsed ultrasound
Al-Juboori, Raed A., Yusaf, Talal and Bowtell, Leslie. 2015. "Energy conversion efficiency of pulsed ultrasound." The 7th International Conference on Applied Energy - ICAE2015. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 28 - 31 Mar 2015 Netherlands. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.340
Evaluation of alternative energy sources for cotton production in Australia
Chen, Guangnan, Sandell, Gary, Yusaf, Talal and Baillie, Craig. 2013. "Evaluation of alternative energy sources for cotton production in Australia." SEAg 2013: Innovative Agricultural Technologies for a Sustainable Future. Barton, Australia 22 - 25 Sep 2013 Barton, ACT, Australia.
Alternative energy sources fro cotton production
Baillie, Craig, Sandell, Gary, Chen, Guangnan and Yusaf, Talal. 2012. "Alternative energy sources fro cotton production." 16th Australian Cotton Conference (ACC 2012): Growing Better all the Time. Gold Coast, Australia 14 - 16 Aug 2012 Gold Coast, Australia.
Investigating natural organic carbon removal and structural alteration induced by pulsed ultrasound
Al-Juboori, Raed A., Yusaf, Talal, Aravinthan, Vasantha and Bowtell, Leslie. 2016. "Investigating natural organic carbon removal and structural alteration induced by pulsed ultrasound." Science of the Total Environment. 541, pp. 1019-1030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.143
Insights into the scalability of magnetostrictive ultrasound technology for water treatment applications
Al-Juboori, Raed A., Bowtell, Leslie A., Yusaf, Talal and Aravinthan, Vasantha. 2016. "Insights into the scalability of magnetostrictive ultrasound technology for water treatment applications." Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 28, pp. 357-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.08.013
Influence of different pre-processing methods in predicting sugarcane quality from near-infrared (NIR) spectral data
Lazim, S. S. R. M., Nawi, N. M., Chen, G., Jensen, T. and Rasli, A. M. M.. 2016. "Influence of different pre-processing methods in predicting sugarcane quality from near-infrared (NIR) spectral data." International Food Research Journal. Supplement 23, pp. S231-S236.
Online intravenous pump emulator: as effective as face-to-face simulation for training nursing students
Terry, Victoria R., Moloney, Clint, Bowtell, Leslie and Terry, Peter C.. 2016. "Online intravenous pump emulator: as effective as face-to-face simulation for training nursing students." Nurse Education Today. 40, pp. 198-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.03.004
Influence of controlled traffic no-till system on soil chemical properties and crop yield in annual double-cropping area of the North China Plain
Lu, Caiyun, Li, Hongwen, He, Jin, Wang, Qingjie, Sarker, Khokan Kumer, Li, Wenying, Lu, Zhanyuan, Rasaily, Rabi G., Li, Hui and Chen, Guangnan. 2016. "Influence of controlled traffic no-till system on soil chemical properties and crop yield in annual double-cropping area of the North China Plain." Soil Research. 54 (6), pp. 760-766. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR15123
Recent advances of novel thermal combined hot air drying of agricultural crops
Onwude, Daniel I., Hashim, Norhashila and Chen, Guangnan. 2016. "Recent advances of novel thermal combined hot air drying of agricultural crops." Trends in Food Science and Technology. 57 (A), pp. 132-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.09.012
Bioenergy from cotton industry wastes: a review and potential
Hamawand, Ihsan, Sandell, Gary, Pittaway, Pam, Chakrabarty, Sayan, Yusaf, Talal, Chen, Guangnan, Seneweera, Saman, Al-Lwayzy, Saddam, Bennett, John and Hopf, Joshua. 2016. "Bioenergy from cotton industry wastes: a review and potential." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 66, pp. 435-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.033
An assessment of direct on-farm energy use for high value grain crops grown under different farming practices in Australia
Maraseni, Tek, Chen, Guangnan, Banhazi, Thomas, Bundschuh, Jochen and Yusaf, Talal. 2015. "An assessment of direct on-farm energy use for high value grain crops grown under different farming practices in Australia." Energies. 8 (11), pp. 13033-13046. https://doi.org/10.3390/en81112353
Tracking ultrasonically structural changes of natural aquatic organic carbon: chemical fractionation and spectroscopic approaches
Al-Juboori, Raed A., Yusaf, Talal, Aravinthan, Vasantha and Bowtell, Leslie. 2016. "Tracking ultrasonically structural changes of natural aquatic organic carbon: chemical fractionation and spectroscopic approaches." Chemosphere. 145, pp. 231-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.079
Pumping systems: design and energy efficiency
Guan, Lisa and Chen, Guangnan. 2015. "Pumping systems: design and energy efficiency." Anwar, Sohail (ed.) Encyclopedia of energy engineering and technology. United States. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1-8
Agriculture: alternative energy sources
Chen, Guangnan, Maraseni, Tek, Bundschuh, Jochen and Zare, Dariush. 2015. "Agriculture: alternative energy sources." Anwar, Sohail (ed.) Encyclopedia of energy engineering and technology. United States. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1-6
On-farm energy use in the grain and horticultural industries
Chen, Guangnan, Maraseni, Tek, Banhazi, Thomas and Bundschuh, Jochen. 2015. "On-farm energy use in the grain and horticultural industries." 1st Australian Life Cycle Assessment Conference 2015 (AgriFoodLCA): Growth Through Sustainability. Melbourne, Australia 23 - 24 Nov 2015 Australia.
On-farm energy use in the dairy industries
Chen, Guangnan, Maraseni, Tek, Banhazi, Thomas and Bundschuh, Jochen. 2015. "On-farm energy use in the dairy industries." 1st Australian Life Cycle Assessment Conference 2015 (AgriFoodLCA): Growth Through Sustainability. Melbourne, Australia 23 - 24 Nov 2015 Australia.
Reducing energy use and costs in agriculture
Chen, Guangnan, Sandell, Gary and Baillie, Craig. 2015. "Reducing energy use and costs in agriculture." Global Journal of Energy Technology Research Updates. 2 (2), pp. 33-38. https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-5818.2015.02.02.1
Life cycle energy analysis of eight residential houses in Brisbane, Australia
Guan, Lisa, Walmselya, Madeleine and Chen, Guangnan. 2015. "Life cycle energy analysis of eight residential houses in Brisbane, Australia." Procedia Engineering. 121, pp. 653-661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.1059
Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation
Al-Juboori, Raed A., Aravinthan, Vasantha, Yusaf, Talal and Bowtell, Leslie. 2016. "Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation." Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 31, pp. 7-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.11.028
A preliminary assessment of cotton gin waste-mixture co-gasification performance
Widjaya, Elita R., Chen, Guangnan, Bowtell, Leslie and Hills, Catherine. 2015. "A preliminary assessment of cotton gin waste-mixture co-gasification performance." 2nd International Conference on Agriculture, Environment and Biological Sciences (ICAEBS'15). Bali, Indonesia 16 - 17 Aug 2015
Towards a sustainable energy technologies based agriculture
Bundschuh, Jochen, Chen, Guangnan and Mushtaq, Shahbaz. 2014. "Towards a sustainable energy technologies based agriculture." Bundschuh, Jochen and Chen, Guangnan (ed.) Sustainable energy solutions in agriculture: sustainable energy developments. London, United Kingdom. CRC Press. pp. 3-15
Prediction of sugarcane quality parameters using visible-shortwave near infrared spectroradiometer
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Rowshon, Kamal Md., Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2014. "Prediction of sugarcane quality parameters using visible-shortwave near infrared spectroradiometer." Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 2, pp. 136 -143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2014.11.020
Alternative energy sources for cotton production in Australia
Chen, Guangnan, Sandell, Gary and Baillie, Craig. 2014. "Alternative energy sources for cotton production in Australia." 18th World Congress of the International Commission of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2014): Upgrading the Quality of our Life. Beijing, China 16 - 19 Sep 2014 Kyoto, Japan.
Improving energy efficiency in agriculture
Chen, Guangnan, Sandell, Gary and Baillie, Craig. 2014. "Improving energy efficiency in agriculture." 18th World Congress of the International Commission of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2014): Upgrading the Quality of our Life. Beijing, China 16 - 19 Sep 2014 Kyoto, Japan.
Investigating the feasibility and the optimal location of pulsed ultrasound in surface water treatment schemes
Al-Juboori, Raed A., Yusaf, Talal, Aravinthan, Vasantha, Pittaway, Pamela A. and Bowtell, Leslie. 2016. "Investigating the feasibility and the optimal location of pulsed ultrasound in surface water treatment schemes." Desalination and Water Treatment. 57 (11), pp. 4769-4787. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.996771
Prediction of sugarcane quality from juice samples using portable spectroscopy
Nawi, Nazmi M., Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2014. "Prediction of sugarcane quality from juice samples using portable spectroscopy." Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences. 7, pp. 1219-1226. https://doi.org/10.15282/jmes.7.2014.21.0119
Energy characterisation of ultrasonic systems for industrial processes
Al-Juboori, Raed A., Yusaf, Talal, Bowtell, Leslie and Aravinthan, Vasantha. 2015. "Energy characterisation of ultrasonic systems for industrial processes." Ultrasonics. 57, pp. 18-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2014.10.003
Application of spectroscopic method to predict sugar content of sugarcane internodes
Nawi, N. M., Jensen, T. and Chen, G.. 2014. "Application of spectroscopic method to predict sugar content of sugarcane internodes." Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science. 41 (2), pp. 211-220.
Developing life cycle inventory for life cycle assessment of Australian cotton
Chen, Guangnan, Baillie, Craig, Eady, Sandra and Grant, Tim. 2013. "Developing life cycle inventory for life cycle assessment of Australian cotton." Grant, Tim (ed.) 8th Australian Life Cycle Assessment Conference (ALCAS 2013): Pathways to Greening Global Markets. Sydney, Australia 16 - 18 Jul 2013 Sydney, Australia.
In-field measurement and sampling technologies for monitoring quality in the sugarcane industry: a review
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2014. "In-field measurement and sampling technologies for monitoring quality in the sugarcane industry: a review." Precision Agriculture. 15 (6), pp. 684-703. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-014-9362-9
Improving clinical practice outcomes for nurses with an interactive emulator
Bowtell, Les, Kist, Alexander A., Osbourne, Daniel and Parker, Victoria. 2013. "Improving clinical practice outcomes for nurses with an interactive emulator." 2013 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). Berlin, Germany 13 - 15 Mar 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/EduCon.2013.6530246
Student focus groups
Gibbings, Peter and Bowtell, Les. 2013. "Student focus groups." Lemckert, Charles, Jenkins, Graham and Lang-Lemckert, Susan (ed.) 24th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2013). Gold Coast, Australia 08 - 11 Dec 2013 Brisbane, Australia.
Physical properties of cumin and caraway seeds
Zare, D., Bakhshipour, A. and Chen, G.. 2013. "Physical properties of cumin and caraway seeds." International Agrophysics. 27 (4), pp. 491-494. https://doi.org/10.2478/intag-2013-0020
Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy for predicting sugar content of sugarcane based on a cross-sectional scanning method
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2013. "Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy for predicting sugar content of sugarcane based on a cross-sectional scanning method." Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy. 21 (4), pp. 289-297. https://doi.org/10.1255/jnirs.1060
Development of EnergyCalc - a tool to assess cotton on-farm energy uses
Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2007. Development of EnergyCalc - a tool to assess cotton on-farm energy uses. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Opportunities to enhance energy efficiency and minimise greenhouse gases in Queensland's intensive agricultural sector
Chen, Guangnan, Kupke, Paul and Baillie, Craig. 2008. Opportunities to enhance energy efficiency and minimise greenhouse gases in Queensland's intensive agricultural sector. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy to predict sugarcane quality from clear and raw juice samples
Nawi, N. M., Chen, G. and Jensen, T.. 2013. "Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy to predict sugarcane quality from clear and raw juice samples." 3rd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2013). Sydney, Australia 04 - 05 Jul 2013 Sydney, Australia.
Application of visible and shortwave near infrared spectrometer to predict sugarcane quality from different sample forms
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2013. "Application of visible and shortwave near infrared spectrometer to predict sugarcane quality from different sample forms." Kondo, Naoshi (ed.) 1st International Conference on Sensing Technologies for Biomaterial, Food and Agriculture (SeTBio 2013). Yokohama, Japan 23 - 25 Apr 2013 Bellingham, WA. United States. SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2029395
Agriculture: energy use and conservation
Chen, Guangnan and Maraseni, Tek Narayan. 2013. "Agriculture: energy use and conservation." Jorgensen, S. E. (ed.) Encyclopedia of environmental management. New York, NY. United States. CRC Press. pp. 129-137
Interactive emulator system to aid clinical practice outcomes for nurses
Bowtell, Les, Kist, Alexander A., Osbourne, Daniel and Parker, Victoria R.. 2013. "Interactive emulator system to aid clinical practice outcomes for nurses." International Journal of Online Engineering. 9 (S5), pp. 32-37. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijoe.v9iS5.2771
Buildings: climate change
Guan, Lisa and Chen, Guangnan. 2012. "Buildings: climate change." Jorgensen, Sven Erik (ed.) Encyclopedia of environmental management. New York, NY. United States. CRC Press. pp. 457-463
Air conditioning systems: design and energy efficiency
Guan, Lisa and Chen, Guangnan. 2012. "Air conditioning systems: design and energy efficiency." Capehart, Barney L. (ed.) Encyclopedia of energy engineering and technology. London, United Kingdom. CRC Press. pp. 1-8
Enhancing nursing education with remote access laboratories
Bowtell, Les, Moloney, Clint, Kist, Alexander A., Parker, Victoria, Maxwell, Andrew and Reedy, Natasha. 2012. "Enhancing nursing education with remote access laboratories." International Journal of Online Engineering. 8 (Special Issue), pp. 52-59. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijoe.v8iS4.2279
Prediction and classification of sugar content of sugarcane based on skin scanning using visible and shortwave near infrared
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Mehdizadeh, Saman Abdanan. 2013. "Prediction and classification of sugar content of sugarcane based on skin scanning using visible and shortwave near infrared." Biosystems Engineering. 115 (2), pp. 154-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2013.03.005
Opportunities for reducing on-farm energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in sugarcane
Baillie, Craig and Chen, Guangnan. 2012. "Opportunities for reducing on-farm energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in sugarcane." Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 34th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2012). Palm Cove, Australia 01 - 04 May 2012 Mackay, Australia.
Calculator for renewable energy resources for nursery production
Schmidt, E., Chen, G., Symes, T., Zhao, B. and Cameron, R.. 2010. Calculator for renewable energy resources for nursery production. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Opportunities for reducing on-farm energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in sugarcane
Baillie, Craig and Chen, Guangnan. 2012. "Opportunities for reducing on-farm energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in sugarcane." International Sugar Journal: a technical and commercial periodical devoted entirely to the sugar and sweetener industry. 114 (1366), pp. 725-730.
The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Jensen, Troy and Chen, Guangnan. 2012. "The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning." American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists Journal. 32, pp. 16-27.
Using remote access laboratories in nursing education
Bowtell, Les, Moloney, Clint, Kist, Alexander A., Parker, Victoria, Maxwell, Andrew and Reedy, Natasha. 2012. "Using remote access laboratories in nursing education." 9th International Conference on Remote Engineering and Virtual Instrumentation (REV 2012). Bilbao, Spain 04 - 06 Jun 2012 Piscataway, NJ. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/REV.2012.6293148
Potential technologies to measure sugarcane quality in the field
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2012. "Potential technologies to measure sugarcane quality in the field." 2012 International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng 2012). Valencia, Spain 08 - 12 Jul 2012 Valencia, Spain.
Prediction of sugar content along the height of sugarcane internodes using VisNIR
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2012. "Prediction of sugar content along the height of sugarcane internodes using VisNIR." 2012 International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng 2012). Valencia, Spain 08 - 12 Jul 2012 Valencia, Spain.
Enhancing the value of multiple use plantations: a case study from southeast Queensland, Australia
Maraseni, Tek Narayan, Cockfield, Geoff, Cadman, Tim, Chen, Guangnan and Qu, Jiansheng. 2012. "Enhancing the value of multiple use plantations: a case study from southeast Queensland, Australia." Agroforestry Systems. 86 (3), pp. 451-462. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-012-9506-8
Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia
Nawi, N. M., Yahya, A., Chen, G., Bockari-Gevao, S. M. and Maraseni, T. N.. 2012. "Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia." Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. 18 (1), pp. 45-56. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.41232
Transferring technology of measuring sugarcane quality from the laboratory to the field: what is possible?
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2011. "Transferring technology of measuring sugarcane quality from the laboratory to the field: what is possible?" Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Jensen, Troy, Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2011. "The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Energy use and development of online energy calculators for the nursery industry
Chen, G., Schmidt, E., Symes, T., Zhao, B. and Cameron, R.. 2011. "Energy use and development of online energy calculators for the nursery industry." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Energy, greenhouse gas emissions and irrigated agriculture
Baillie, C. P. and Chen, G.. 2011. "Energy, greenhouse gas emissions and irrigated agriculture." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Influences of green star rating tool on HVAC system design
Guan, Lisa and Chen, Guangnan. 2009. "Influences of green star rating tool on HVAC system design." Zhang, Xiaosong and Nan da Xue, Dong (ed.) 6th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (ISHVAC 2009). Nanjing, China 06 - 09 Nov 2009
Power quality and efficiency improvements for transformerless grid connected PV inverters
Bowtell, Leslie. 2010. Power quality and efficiency improvements for transformerless grid connected PV inverters. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Utilization of solar energy for building operation
Guan, Lisa and Chen, Guangnan. 2009. "Utilization of solar energy for building operation." Zhang, Xiaosong and Nan da Xue, Dong (ed.) 6th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (ISHVAC 2009). Nanjing, China 06 - 09 Nov 2009
An energy model for bifurcation analysis of a double-notched concrete panel: continuum model
Chen, Guangnan and Baker, Graham. 2003. "An energy model for bifurcation analysis of a double-notched concrete panel: continuum model." Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal. 6 (1), pp. 45-51. https://doi.org/10.1260/136943303321625720
Material softening and structural instability
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2003. "Material softening and structural instability." Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal. 6 (4), pp. 353-357. https://doi.org/10.1260/136943303322771727
One-dimensional nonlinear model for prediction of crack spacing in concrete pavements
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2005. "One-dimensional nonlinear model for prediction of crack spacing in concrete pavements." Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal. 8 (6), pp. 595-602. https://doi.org/10.1260/136943305776318338
Energy profile and bifurcation analysis in softening plasticity
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2004. "Energy profile and bifurcation analysis in softening plasticity." Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal. 7 (6), pp. 515-523. https://doi.org/10.1260/1369433042863224
Analysis of crack spacing in reinforced concrete by a lattice model
Chen, G. and Baker, G.. 2004. "Analysis of crack spacing in reinforced concrete by a lattice model." Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal. 7 (2), pp. 179-188. https://doi.org/10.1260/1369433041211084
Comparison between unipolar and bipolar single phase grid-connected inverters for PV applications
Bowtell, Les and Ahfock, Tony. 2007. "Comparison between unipolar and bipolar single phase grid-connected inverters for PV applications." AUPEC 2007: 17th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Perth, Australia 09 - 12 Dec 2007 Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2007.4548098
Energy uses for cotton ginning in Australia
Ismail, Siti A., Chen, Guangnan, Baillie, Craig and Symes, Troy. 2011. "Energy uses for cotton ginning in Australia." Biosystems Engineering. 109 (2), pp. 140-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.02.010
Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia
Ismail, S. A., Chen, G., Baillie, C. and Symes, T.. 2010. "Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia." 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2010): Sustainable Biosystems Through Engineering. Quebec City, Canada 13 - 17 Jun 2010 Quebec City, Canada.
Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters
Bowtell, L. A. and Ahfock, A. L.. 2010. "Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters." Duke, Richard (ed.) AUPEC 2010: Power Quality for the 21st Century. Christchurch, New Zealand 05 - 08 Dec 2010 United States.
Solar energy: utilization in building operations
Guan, Lisa and Chen, Guangnan. 2010. "Solar energy: utilization in building operations." Capehart, Barney L. (ed.) Encyclopedia of energy engineering and technology. London, United Kingdom. Informa UK (Taylor & Francis Books). pp. 1-7
Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters
Bowtell, L. and Ahfock, A.. 2010. "Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters." IET Renewable Power Generation. 4 (5), pp. 428-437. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0043
Energy and greenhouse gas emissions of Australian cotton: from field to fabric
Khabbaz, Borzoo Ghareei, Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2010. "Energy and greenhouse gas emissions of Australian cotton: from field to fabric." 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2010): Sustainable Biosystems Through Engineering. Quebec City, Canada 13 - 17 Jun 2010 Quebec, Canada.
Development strategy of agricultural machinery based on energy-saving in China
Yang, Z., Chen, G., Duan, J., Peng, T. and Wang, J.. 2009. "Development strategy of agricultural machinery based on energy-saving in China." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Design and modeling of the structural integrity of a universal toolbar for two wheeled power tiller
Fraser, M. J., Chen, Guangnan, Esdaile, R. J. and Yang, Zhou. 2009. "Design and modeling of the structural integrity of a universal toolbar for two wheeled power tiller." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Queensland.
Evaluation of energy usage for cotton ginning processes
Ismail, Siti Amni, Chen, Guangnan, Baillie, Craig and Symes, Troy. 2009. "Evaluation of energy usage for cotton ginning processes." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Queensland.
Agricultural applications: energy uses and audits
Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2009. "Agricultural applications: energy uses and audits." Capehart, Barney L. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology. London, United Kingdom. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1-5
Economics of using aerated storage to minimise the impact of weather damage during wheat harvesting
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Zare, Dariush. 2010. "Economics of using aerated storage to minimise the impact of weather damage during wheat harvesting." Biosystems Engineering. 105 (3), pp. 323-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.12.001
The effect of different climatic conditions on wheat harvesting strategy and return
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Zare, Dariush. 2010. "The effect of different climatic conditions on wheat harvesting strategy and return." Biosystems Engineering. 106 (4), pp. 493-502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2010.05.015
Towards a faster and broader application of biochar: appropriate marketing mechanisms
Maraseni, Tek Narayan, Chen, Guangnan and Qian, Guangren. 2010. "Towards a faster and broader application of biochar: appropriate marketing mechanisms." International Journal of Environmental Studies. 67 (6), pp. 851-860. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2010.533892
An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the Australian vegetables industry
Maraseni, Tek N., Cockfield, Geoff, Maroulis, Jerry and Chen, Guangnan. 2010. "An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the Australian vegetables industry." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. 45 (6), pp. 578-588. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2010.493497
A methodology for on farm energy assessment
Baillie, Craig Peter and Chen, Guangnan. 2009. "A methodology for on farm energy assessment." 2009 RIRDC Life Cycle Assessment Workshop. Canberra, Australia 13 May 2009 Barton, A.C.T..
Evaluating on-farm energy performance in agriculture
Chen, Guangnan, Baillie, Craig Peter and Kupke, Paul. 2009. "Evaluating on-farm energy performance in agriculture." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 7 (1), pp. 55-62.
Incompatible 3-node interpolation for gradient-dependent plasticity
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2004. "Incompatible 3-node interpolation for gradient-dependent plasticity." Structural Engineering and Mechanics. 17 (1), pp. 87-97.
Characteristics of solutions in softening plasticity and path criterion
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2003. "Characteristics of solutions in softening plasticity and path criterion." Structural Engineering and Mechanics. 16 (2), pp. 141-152.
Reducing energy input costs and associated greenhouse gas emissions in cotton
Baillie, Craig Peter and Chen, Guangnan. 2008. "Reducing energy input costs and associated greenhouse gas emissions in cotton." 14th Australian Cotton Conference: New Beginnings – Cotton in a Climate of Change. Gold Coast, Australia 12 - 14 Aug 2008 Narrabri, NSW, Australia.
Life cycle energy and carbon footprint assessments: agricultural and food products
Chen, Guangnan, Maraseni, Tek and Yang, Zhou. 2010. "Life cycle energy and carbon footprint assessments: agricultural and food products." Capehart, Barney L. (ed.) Encyclopedia of energy engineering and technology. London, United Kingdom. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1-5
Evaluation of a simulation model in predicting the drying parameters for deep-bed paddy drying
Zare, Dariush and Chen, Guangnan. 2009. "Evaluation of a simulation model in predicting the drying parameters for deep-bed paddy drying." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 68 (1), pp. 78-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2009.04.007
Development of a framework and tool to assess on-farm energy uses of cotton production
Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2009. "Development of a framework and tool to assess on-farm energy uses of cotton production." Energy Conversion and Management. 50 (5), pp. 1256-1263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.01.022
Development of climate-based computer model to reduce crop harvest losses in Australia
Zare, Dariush and Chen, Guangnan. 2008. "Development of climate-based computer model to reduce crop harvest losses in Australia." AgEng2008: Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering for a Sustainable World. Crete, Greece 23 - 25 Jun 2008 Crete, Greece.
Design and development of a prototype small-plot research harvesting system
Chen, Guangnan, Schultz, Justin and Sulman, Richard. 2006. "Design and development of a prototype small-plot research harvesting system." CIGR 2006: Agricultural Engineering for a Better World. Bonn, Germany 03 - 07 Sep 2006 Dusseldorf, Germany.
Incompatible 4-node element for gradient-dependent plasticity
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2004. "Incompatible 4-node element for gradient-dependent plasticity." Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal. 7 (2), pp. 169-177. https://doi.org/10.1260/1369433041211066
Economics of using on-farm aeration grain storage
Nawi, Nazmi Mat and Chen, Guangnan. 2007. "Economics of using on-farm aeration grain storage." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2007: Agriculture and Engineering - Challenge Today, Technology Tomorrow. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 26 Sep 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
Facilitation of effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sector
Chen, Guangnan, Sekhesa, Calvin C. and Penton, Geoff. 2007. "Facilitation of effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sector." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2007: Agriculture and Engineering - Challenge Today, Technology Tomorrow. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 26 Sep 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
Drying operations: agricultural and forestry products
Chen, Guangnan. 2007. "Drying operations: agricultural and forestry products." Capehart, Barney L. (ed.) Encyclopedia of energy engineering and technology. London, United Kingdom. Informa UK (Taylor & Francis Books). pp. 332-337
Enhanced approach to consistency in gradient-dependent plasticity
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2004. "Enhanced approach to consistency in gradient-dependent plasticity." Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal. 7 (3), pp. 279-283. https://doi.org/10.1260/136943304323213229
An analytical model for predication of crack spacing due to shrinkage in concrete pavements
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2004. "An analytical model for predication of crack spacing due to shrinkage in concrete pavements." Journal of Structural Engineering. 130 (10), pp. 1529-1533. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:10(1529)
Influence of bond slip on crack spacing in numerical modeling of reinforced concrete
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2003. "Influence of bond slip on crack spacing in numerical modeling of reinforced concrete." Journal of Structural Engineering. 129 (11), pp. 1514-1521. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:11(1514)
A Rayleigh-Ritz procedure for localized buckling of a strut on a softening foundation by Hermite functions
Chen, G. and Baker, Graham. 2003. "A Rayleigh-Ritz procedure for localized buckling of a strut on a softening foundation by Hermite functions." International Journal of Solids and Structures. 40 (26), pp. 7463-7474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2003.08.010
DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system
Ahfock, Tony L. and Bowtell, Leslie. 2006. "DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system." AUPEC 2006: 16th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Melbourne, Australia 10 - 13 Dec 2006 Melbourne, Australia.
Life cycle assessment of a representative dairy farm with limited irrigation pastures
Chen, Guangnan, Orphant, Simon, Kenman, Sarah J. and Chataway, Robert G.. 2005. "Life cycle assessment of a representative dairy farm with limited irrigation pastures." James, Karli and Grant, Tim (ed.) 4th Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment. Sydney, Australia 23 - 25 Feb 2005 Sydney, Australia.