Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters

Article


Bowtell, L. and Ahfock, A.. 2010. "Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters." IET Renewable Power Generation. 4 (5), pp. 428-437. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0043
Article Title

Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters

ERA Journal ID40937
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBowtell, L. (Author) and Ahfock, A. (Author)
Journal TitleIET Renewable Power Generation
Journal Citation4 (5), pp. 428-437
Number of Pages10
Year2010
Place of PublicationStevenage, Herts. United Kingdom
ISSN1752-1416
1752-1424
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0043
Web Address (URL)https://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0043
Abstract

Limitation of direct current (DC) injection into the alternating current (AC) network is an important operational requirement for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. One way to ensure that this requirement is met is to use a power transformer as interface to the AC network. But this adds costs, mass, volume and power losses. In a transformerless system, the inverter forming part of the PV system has to be operated so that the DC content in its output current is below the specified limits. Ideally, there should be no DC at the output of the inverter, but in practice, in the absence of special measures, a small amount of DC current is present. A technique for elimination of the DC-offset is proposed. It is based on the sensing of the DC-offset voltage at the output of the inverter. A sensor output is used to drive a feedback system designed to control the operation of the inverter so that the DC-offset is forced to stay within the acceptable limits. A mathematical model for the DC-offset controller is derived. A design procedure, based on the model, is proposed for the controller. The results of tests performed on a system of 1 kW nominal rating provide validation for the mathematical model.

KeywordsDC-offset; power quality; DC-injection; AC networks; acceptable limit; alternating current; AS interfaces; DC current; DC offsets; design procedure; direct current; direct-current offsets; feedback systems; grid connected inverters; grid-connected photovoltaic system; operational requirements; output current; power-losses; PV system; sensor output; transformerless
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400803. Electrical energy generation (incl. renewables, excl. photovoltaics)
490105. Dynamical systems in applications
401706. Numerical modelling and mechanical characterisation
Public Notes

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Byline AffiliationsDepartment of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Ahfock, A. and Gambetta, D.. 2010. "Sensorless commutation of printed circuit brushless direct current motors ." IET Electric Power Applications. 4 (6), pp. 397-406. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2009.0133
Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity
Hancock, Nigel Harold, Maxwell, Andrew Douglas and Ah Fock, Antonio Louis. 2005. Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity. 2005205611
Power quality and efficiency improvements for transformerless grid connected PV inverters
Bowtell, Leslie. 2010. Power quality and efficiency improvements for transformerless grid connected PV inverters. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity
Hancock, Nigel H., Maxwell, Andrew D. and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2008. Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity. AG01N2702FI
Comparison between unipolar and bipolar single phase grid-connected inverters for PV applications
Bowtell, Les and Ahfock, Tony. 2007. "Comparison between unipolar and bipolar single phase grid-connected inverters for PV applications." AUPEC 2007: 17th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Perth, Australia 09 - 12 Dec 2007 Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2007.4548098
Magnetic flux density distribution in axial flux machine cores
Hewitt, Andrew, Ahfock, Tony L. and Suslov, Sergey A.. 2005. "Magnetic flux density distribution in axial flux machine cores." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (2), pp. 192-196. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20055039
Effect of fat and muscle tissue conductivity on cortical currents - a tDCS study
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng and Ahfock, Tony. 2011. "Effect of fat and muscle tissue conductivity on cortical currents - a tDCS study." Guo, Shuxiang, Touge, Tetsuo and Xiufen, Ye (ed.) 2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering (ICME 2011). Harbin, China 22 - 25 May 2011 Piscataway, NJ. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCME.2011.5876735
Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe
Ku, H., Ahfock, T. and Yusaf, T.. 2011. "Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe." European Journal of Engineering Education. 36 (3), pp. 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2011.578244
Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters
Bowtell, L. A. and Ahfock, A. L.. 2010. "Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters." Duke, Richard (ed.) AUPEC 2010: Power Quality for the 21st Century. Christchurch, New Zealand 05 - 08 Dec 2010 United States.
The use of arc-suppression coils in power systems with open-delta regulators
Burgess, R. and Ahfock, A.. 2010. "The use of arc-suppression coils in power systems with open-delta regulators." Duke, Richard (ed.) AUPEC 2010: Power Quality for the 21st Century. Christchurch, New Zealand 05 - 08 Dec 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand.
Effects of head geometry and coil position on field distribution under transcranial magnetic stimulation
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng, Ahfock, Tony and Leis, John. 2011. "Effects of head geometry and coil position on field distribution under transcranial magnetic stimulation." MECBME 2011: Connecting Professionals in Biomedical Sciences and Technology. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 21 - 24 Feb 2011 Red Hook, NY. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/MECBME.2011.5752158
Distortion in single phase current controlled PV inverters for grid connection
Sharma, Ronald and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2004. "Distortion in single phase current controlled PV inverters for grid connection ." Saha, T. K. and Walker, G. R. (ed.) AUPEC 2004: Challenges and Opportunities in the Deregulated Power Industry. Brisbane, Australia 26 - 29 Sep 2004 Brisbane, Australia.
A practical demonstration of electromagnetic braking
Ahfock, T. and Wells, C. G.. 2007. "A practical demonstration of electromagnetic braking." AUPEC 2007: 17th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Perth, Australia 09 - 12 Dec 2007 Perth, Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2007.4548077
Designing printed circuit stators for brushless permanent magnet motors
Gambetta, D. and Ahfock, A.. 2009. "Designing printed circuit stators for brushless permanent magnet motors." IET Electric Power Applications. 3 (5), pp. 482-490. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0199
A new sensorless commutation technique for brushless DC motors
Gambetta, D. and Ahfock, A.. 2009. "A new sensorless commutation technique for brushless DC motors." IET Electric Power Applications. 3 (1), pp. 40-49. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa:20070517
Sub-domain scaling for finite element analysis of electrical machines
Hewitt, Andrew and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2005. "Sub-domain scaling for finite element analysis of electrical machines." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (2), pp. 149-156. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20055078
Ultra-capacitor assisted battery storage for remote area power supplies: a case study
Helwig, Andreas and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2009. "Ultra-capacitor assisted battery storage for remote area power supplies: a case study." Ertugrul, Nesimi (ed.) AUPEC 2009: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Systems. Adelaide, Australia 27 - 30 Sep 2009 Adelaide, Australia.
Infrastructure for remotely accessible laboratories at the University of Southern Queensland
Ahfock, Tony, Buttsworth, David, Phythian, Mark and Maxwell, Andrew. 2008. "Infrastructure for remotely accessible laboratories at the University of Southern Queensland." Mann, Llewellyn, Thompson, Adam and Howard, Prue (ed.) 19th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2008). Yeppoon, Australia 07 - 10 Dec 2008 Canberra, Australia.
Internationalisation of Technology and Society course at University of Southern Queensland
Thorpe, David and Ahfock, Tony. 2005. "Internationalisation of Technology and Society course at University of Southern Queensland." Radcliffe, David and Humphries, Josh (ed.) 4th ASEE/AaeE Global Colloquium on Engineering Education. Sydney, Australia 26 - 29 Sep 2005 Brisbane, Australia.
DC magnetisation of transformers
Ahfock, A. and Hewitt, A. J.. 2006. "DC magnetisation of transformers." IET Electric Power Applications. 153 (4), pp. 601-607.
DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system
Ahfock, Tony L. and Bowtell, Leslie. 2006. "DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system." AUPEC 2006: 16th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Melbourne, Australia 10 - 13 Dec 2006 Melbourne, Australia.
Curvature-related eddy-current losses in laminated axial flux machine cores
Ahfock, Tony L. and Hewitt, Andrew. 2005. "Curvature-related eddy-current losses in laminated axial flux machine cores." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (5), pp. 1350-1358. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-erp:20045280
Modeling of the solid rotor induction motor
Ahfock, Tony L. and Hewitt, Andrew. 2005. "Modeling of the solid rotor induction motor." Negnevitsky, Michael (ed.) AUPEC 2005: 15th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Hobart, Australia 25 - 28 Sep 2005 Hobart, Australia.
A pulsed LED system for schlieren flow visualisation
Buttsworth, David R. and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2003. A pulsed LED system for schlieren flow visualisation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.