Grid frequency support from inverter connected generation

Paper


Mlilo, Njabulo, Ahfock, Tony and Brown, Jason. 2021. "Grid frequency support from inverter connected generation." 31st Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2021). Perth, Australia 26 - 30 Sep 2021 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC52110.2021.9597782
Paper/Presentation Title

Grid frequency support from inverter connected generation

Presentation TypePaper
AuthorsMlilo, Njabulo (Author), Ahfock, Tony (Author) and Brown, Jason (Author)
Journal or Proceedings TitleProceedings of the 31st Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2021)
Number of Pages5
Year2021
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISBN9781665434515
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC52110.2021.9597782
Web Address (URL) of Paperhttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9597782
Web Address (URL) of Conference Proceedingshttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/conhome/9597674/proceeding
Conference/Event31st Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2021)
Event Details
31st Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2021)
Event Date
26 to end of 30 Sep 2021
Event Location
Perth, Australia
Abstract

This paper presents a case study to demonstrate impact of current fleet of inverter connected generation (roof top photovoltaics and utility scale grid following inverters) that have been allowed to connect to power networks with no obligations to respond to system under frequency events. In this study, a grid forming inverter with droop control and grid following inverter connected to a modified IEEE nine-bus test system have been used to show system impact when inverters do not provide system support, and benefits when such inverters provide system support for under frequency events. The case studies performed show that there is potential for inverter connected generation to support transmission grid frequency subject to renewable resource availability or when backed up by energy storage facilities. There is need for grid codes to be reviewed further to put more obligation on intermittent inverter connected generation to provide more grid frequency support functionality, particularly for under frequency events which are the most common in power systems in comparison to over frequency events.

KeywordsFrequency control, ancillary services, grid forming inverters, grid following inverters
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400803. Electrical energy generation (incl. renewables, excl. photovoltaics)
400805. Electrical energy transmission, networks and systems
Public Notes

File reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher/author.

Byline AffiliationsSchool of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Assessment of electric field distribution in anisotropic cortical and subcortical regions under the influence of tDCS
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng and Ahfock, Tony. 2014. "Assessment of electric field distribution in anisotropic cortical and subcortical regions under the influence of tDCS." Bioelectromagnetics. 35 (1), pp. 41-57. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.21814
Performance Analysis of an LTE TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Network for Uplink Biased Traffic
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Performance Analysis of an LTE TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Network for Uplink Biased Traffic." IEEE Globecom Workshops (GLOBECOM 2012). CA, United States 03 - 07 Dec 2012 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/I:10.1109/GLOCOMW.2012.6477808
Performance Comparison of LTE FDD and TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Networks for Uplink Biased Traffic
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Performance Comparison of LTE FDD and TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Networks for Uplink Biased Traffic ." 2012 IEEE Third International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm). Tainan, Taiwan 05 2012 - 08 Nov 2015 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/SmartGridComm.2012.6485996
Pilot protection schemes over a multi-service WiMAX network in the smart grid
Khan, Reduan H., Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Pilot protection schemes over a multi-service WiMAX network in the smart grid ." 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC). Budapest, Hungary 09 201 - 13 Jun 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCW.2013.6649381
Reflection: An Efficient Technique for Implementing an LTE Based Wireless Network Control System for Smart Grid and Other Applications
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Reflection: An Efficient Technique for Implementing an LTE Based Wireless Network Control System for Smart Grid and Other Applications." 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Budapest, Hungary 09 - 13 Jun 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2013.6655194
Adaptive Space Time - Time Division Multiple Access (AST-TDMA) protocol for an underwater swarm of AUV's
Burrowes, Gunilla E., Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Adaptive Space Time - Time Division Multiple Access (AST-TDMA) protocol for an underwater swarm of AUV's ." 2013 MTS/IEEE OCEANS - Bergen. Bergen, Norway 10 2013 - 14 Jun 2014 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS-Bergen.2013.6608031
6LoWPAN based Neighborhood Area Network for a smart grid communication infrastructure
Chen, Dong, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "6LoWPAN based Neighborhood Area Network for a smart grid communication infrastructure ." 2013 Fifth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). Da Nang, Vietnam 02 - 05 Jul 2013 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUFN.2013.6614885
Effects of model complexity and tissue anisotropic conductivity on cortical modulation during transcranial direct current stimulation
Shahid, S., Wen, P. and Ahfock, T.. 2012. "Effects of model complexity and tissue anisotropic conductivity on cortical modulation during transcranial direct current stimulation." IET Science, Measurement and Technology. 6 (6), pp. 464-473. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-smt.2012.0014
Numerical investigation of white matter anisotropic conductivity in defining current distribution under tDCS
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng and Ahfock, Tony. 2013. "Numerical investigation of white matter anisotropic conductivity in defining current distribution under tDCS." Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 109 (1), pp. 48-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2012.09.001
Sizing nickel iron batteries for RAPS systems
Helwig, A. and Ahfock, A.. 2011. "Sizing nickel iron batteries for RAPS systems." 2011 IET Renewable Power Generation Conference (RPG 2011) . Edinburgh, United Kingdom 06 - 08 Sep 2011 Stevenage, Herts. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2011.0148
Flexible engineering degree programs with remote access laboratories in an Australian regional university known for its excellence in e-learning
Ku, H., Goh, S. and Ahfock, A.. 2011. "Flexible engineering degree programs with remote access laboratories in an Australian regional university known for its excellence in e-learning." Computer Applications in Engineering Education. 19 (1), pp. 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.20284
Stator eddy-current losses in printed circuit brushless motors
Ahfock, A. and Gambetta, D.. 2011. "Stator eddy-current losses in printed circuit brushless motors." IET Electric Power Applications. 5 (1), pp. 159-167. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2009.0203
Minimising the risk of cross-country faults in systems using arc suppression coils
Burgess, R. and Ahfock, A.. 2011. "Minimising the risk of cross-country faults in systems using arc suppression coils." IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution. 5 (7), pp. 703-711. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2010.0351
Sensorless commutation of printed circuit brushless direct current motors
Ahfock, A. and Gambetta, D.. 2010. "Sensorless commutation of printed circuit brushless direct current motors ." IET Electric Power Applications. 4 (6), pp. 397-406. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2009.0133
Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity
Hancock, Nigel Harold, Maxwell, Andrew Douglas and Ah Fock, Antonio Louis. 2005. Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity. 2005205611
Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity
Hancock, Nigel H., Maxwell, Andrew D. and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2008. Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity. AG01N2702FI
Comparison between unipolar and bipolar single phase grid-connected inverters for PV applications
Bowtell, Les and Ahfock, Tony. 2007. "Comparison between unipolar and bipolar single phase grid-connected inverters for PV applications." AUPEC 2007: 17th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Perth, Australia 09 - 12 Dec 2007 Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2007.4548098
Magnetic flux density distribution in axial flux machine cores
Hewitt, Andrew, Ahfock, Tony L. and Suslov, Sergey A.. 2005. "Magnetic flux density distribution in axial flux machine cores." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (2), pp. 192-196. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20055039
Effect of fat and muscle tissue conductivity on cortical currents - a tDCS study
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng and Ahfock, Tony. 2011. "Effect of fat and muscle tissue conductivity on cortical currents - a tDCS study." Guo, Shuxiang, Touge, Tetsuo and Xiufen, Ye (ed.) 2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering (ICME 2011). Harbin, China 22 - 25 May 2011 Piscataway, NJ. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCME.2011.5876735
Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe
Ku, H., Ahfock, T. and Yusaf, T.. 2011. "Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe." European Journal of Engineering Education. 36 (3), pp. 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2011.578244
Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters
Bowtell, L. A. and Ahfock, A. L.. 2010. "Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters." Duke, Richard (ed.) AUPEC 2010: Power Quality for the 21st Century. Christchurch, New Zealand 05 - 08 Dec 2010 United States.
Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters
Bowtell, L. and Ahfock, A.. 2010. "Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters." IET Renewable Power Generation. 4 (5), pp. 428-437. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0043
The use of arc-suppression coils in power systems with open-delta regulators
Burgess, R. and Ahfock, A.. 2010. "The use of arc-suppression coils in power systems with open-delta regulators." Duke, Richard (ed.) AUPEC 2010: Power Quality for the 21st Century. Christchurch, New Zealand 05 - 08 Dec 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand.
Effects of head geometry and coil position on field distribution under transcranial magnetic stimulation
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng, Ahfock, Tony and Leis, John. 2011. "Effects of head geometry and coil position on field distribution under transcranial magnetic stimulation." MECBME 2011: Connecting Professionals in Biomedical Sciences and Technology. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 21 - 24 Feb 2011 Red Hook, NY. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/MECBME.2011.5752158
Distortion in single phase current controlled PV inverters for grid connection
Sharma, Ronald and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2004. "Distortion in single phase current controlled PV inverters for grid connection ." Saha, T. K. and Walker, G. R. (ed.) AUPEC 2004: Challenges and Opportunities in the Deregulated Power Industry. Brisbane, Australia 26 - 29 Sep 2004 Brisbane, Australia.
A practical demonstration of electromagnetic braking
Ahfock, T. and Wells, C. G.. 2007. "A practical demonstration of electromagnetic braking." AUPEC 2007: 17th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Perth, Australia 09 - 12 Dec 2007 Perth, Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2007.4548077
Designing printed circuit stators for brushless permanent magnet motors
Gambetta, D. and Ahfock, A.. 2009. "Designing printed circuit stators for brushless permanent magnet motors." IET Electric Power Applications. 3 (5), pp. 482-490. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0199
A new sensorless commutation technique for brushless DC motors
Gambetta, D. and Ahfock, A.. 2009. "A new sensorless commutation technique for brushless DC motors." IET Electric Power Applications. 3 (1), pp. 40-49. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa:20070517
Sub-domain scaling for finite element analysis of electrical machines
Hewitt, Andrew and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2005. "Sub-domain scaling for finite element analysis of electrical machines." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (2), pp. 149-156. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20055078
Ultra-capacitor assisted battery storage for remote area power supplies: a case study
Helwig, Andreas and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2009. "Ultra-capacitor assisted battery storage for remote area power supplies: a case study." Ertugrul, Nesimi (ed.) AUPEC 2009: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Systems. Adelaide, Australia 27 - 30 Sep 2009 Adelaide, Australia.
Infrastructure for remotely accessible laboratories at the University of Southern Queensland
Ahfock, Tony, Buttsworth, David, Phythian, Mark and Maxwell, Andrew. 2008. "Infrastructure for remotely accessible laboratories at the University of Southern Queensland." Mann, Llewellyn, Thompson, Adam and Howard, Prue (ed.) 19th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2008). Yeppoon, Australia 07 - 10 Dec 2008 Canberra, Australia.
Multiple subscription subscriber identity module (SIM) card
Brown, Jason. 2009. Multiple subscription subscriber identity module (SIM) card. US7613480B2
Internationalisation of Technology and Society course at University of Southern Queensland
Thorpe, David and Ahfock, Tony. 2005. "Internationalisation of Technology and Society course at University of Southern Queensland." Radcliffe, David and Humphries, Josh (ed.) 4th ASEE/AaeE Global Colloquium on Engineering Education. Sydney, Australia 26 - 29 Sep 2005 Brisbane, Australia.
DC magnetisation of transformers
Ahfock, A. and Hewitt, A. J.. 2006. "DC magnetisation of transformers." IET Electric Power Applications. 153 (4), pp. 601-607.
DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system
Ahfock, Tony L. and Bowtell, Leslie. 2006. "DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system." AUPEC 2006: 16th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Melbourne, Australia 10 - 13 Dec 2006 Melbourne, Australia.
Curvature-related eddy-current losses in laminated axial flux machine cores
Ahfock, Tony L. and Hewitt, Andrew. 2005. "Curvature-related eddy-current losses in laminated axial flux machine cores." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (5), pp. 1350-1358. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-erp:20045280
Modeling of the solid rotor induction motor
Ahfock, Tony L. and Hewitt, Andrew. 2005. "Modeling of the solid rotor induction motor." Negnevitsky, Michael (ed.) AUPEC 2005: 15th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Hobart, Australia 25 - 28 Sep 2005 Hobart, Australia.
A pulsed LED system for schlieren flow visualisation
Buttsworth, David R. and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2003. A pulsed LED system for schlieren flow visualisation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Extended UK models for high frequency spectral occupancy
Pantjiaros, C.A., Wylie, J.A., Brown, J., Gott, G.F. and Laycock, P.J.. 1998. "Extended UK models for high frequency spectral occupancy ." IEE Proceedings - Communications. 145 (3), pp. 168-174. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-com:19981711
Recent work on the measurement and analysis of spectral occupancy at HF
Gott, G.F., Chan, S.K., Pantjiaros, C., Brown, J., Laycock, P.J., Broms, M. and Boberg, S.. 1994. "Recent work on the measurement and analysis of spectral occupancy at HF ." 6th International Conference on `HF Radio Systems and Techniques'. York, United Kingdom 04 - 07 Jul 1994 United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp:19940482