CNN Based Image Classification of Malicious UAVs

Article


Brown, Jason, Gharineiat, Zahra and Raj, Nawin. 2023. "CNN Based Image Classification of Malicious UAVs." Applied Sciences. 13 (1), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010240
Article Title

CNN Based Image Classification of Malicious UAVs

ERA Journal ID211776
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBrown, Jason, Gharineiat, Zahra and Raj, Nawin
Journal TitleApplied Sciences
Journal Citation13 (1), pp. 1-13
Article Number240
Number of Pages13
Year2023
PublisherMDPI AG
ISSN2076-3417
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010240
Web Address (URL)https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/13/1/240
Abstract

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones have found a wide range of useful applications in society over the past few years, but there has also been a growth in the use of UAVs for malicious purposes. One way to manage this issue is to allow reporting of malicious UAVs (e.g., through a smartphone application) with the report including a photo of the UAV. It would be useful to able to automatically identify the type of UAV within the image in terms of the manufacturer and specific product identification using a trained image classification model. In this paper, we discuss the collection of images for three popular UAVs at different elevations and different distances from the observer, and using different camera zoom levels. We then train 4 image classification models based upon Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) using this UAV image dataset and the concept of transfer learning from the well-known ImageNet database. The trained models can classify the type of UAV contained in unseen test images with up to approximately 81% accuracy (for the Resnet-18 model), even though 2 of the UAVs represented in the UAV image dataset are visually similar, and the fact that the UAV image dataset contains images of UAVs that are a significant distance from the observer. This provides a motivation to expand the study in the future to include more UAV types and other usage scenarios (e.g., UAVs carrying loads).

KeywordsUAV; drone; image classification; Convolutional Neural Networks
Article Publishing Charge (APC) Amount Paid0.0
Article Publishing Charge (APC) FundingOther
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400702. Automation engineering
461103. Deep learning
460304. Computer vision
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Engineering
School of Surveying and Built Environment
School of Mathematics, Physics and Computing
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Chen, Dong, Khan, Jamil Y., Brown, Jason, Javed, Muhammad Awais and Zhuang, Yuan. 2020. "A 6LoWPAN OPNET simulation model for machine‐to‐machine communications." Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. 31 (11), pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1002/ett.4120
Development of Flood Monitoring Index for daily flood risk evaluation: case studies in Fiji
Moishin, Mohammed, Deo, Ravinesh C., Prasad, Ramendra, Raj, Nawin and Abdulla, Shahab. 2021. "Development of Flood Monitoring Index for daily flood risk evaluation: case studies in Fiji." Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. 35 (7), pp. 1387-1402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-020-01899-6
Plantar Pressure Characteristics in Obese Individuals: A Proposed Methodology
Al-Daffaie, Kadhem, Chong, Albert K. and Gharineiat, Zahra. 2019. "Plantar Pressure Characteristics in Obese Individuals: A Proposed Methodology." 2019 3rd International Conference on Imaging, Signal Processing and Communication (ICISPC). Singapore 27 - 29 Jul 2019 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICISPC.2019.8935691
Wide Area Wireless Networks for IoT Applications
Brown, Jason. 2019. "Wide Area Wireless Networks for IoT Applications." Khan, Jamil Y. and Yuce, Mehmet R. (ed.) Internet of Things (IoT): Systems and Applications. Singapore. Jenny Stanford Publishing. pp. 203-228
Near real-time global solar radiation forecasting at multiple time-step horizons using the long short-term memory network
Huynh, Anh Ngoc‐Lan, Deo, Ravinesh C., An-Vo, Duc-Anh, Ali, Mumtaz, Raj, Nawin and Abdulla, Shahab. 2020. "Near real-time global solar radiation forecasting at multiple time-step horizons using the long short-term memory network." Energies. 13 (14). https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143517
Spectral Analysis of Satellite Altimeters and Tide Gauges Data around the Northern Australian Coast
Gharineiat, Zahra and Deng, Xiaoli. 2020. "Spectral Analysis of Satellite Altimeters and Tide Gauges Data around the Northern Australian Coast." Remote Sensing. 12 (1), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12010161
Interference mitigation techniques for a dense heterogeneous area network in machine-to-machine communications
Chen, Dong, Khan, Jamil, Javed, Muhammad Awais and Brown, Jason. 2019. "Interference mitigation techniques for a dense heterogeneous area network in machine-to-machine communications ." Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. 30 (12), pp. 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1002/ett.3763
An examination of the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) version 7
Brown, Jason. 2020. "An examination of the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) version 7." International Journal of Information Management. 51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.102058
Wavelet-based 3-phase hybrid SVR model trained with satellite-derived predictors, particle swarm optimization and maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform for solar radiation prediction
Ghimire, Sujan, Deo, Ravinesh C., Raj, Nawin and Mi, Jianchun. 2019. "Wavelet-based 3-phase hybrid SVR model trained with satellite-derived predictors, particle swarm optimization and maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform for solar radiation prediction." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 113, pp. 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.109247
Deep solar radiation forecasting with convolutional neural network and long short-term memory network algorithms
Ghimire, Sujan, Deo, Ravinesh C., Raj, Nawin and Mi, Jianchun. 2019. "Deep solar radiation forecasting with convolutional neural network and long short-term memory network algorithms." Applied Energy. 253, pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113541
Deep Learning Neural Networks Trained with MODIS Satellite-Derived Predictors for Long-Term Global Solar Radiation Prediction
Ghimire, Sujan, Deo, Ravinesh C., Raj, Nawin and Mi, Jianchun. 2019. "Deep Learning Neural Networks Trained with MODIS Satellite-Derived Predictors for Long-Term Global Solar Radiation Prediction." Energies. 12 (12), pp. 1-42. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122407
Global solar radiation prediction by ANN integrated with European Centre for medium range weather forecast fields in solar rich cities of Queensland Australia
Ghimire, Sujan, Deo, Ravinesh C., Downs, Nathan J. and Raj, Nawin. 2019. "Global solar radiation prediction by ANN integrated with European Centre for medium range weather forecast fields in solar rich cities of Queensland Australia." Journal of Cleaner Production. 216, pp. 288-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.158
Blocking analysis of persistent resource allocations for M2M applications in wireless systems
Brown, Jason, Afrin, Nusrat and Khan, Jamil. 2016. "Blocking analysis of persistent resource allocations for M2M applications in wireless systems ." Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. 27 (11), pp. 1513-1529. https://doi.org/10.1002/ett.3091
ICT skill frameworks: do they achieve their goals and users’ expectations?
Brown, Jason and Parr, Alan. 2018. "ICT skill frameworks: do they achieve their goals and users’ expectations?" Advanced Journal of Professional Practice. 1 (2), pp. 38-47.
Predictive resource allocation in the LTE uplink for event based M2M applications
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil. 2013. "Predictive resource allocation in the LTE uplink for event based M2M applications." Kim, Dong-In and Mueller, Peter (ed.) 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Budapest, Hungary 09 - 13 Jun 2013 Piscataway, NJ. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCW.2013.6649208
Key performance aspects of an LTE FDD based Smart Grid communications network
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil. 2013. "Key performance aspects of an LTE FDD based Smart Grid communications network." Computer Communications. 36 (5), pp. 551-561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2012.12.007
Delay models for static and adaptive persistent resource allocations in wireless systems
Brown, Jason, Afrin, Nusrat and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2016. "Delay models for static and adaptive persistent resource allocations in wireless systems." IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 15 (9), pp. 2193-2205. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2015.2492546
A predictive resource allocation algorithm in the LTE uplink for event based M2M applications
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil. 2015. "A predictive resource allocation algorithm in the LTE uplink for event based M2M applications." IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 14 (12), pp. 2433-2446. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2015.2398447
Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast
Gharineiat, Zahra and Deng, Xiaoli. 2018. "Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast." Advances in Space Research. 61 (10), pp. 2540-2554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2018.02.038
Coastal altimetry for sea level changes in Northern Australian coastal oceans
Gharineiat, Zahra. 2017. Coastal altimetry for sea level changes in Northern Australian coastal oceans. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Newcastle.
Optimization of windspeed prediction using an artificial neural network compared with a genetic programming model
Deo, Ravinesh C., Ghimire, Sujan, Downs, Nathan J. and Raj, Nawin. 2018. "Optimization of windspeed prediction using an artificial neural network compared with a genetic programming model." Kim, Dookie, Roy, Sanjiban Sekhar, Lansivaara, Tim, Deo, Ravinesh C. and Samui, Pijush (ed.) Handbook of research on predictive modeling and optimization methods in science and engineering. Hershey, United States. IGI Global. pp. 328-359
Input selection and data-driven model performance optimization to predict the Standardized Precipitation and Evaporation Index in a drought-prone region
Mouatadid, Soukayna, Raj, Nawin, Deo, Ravinesh C. and Adamowski, Jan F.. 2018. "Input selection and data-driven model performance optimization to predict the Standardized Precipitation and Evaporation Index in a drought-prone region." Atmospheric Research. 212, pp. 130-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.05.012
Self-adaptive differential evolutionary extreme learning machines for long-term solar radiation prediction with remotely-sensed MODIS satellite and Reanalysis atmospheric products in solar-rich cities
Ghimire, Sujan, Deo, Ravinesh C., Downs, Nathan J. and Raj, Nawin. 2018. "Self-adaptive differential evolutionary extreme learning machines for long-term solar radiation prediction with remotely-sensed MODIS satellite and Reanalysis atmospheric products in solar-rich cities." Remote Sensing of Environment: an interdisciplinary journal. 212, pp. 176-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.05.003
Adiabatic decay of internal solitons due to Earth’s rotation within the framework of the Gardner–Ostrovsky equation
Obregon, Maria, Raj, Nawin and Stepanyants, Yury. 2018. "Adiabatic decay of internal solitons due to Earth’s rotation within the framework of the Gardner–Ostrovsky equation." Chaos: an interdisciplinary journal of nonlinear science. 28 (3), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5021864
Observing and modelling the high water level from satellite radar altimetry during tropical cyclones
Deng, Xiaoli, Gharineiat, Zahra, Andersen, Ole B. and Stewart, Mark G.. 2016. "Observing and modelling the high water level from satellite radar altimetry during tropical cyclones." Rizos, Chris and Willis, Pascal (ed.) 2013 IAG Scientific Assembly. Postdam, Germany 01 - 06 Sep 2013 Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/1345_2015_108
Adiabatic decay of internal solitons in a rotating ocean
Obregon, M. A., Raj, N. and Stepanyants, Y. A.. 2016. "Adiabatic decay of internal solitons in a rotating ocean." 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference (AFMC 2016). Perth, Australia 05 - 08 Dec 2016 Australia.
Application of the multi adaptive regression splines to integrate sea level data from altimetry and tide gauges for monitoring extreme sea level events
Gharineiat, Zahra and Deng, Xiaoli. 2015. "Application of the multi adaptive regression splines to integrate sea level data from altimetry and tide gauges for monitoring extreme sea level events." Marine Geodesy. 38 (3), pp. 261-276. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490419.2015.1036183
An Interference Mitigation Approach for a Dense Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network
Chen, Dong, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2016. "An Interference Mitigation Approach for a Dense Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network ." 2015 9th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS). Cairns, Australia 14 - 16 Dec 2015 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSPCS.2015.7391773
Energy efficient contention window adaptation algorithm for multi-class traffic
Norsyafizan, Wan, Muhamad, W., Khan, Jamil and Brown, Jason. 2016. "Energy efficient contention window adaptation algorithm for multi-class traffic ." 2015 IEEE International RF and Microwave Conference (RFM). Kuching, Malaysia 14 - 16 Dec 2015 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/RFM.2015.7587716
A Distributed Energy Efficient Packet Transmission Algorithm for the IEEE802.11 WLAN
Norsyafizan, Wan Norsyafizan W., Khan, Jamil Y. and Brown, Jason. 2015. "A Distributed Energy Efficient Packet Transmission Algorithm for the IEEE802.11 WLAN." IEEE 10th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP). Singapore 07 - 09 Apr 2015 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISSNIP.2015.7106912
Energy Efficient Contention Window Adaptation Algorithm for IEEE 802.11 WLAN
Norsyafizan, Wan Norsyafizan Wan, Khan, Jamil Y. and Brown, Jason. 2015. "Energy Efficient Contention Window Adaptation Algorithm for IEEE 802.11 WLAN." 22nd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT2015). Sydney, Australia 27 - 29 Apr 2015 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICT.2015.7124657
An Area Packet Scheduler to Mitigate Coexistence Issues in a WPAN/WLAN Based Hetergeneous Network
Chen, Dong, Khan, Jamil Y. and Brown, Jason. 2015. "An Area Packet Scheduler to Mitigate Coexistence Issues in a WPAN/WLAN Based Hetergeneous Network." 22nd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT2015). Sydney, Australia 27 - 29 Apr 2015 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICT.2015.7124704
Performance evaluation of an adaptive semi-persistent LTE packet scheduler for M2M communications
Afrin, Nusrat, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2015. "Performance evaluation of an adaptive semi-persistent LTE packet scheduler for M2M communications ." 2014 8th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS 2014). Gold Coast, Australia 15 - 17 Dec 2014 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSPCS.2014.7021125
Impact of reverberation levels on short-range acoustic communication in an underwater swarm sensor network (USSN) and application to transmitter power control
Burrowes, Gunilla E., Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2015. "Impact of reverberation levels on short-range acoustic communication in an underwater swarm sensor network (USSN) and application to transmitter power control ." OCEANS 2014 MTS/IEEE - St. John’s. St. John's, NL, Canada 14 - 19 Sep 2014 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2014.7003039
Design of a buffer and channel adaptive LTE semi-persistent scheduler for M2M communications
Afrin, Nusrat, Brown, Jason, Khan, Jamil Y and IEEE. 2015. "Design of a buffer and channel adaptive LTE semi-persistent scheduler for M2M communications ." 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2015). London, United Kingdom 08 - 12 Jun 2015 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2015.7249250
Predictive allocation of resources in the LTE uplink based on maximum likelihood estimation of event propagation characteristics for M2M applications
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y. 2015. "Predictive allocation of resources in the LTE uplink based on maximum likelihood estimation of event propagation characteristics for M2M applications ." IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM 2014). Austin, United States 08 - 12 Dec 2014 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2014.7037592
Nonlinear vector waves of a flexural mode in a chain model of atomic particles
Nikitenkova, S. P., Raj, N. and Stepanyants, Y. A.. 2015. "Nonlinear vector waves of a flexural mode in a chain model of atomic particles." Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 20 (3), pp. 731-742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnsns.2014.05.031
A Delay Sensitive LTE Uplink Packet Scheduler for M2M Traffic
Afrin, Nusrat, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2014. "A Delay Sensitive LTE Uplink Packet Scheduler for M2M Traffic." IEEE Globecom Workshops (GLOBECOM 2013). Atlanta, United States 09 - 13 Dec 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOMW.2013.6825111
A QoS Guaranteed Energy Optimized Packet Transmission Technique for the IEEE802.11 WLAN
Muhamad, Wan Norsyafizan W., Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2014. "A QoS Guaranteed Energy Optimized Packet Transmission Technique for the IEEE802.11 WLAN." Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC 2013). Christchurch, New Zealand 20 - 22 Nov 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ATNAC.2013.6705384
Performance analysis of an enhanced delay sensitive LTE uplink scheduler for M2M traffic
Afrin, Nusrat, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2014. "Performance analysis of an enhanced delay sensitive LTE uplink scheduler for M2M traffic ." Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC 2013). Christchurch, New Zealand 20 - 22 Nov 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ATNAC.2013.6705373
A Packet Age Based LTE Uplink Packet Scheduler for M2M Traffic
Afrin, Nusrat, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2014. "A Packet Age Based LTE Uplink Packet Scheduler for M2M Traffic." 2013 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS 2013). Gold Coast, Australia 16 - 18 Dec 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSPCS.2013.6723987
A QoS Guaranteed Low Energy Packet Transmission Technique for the IEEE 802.11 WLAN
Muhamad, Wan Norsyafizan W., Khan, Jamil Y and Brown, Jason. 2014. "A QoS Guaranteed Low Energy Packet Transmission Technique for the IEEE 802.11 WLAN ." 2014 9th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Sign Processing (CSNDSP). Manchester, United Kingdom 23 - 25 Jul 2015 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/CSNDSP.2014.6923902
An adaptive RRM scheme for smart grid M2M applications over a WiMAX network
Khan, Reduan H., Mahata, Kaushik and Brown, Jason. 2014. "An adaptive RRM scheme for smart grid M2M applications over a WiMAX network ." 2014 9th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Sign Processing (CSNDSP). Manchester, United Kingdom 23 - 25 Jul 2015 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/CSNDSP.2014.6923940
Performance analysis of a distributed 6LoWPAN network for the Smart Grid applications
Chen, Dong, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2014. "Performance analysis of a distributed 6LoWPAN network for the Smart Grid applications ." IEEE 9th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP 2014). Singapore 21 - 24 Apr 2014 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/ISSNIP.2014.6827646
An Adaptive Buffer Based Semi persistent Scheduling Scheme for Machine to Machine Communications over LTE
Afrin, Nusrat, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2014. "An Adaptive Buffer Based Semi persistent Scheduling Scheme for Machine to Machine Communications over LTE." 2014 8th International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Apps, Services and Technologies (NGMAST). Oxford, United States 10 - 12 Sep 2014 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/NGMAST.2014.48
Performance analysis of a tunable cost function based WLAN energy efficient packet transmission technique
Muhamad, Wan Norsyafizan W., Khan, Jamil Y. and Brown, Jason. 2014. "Performance analysis of a tunable cost function based WLAN energy efficient packet transmission technique ." 2014 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Wireless and Mobile (APWiMob 2014). Bali, Indonesia 28 - 30 Aug 2014 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/APWiMob.2014.6920296
UICC control over devices used to obtain service
Brown, Jason and Ahluwalia, Inderpreet Singh. 2014. UICC control over devices used to obtain service. US8639290B2
Nonlinear spectra of shallow water waves
Giovanangeli, J. -P., Kharif, C., Raj, N. and Stepanyants, Y.. 2013. "Nonlinear spectra of shallow water waves." Oceans - San Diego, 2013. San Diego, United States 23 - 26 Sep 2013 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.23919/OCEANS.2013.6741132
Numerical study of nonlinear wave processes by means of discrete chain models
Obregon, M., Raj, N. and Stepanyants, Y.. 2012. "Numerical study of nonlinear wave processes by means of discrete chain models." Gu, Y. T. and Saha, Suvash C. (ed.) 4th International Conference on Computational Methods (ICCM 2012). Gold Coast, Australia 25 - 28 Nov 2012 Brisbane, Australia.
Performance Analysis of an LTE TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Network for Uplink Biased Traffic
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Performance Analysis of an LTE TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Network for Uplink Biased Traffic." IEEE Globecom Workshops (GLOBECOM 2012). CA, United States 03 - 07 Dec 2012 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/I:10.1109/GLOCOMW.2012.6477808
Performance Comparison of LTE FDD and TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Networks for Uplink Biased Traffic
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Performance Comparison of LTE FDD and TDD Based Smart Grid Communications Networks for Uplink Biased Traffic ." 2012 IEEE Third International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm). Tainan, Taiwan 05 2012 - 08 Nov 2015 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/SmartGridComm.2012.6485996
Pilot protection schemes over a multi-service WiMAX network in the smart grid
Khan, Reduan H., Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Pilot protection schemes over a multi-service WiMAX network in the smart grid ." 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC). Budapest, Hungary 09 201 - 13 Jun 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCW.2013.6649381
Reflection: An Efficient Technique for Implementing an LTE Based Wireless Network Control System for Smart Grid and Other Applications
Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Reflection: An Efficient Technique for Implementing an LTE Based Wireless Network Control System for Smart Grid and Other Applications." 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Budapest, Hungary 09 - 13 Jun 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2013.6655194
Adaptive Space Time - Time Division Multiple Access (AST-TDMA) protocol for an underwater swarm of AUV's
Burrowes, Gunilla E., Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "Adaptive Space Time - Time Division Multiple Access (AST-TDMA) protocol for an underwater swarm of AUV's ." 2013 MTS/IEEE OCEANS - Bergen. Bergen, Norway 10 2013 - 14 Jun 2014 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS-Bergen.2013.6608031
6LoWPAN based Neighborhood Area Network for a smart grid communication infrastructure
Chen, Dong, Brown, Jason and Khan, Jamil Y.. 2013. "6LoWPAN based Neighborhood Area Network for a smart grid communication infrastructure ." 2013 Fifth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). Da Nang, Vietnam 02 - 05 Jul 2013 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUFN.2013.6614885
Multiple subscription subscriber identity module (SIM) card
Brown, Jason. 2009. Multiple subscription subscriber identity module (SIM) card. US7613480B2
Extended UK models for high frequency spectral occupancy
Pantjiaros, C.A., Wylie, J.A., Brown, J., Gott, G.F. and Laycock, P.J.. 1998. "Extended UK models for high frequency spectral occupancy ." IEE Proceedings - Communications. 145 (3), pp. 168-174. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-com:19981711
Recent work on the measurement and analysis of spectral occupancy at HF
Gott, G.F., Chan, S.K., Pantjiaros, C., Brown, J., Laycock, P.J., Broms, M. and Boberg, S.. 1994. "Recent work on the measurement and analysis of spectral occupancy at HF ." 6th International Conference on `HF Radio Systems and Techniques'. York, United Kingdom 04 - 07 Jul 1994 United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp:19940482