Crack Detection in Concrete Structures Using Deep Learning

Article


Golding, Vaughn Peter, Gharineiat, Zahra, Munawar, Hafiz Suliman and Ullah, Fahim. 2022. "Crack Detection in Concrete Structures Using Deep Learning." Sustainability. 14 (13), pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138117
Article Title

Crack Detection in Concrete Structures Using Deep Learning

ERA Journal ID41498
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsGolding, Vaughn Peter (Author), Gharineiat, Zahra (Author), Munawar, Hafiz Suliman (Author) and Ullah, Fahim (Author)
Journal TitleSustainability
Journal Citation14 (13), pp. 1-25
Article Number8117
Number of Pages25
Year2022
PublisherMDPI AG
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
ISSN2071-1050
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138117
Web Address (URL)https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/13/8117
Abstract

Infrastructure, such as buildings, bridges, pavement, etc., needs to be examined periodically to maintain its reliability and structural health. Visual signs of cracks and depressions indicate stress and wear and tear over time, leading to failure/collapse if these cracks are located at critical locations, such as in load-bearing joints. Manual inspection is carried out by experienced inspectors who require long inspection times and rely on their empirical and subjective knowledge. This lengthy process results in delays that further compromise the infrastructure’s structural integrity. To address this limitation, this study proposes a deep learning (DL)-based autonomous crack detection method using the convolutional neural network (CNN) technique. To improve the CNN classification performance for enhanced pixel segmentation, 40,000 RGB images were processed before training a pretrained VGG16 architecture to create different CNN models. The chosen methods (grayscale, thresholding, and edge detection) have been used in image processing (IP) for crack detection, but not in DL. The study found that the grayscale models (F1 score for 10 epochs: 99.331%, 20 epochs: 99.549%) had a similar performance to the RGB models (F1 score for 10 epochs: 99.432%, 20 epochs: 99.533%), with the performance increasing at a greater rate with more training (grayscale: +2 TP, +11 TN images; RGB: +2 TP, +4 TN images). The thresholding and edge-detection models had reduced performance compared to the RGB models (20-epoch F1 score to RGB: thresholding −0.723%, edge detection −0.402%). This suggests that DL crack detection does not rely on colour. Hence, the model has implications for the automated crack detection of concrete infrastructures and the enhanced reliability of the gathered information.

Keywordscrack detection; convolutional neural network; image processing; deep learning; damage detection
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020401304. Photogrammetry and remote sensing
330201. Automation and technology in building and construction
401302. Geospatial information systems and geospatial data modelling
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Surveying and Built Environment
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Awais, Muhammad, Aslam, Bilal, Maqsoom, Ahsen, Khalil, Umer, Ullah, Fahim, Azam, Sheheryar and Imran, Muhammad. 2021. "Assessing Nitrate Contamination Risks in Groundwater: A Machine Learning Approach." Applied Sciences. 11 (21), pp. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110034
Effects of COVID‐19 on the Australian economy: insights into the mobility and unemployment rates in education and tourism sectors
Munawar, Hafiz Suliman, Khan, Sara Imran, Ullah, Fahim, Kouzani, Abbas Z. and Mahmud, M. A. Parvez. 2021. "Effects of COVID‐19 on the Australian economy: insights into the mobility and unemployment rates in education and tourism sectors." Sustainability. 13 (20), pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011300
Towards smart healthcare: UAV-based optimized path planning for delivering COVID-19 self-testing kits using cutting edge technologies
Munawar, Hafiz Suliman, Inam, Hina, Ullah, Fahim, Qayyum, Siddra, Kouzani, Abbas Z. and Mahmud, M. A. Parvez. 2021. "Towards smart healthcare: UAV-based optimized path planning for delivering COVID-19 self-testing kits using cutting edge technologies." Sustainability. 13 (18), pp. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810426
UAV based spatiotemporal analysis of the 2019–2020 New South Wales bushfires
Ullah, Fahim, Khan, Sara Imran, Munawar, Hafiz Suliman, Qadir, Zakria and Qayyum, Siddra. 2021. "UAV based spatiotemporal analysis of the 2019–2020 New South Wales bushfires." Sustainability. 13, pp. 1-35. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810207
Using multivariate regression and ANN models to predict properties of concrete cured under hot weather: a case of Rawalpindi Pakistan
Maqsoom, Ahsen, Aslam, Bilal, Gul, Muhammad Ehtisham, Ullah, Fahim, Kouzani, Abbas Z., Mahmud, M. A. Parvez and Nawaz, Adnan. 2021. "Using multivariate regression and ANN models to predict properties of concrete cured under hot weather: a case of Rawalpindi Pakistan." Sustainability. 13, pp. 1-28. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810164
BIMp-chart — a global decision support system for measuring BIM implementation level in construction organizations
Malik, Qurratulain, Nasir, Abdur Rehman, Muhammad, Rabiah, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin, Ullah, Fahim, Khan, Khurram Iqbal Ahmad and Hassan, Muhammad Usman. 2021. "BIMp-chart — a global decision support system for measuring BIM implementation level in construction organizations." Sustainability. 13 (16), pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169270
Urban overheating assessment through prediction of surface temperatures: a case study of Karachi, Pakistan
Aslam, Bilal, Maqsoom, Ahsen, Khalid, Nauman, Ullah, Fahim and Sepasgozar, Samad. 2021. "Urban overheating assessment through prediction of surface temperatures: a case study of Karachi, Pakistan." ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 10 (8), pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10080539
UAVs in disaster management: application of integrated aerial Imagery and convolutional neural network for flood detection
Munawar, Hafiz Suliman, Ullah, Fahim, Qayyum, Siddra, Khan, Sara Imran and Mojtahedi, Mohammad. 2021. "UAVs in disaster management: application of integrated aerial Imagery and convolutional neural network for flood detection." Sustainability. 13 (14), pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147547
A conceptual framework for blockchain smart contract adoption to manage real estate deals in smart cities
Ullah, Fahim and Al-Turjman, Fadi. 2023. "A conceptual framework for blockchain smart contract adoption to manage real estate deals in smart cities." Neural Computing and Applications. 35 (7), p. 5033–5054. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-021-05800-6
Investigating the flood damages in Lower Indus Basin since 2000: spatiotemporal analyses of the major flood events
Atif, Salman, Umar, Muhammad and Ullah, Fahim. 2021. "Investigating the flood damages in Lower Indus Basin since 2000: spatiotemporal analyses of the major flood events." Natural Hazards. 108, pp. 2357-2383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-04783-w
Risk management in sustainable smart cities governance: a TOE framework
Ullah, Fahim, Qayyum, Siddra, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin, Al-Turjman, Fadi and Sepasgozar, Samad M.E.. 2021. "Risk management in sustainable smart cities governance: a TOE framework." Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.120743
Advertising through UAVs: Optimized path system for delivering smart real‐estate advertisement materials
Ullah, Fahim, Al-Turjman, Fadi, Qayyum, Siddra, Inam, Hina and Imran, Muhammad. 2021. "Advertising through UAVs: Optimized path system for delivering smart real‐estate advertisement materials." International Journal of Intelligent Systems. 36 (7), pp. 3429-3463. https://doi.org/10.1002/int.22422
Modelling users’ perception of the online real estate platforms in a digitally disruptive environment: an integrated KANO-SISQual approach
Ullah, Fahim, Sepasgozar, Samad M.E., Shiwrozhan, Sara and Davis, Steven. 2021. "Modelling users’ perception of the online real estate platforms in a digitally disruptive environment: an integrated KANO-SISQual approach." Telematics and Informatics. 63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2021.101660
Evaluation of multivariate adaptive regression splines and artificial neural network for prediction of mean sea level trend around northern Australian coastlines
Raj, Nawin and Gharineiat, zahra. 2021. "Evaluation of multivariate adaptive regression splines and artificial neural network for prediction of mean sea level trend around northern Australian coastlines." Mathematics. 9 (21), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212696
Application of deep learning on UAV-based aerial images for flood detection
Munawar, Hafiz Suliman, Ullah, Fahim, Qayyum, Siddra and Heravi, Amirhossein. 2021. "Application of deep learning on UAV-based aerial images for flood detection." Smart Cities. 4 (3), pp. 1220-1243. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4030065
A beginner’s guide to developing review-based conceptual frameworks in the built environment
Ullah, Fahim. 2021. "A beginner’s guide to developing review-based conceptual frameworks in the built environment." Architecture. 1 (1), pp. 5-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture1010003
Best Value Contractor Selection in Road Construction Projects: ANP-Based Decision Support System
Hasnain, Muhammad, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin and Ullah, Fahim. 2018. "Best Value Contractor Selection in Road Construction Projects: ANP-Based Decision Support System." International Journal of Civil Engineering. 16 (6), pp. 695-714. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40999-017-0199-2
Concession period of public private partnership projects: industry–academia gap analysis
Ullah, Fahim and Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin. 2018. "Concession period of public private partnership projects: industry–academia gap analysis." The International Journal of Construction Management. 18 (5), pp. 418-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/15623599.2017.1333400
A systematic review of smart real estate technology: drivers of, and barriers to, the use of digital disruptive technologies and online platforms
Ullah, Fahim, Sepasgozar, Samad M.E. and Wang, Changxin. 2018. "A systematic review of smart real estate technology: drivers of, and barriers to, the use of digital disruptive technologies and online platforms." Sustainability. 10 (9), pp. 1-44. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093142
System dynamics model to determine concession period of PPP infrastructure projects: overarching effects of critical success factors
Ullah, Fahim, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin, Sepasgozar, Samad M. E. and Forcada, Nuria. 2018. "System dynamics model to determine concession period of PPP infrastructure projects: overarching effects of critical success factors." Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction. 10 (4). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)LA.1943-4170.0000280
The performance gap in energy-efficient office buildings: how the occupants can help?
Ali, Qadeer, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin, Ullah, Fahim and Sepasgozar, Samad M. E.. 2020. "The performance gap in energy-efficient office buildings: how the occupants can help?" Energies. 13 (6). https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061480
Key factors influencing purchase or rent decisions in smart real estate investments: a system dynamics approach using online forum thread data
Ullah, Fahim and Sepasgozar, Samad M. E.. 2020. "Key factors influencing purchase or rent decisions in smart real estate investments: a system dynamics approach using online forum thread data." Sustainability. 12 (11), pp. 1-36. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114382
Smart digital marketing capabilities for sustainable property development: a case of Malaysia
Low, Sheen, Ullah, Fahim, Shiwrozhan, Sara, Sepasgozar, Samad M. E. and Lee, Chyi Lin. 2020. "Smart digital marketing capabilities for sustainable property development: a case of Malaysia." Sustainability. 12 (13), pp. 1-40. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135402
Contingency release during project execution: the contractor’s decision-making dilemma
Ayub, Bilal, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin and Ullah, Fahim. 2019. "Contingency release during project execution: the contractor’s decision-making dilemma." Project Management Journal. 50 (6), pp. 734-748. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756972819848250
Six Sigma in construction: a review of critical success factors
Qayyum Siddiqui, Siddra, Ullah, Fahim, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin and Gabriel, Hamza Farooq. 2016. "Six Sigma in construction: a review of critical success factors." International Journal of Lean Six Sigma. 7 (2), pp. 171-186. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijlss-11-2015-0045
Labor Productivity Assessment Using Activity Analysis on Semi High-Rise Building Projects in Pakistan
Sheikh, Noaman Akbar, Ullah, Fahim, Ayub, Bilal and Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin. 2017. "Labor Productivity Assessment Using Activity Analysis on Semi High-Rise Building Projects in Pakistan." Engineering Journal. 21 (4), pp. 273-286. https://doi.org/10.4186/ej.2017.21.4.273
Influence of Six Sigma on project success in construction industry of Pakistan
Ullah, Fahim, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin, Qayyum Siddiqui, Siddra and Khurshid, Muhammad Bilal. 2017. "Influence of Six Sigma on project success in construction industry of Pakistan." The TQM Journal. 29 (2), pp. 276-309. https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-11-2015-0136
Examining the impact of students’ attendance, sketching, visualization, and tutors experience on students’ performance: a case of building structures course in construction management
Ullah, Fahim, Sepasgozar, Samad, Tahmasebinia, Faham, Sepasgozar, Saleh Mohammad Ebrahimzadeh and Davis, Steven. 2020. "Examining the impact of students’ attendance, sketching, visualization, and tutors experience on students’ performance: a case of building structures course in construction management." Construction Economics and Building. 20 (3), pp. 78-102. https://doi.org/10.5130/AJCEB.v20i3.7056
Competitiveness in the construction industry: A contractor’s perspective on barriers to improving the construction industry performance
Azeem, Moazzam, Ullah, Fahim, Thaheem, Muhammad J. and Qayyum, Siddra. 2020. "Competitiveness in the construction industry: A contractor’s perspective on barriers to improving the construction industry performance." Journal of Construction Engineering, Management & Innovation. 3 (3), pp. 193-219. https://doi.org/10.31462/jcemi.2020.03193219
Empirical evidence of extension of time in construction projects
Shabbar, Haroon, Ullah, Fahim, Ayub, Bilal, Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin and Gabriel, Hamza Farooq. 2017. "Empirical evidence of extension of time in construction projects." Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction. 9 (3). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)LA.1943-4170.0000217
It's all about perceptions: A DEMATEL approach to exploring user perceptions of real estate online platforms
Ullah, Fahim, Sepasgozar, Samad M. E., Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin, Wang, Changxin Cynthia and Imran, Muhammad. 2021. "It's all about perceptions: A DEMATEL approach to exploring user perceptions of real estate online platforms." Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 12 (4), pp. 4297-4317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2021.04.023
Addressing disasters in smart cities through UAVs path planning and 5G communications: A systematic review
Qadir, Zakria, Ullah, Fahim, Munawar, Hafiz Suliman and Al-Turjman, Fadi. 2021. "Addressing disasters in smart cities through UAVs path planning and 5G communications: A systematic review." Computer Communications. 168, pp. 114-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2021.01.003
Managing smart cities through six sigma DMADICV method: A review-based conceptual framework
Qayyum, Siddra, Ullah, Fahim, Al-Turjman, Fadi and Mojtahedi, Mohammad. 2021. "Managing smart cities through six sigma DMADICV method: A review-based conceptual framework." Sustainable Cities and Society. 72, pp. 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.103022
A review of public-private partnership: critical factors of concession period
Ullah, Fahim, Ayub, Bilal, Qayyum, Siddra and Thaheem, Muhammad Jamaluddin. 2016. "A review of public-private partnership: critical factors of concession period." Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction. 21 (3), pp. 269-300. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFMPC-02-2016-0011
Random forest machine learning technique for automatic vegetation detection and modelling in LiDAR data
Tarsha Kurdi, Fayez, Amakhchan, Wijdan and Gharineiat, Zahra. 2021. "Random forest machine learning technique for automatic vegetation detection and modelling in LiDAR data." International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources. 28 (2). https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2021.28.556234
Plantar Pressure Characteristics in Obese Individuals: A Proposed Methodology
Al-Daffaie, Kadhem, Chong, Albert K. and Gharineiat, Zahra. 2019. "Plantar Pressure Characteristics in Obese Individuals: A Proposed Methodology." 2019 3rd International Conference on Imaging, Signal Processing and Communication (ICISPC). Singapore 27 - 29 Jul 2019 United States. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICISPC.2019.8935691
Spectral Analysis of Satellite Altimeters and Tide Gauges Data around the Northern Australian Coast
Gharineiat, Zahra and Deng, Xiaoli. 2020. "Spectral Analysis of Satellite Altimeters and Tide Gauges Data around the Northern Australian Coast." Remote Sensing. 12 (1), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12010161
Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast
Gharineiat, Zahra and Deng, Xiaoli. 2018. "Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast." Advances in Space Research. 61 (10), pp. 2540-2554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2018.02.038
Coastal altimetry for sea level changes in Northern Australian coastal oceans
Gharineiat, Zahra. 2017. Coastal altimetry for sea level changes in Northern Australian coastal oceans. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Newcastle.
Observing and modelling the high water level from satellite radar altimetry during tropical cyclones
Deng, Xiaoli, Gharineiat, Zahra, Andersen, Ole B. and Stewart, Mark G.. 2016. "Observing and modelling the high water level from satellite radar altimetry during tropical cyclones." Rizos, Chris and Willis, Pascal (ed.) 2013 IAG Scientific Assembly. Postdam, Germany 01 - 06 Sep 2013 Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/1345_2015_108
Application of the multi adaptive regression splines to integrate sea level data from altimetry and tide gauges for monitoring extreme sea level events
Gharineiat, Zahra and Deng, Xiaoli. 2015. "Application of the multi adaptive regression splines to integrate sea level data from altimetry and tide gauges for monitoring extreme sea level events." Marine Geodesy. 38 (3), pp. 261-276. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490419.2015.1036183