The current state of Distributed Renewable Generation, challenges of interconnection and opportunities for energy conversion based DC microgrids

Article


Ullah, Shahid, Haidar, Ahmed M. A., Hoole, Paul, Zen, Hushairi and Ahfock, Tony. 2020. "The current state of Distributed Renewable Generation, challenges of interconnection and opportunities for energy conversion based DC microgrids." Journal of Cleaner Production. 273, pp. 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122777
Article Title

The current state of Distributed Renewable Generation, challenges of interconnection and opportunities for energy conversion based DC microgrids

ERA Journal ID3639
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsUllah, Shahid (Author), Haidar, Ahmed M. A. (Author), Hoole, Paul (Author), Zen, Hushairi (Author) and Ahfock, Tony (Author)
Journal TitleJournal of Cleaner Production
Journal Citation273, pp. 1-23
Article Number122777
Number of Pages23
Year2020
PublisherElsevier
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0959-6526
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122777
Web Address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652620328225
Abstract

As distributed renewable energy sources (RES) continue to expand, the necessity arises for more robust coordination approaches and conversion techniques to tackle the challenges introduced by uncertainties in renewable generation. Increasing concerns about energy efficiency and power grid security, such as the significant number of conversion stages for energy production from renewable resources and the bidirectional power flow in the distribution system, have attracted attention to the topic. The presented comprehensive review in this paper discusses the merits and weaknesses of different integration strategies as supported by the literature review. In particular, the focus is placed on the challenges of interconnection and opportunities for direct current (DC) systems. The ultimate objective of this paper is to explore the most important power grid-wide effects due to the expected renewable energy expansion and to gain insights on the availability characteristics of DC microgrids to facilitate their integration with the power grid. The idea behind this is to establish inferences that energy conversion based DC microgrids can be a possible solution to mitigate the negative effect of renewable energy expansion. This is accomplished by systematically reviewing studies on power grid integration as well as providing technical analysis of the resulting outcomes in relation to the general impact of renewable energy production, and then, conducting a comparative study on renewable energy conversion based DC and alternating current (AC) systems. The types of bus topologies and control of DC distribution systems are also intensively reviewed and discussed. Moreover, the protection design considerations, control classifications and standards of DC microgrids are highlighted to explore the future research trends to be undertaken. The review concluded that the impact of interconnection on power grid can be eliminated through the use of intelligent control with advance communication technologies and the implementation of DC microgrids powered by sustainable resources in the distribution system.

KeywordsDistributed generation; Grid integration; DC and AC microgrids; Power quality; Renewable energy production
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400899. Electrical engineering not elsewhere classified
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Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Malaysia, Sarawak, Malaysia
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
Wessex Institute of Technology, United Kingdom
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Hewitt, Andrew, Ahfock, Tony L. and Suslov, Sergey A.. 2005. "Magnetic flux density distribution in axial flux machine cores." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (2), pp. 192-196. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20055039
Effect of fat and muscle tissue conductivity on cortical currents - a tDCS study
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng and Ahfock, Tony. 2011. "Effect of fat and muscle tissue conductivity on cortical currents - a tDCS study." Guo, Shuxiang, Touge, Tetsuo and Xiufen, Ye (ed.) 2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering (ICME 2011). Harbin, China 22 - 25 May 2011 Piscataway, NJ. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCME.2011.5876735
Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe
Ku, H., Ahfock, T. and Yusaf, T.. 2011. "Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe." European Journal of Engineering Education. 36 (3), pp. 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2011.578244
Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters
Bowtell, L. A. and Ahfock, A. L.. 2010. "Dynamic analysis of a DC offset controller for grid-connected inverters." Duke, Richard (ed.) AUPEC 2010: Power Quality for the 21st Century. Christchurch, New Zealand 05 - 08 Dec 2010 United States.
Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters
Bowtell, L. and Ahfock, A.. 2010. "Direct current offset controller for transformerless single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverters." IET Renewable Power Generation. 4 (5), pp. 428-437. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0043
The use of arc-suppression coils in power systems with open-delta regulators
Burgess, R. and Ahfock, A.. 2010. "The use of arc-suppression coils in power systems with open-delta regulators." Duke, Richard (ed.) AUPEC 2010: Power Quality for the 21st Century. Christchurch, New Zealand 05 - 08 Dec 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand.
Effects of head geometry and coil position on field distribution under transcranial magnetic stimulation
Shahid, Salman, Wen, Peng, Ahfock, Tony and Leis, John. 2011. "Effects of head geometry and coil position on field distribution under transcranial magnetic stimulation." MECBME 2011: Connecting Professionals in Biomedical Sciences and Technology. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 21 - 24 Feb 2011 Red Hook, NY. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/MECBME.2011.5752158
Distortion in single phase current controlled PV inverters for grid connection
Sharma, Ronald and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2004. "Distortion in single phase current controlled PV inverters for grid connection ." Saha, T. K. and Walker, G. R. (ed.) AUPEC 2004: Challenges and Opportunities in the Deregulated Power Industry. Brisbane, Australia 26 - 29 Sep 2004 Brisbane, Australia.
A practical demonstration of electromagnetic braking
Ahfock, T. and Wells, C. G.. 2007. "A practical demonstration of electromagnetic braking." AUPEC 2007: 17th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Perth, Australia 09 - 12 Dec 2007 Perth, Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2007.4548077
Designing printed circuit stators for brushless permanent magnet motors
Gambetta, D. and Ahfock, A.. 2009. "Designing printed circuit stators for brushless permanent magnet motors." IET Electric Power Applications. 3 (5), pp. 482-490. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0199
A new sensorless commutation technique for brushless DC motors
Gambetta, D. and Ahfock, A.. 2009. "A new sensorless commutation technique for brushless DC motors." IET Electric Power Applications. 3 (1), pp. 40-49. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa:20070517
Sub-domain scaling for finite element analysis of electrical machines
Hewitt, Andrew and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2005. "Sub-domain scaling for finite element analysis of electrical machines." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (2), pp. 149-156. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20055078
Ultra-capacitor assisted battery storage for remote area power supplies: a case study
Helwig, Andreas and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2009. "Ultra-capacitor assisted battery storage for remote area power supplies: a case study." Ertugrul, Nesimi (ed.) AUPEC 2009: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Systems. Adelaide, Australia 27 - 30 Sep 2009 Adelaide, Australia.
Infrastructure for remotely accessible laboratories at the University of Southern Queensland
Ahfock, Tony, Buttsworth, David, Phythian, Mark and Maxwell, Andrew. 2008. "Infrastructure for remotely accessible laboratories at the University of Southern Queensland." Mann, Llewellyn, Thompson, Adam and Howard, Prue (ed.) 19th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2008). Yeppoon, Australia 07 - 10 Dec 2008 Canberra, Australia.
Internationalisation of Technology and Society course at University of Southern Queensland
Thorpe, David and Ahfock, Tony. 2005. "Internationalisation of Technology and Society course at University of Southern Queensland." Radcliffe, David and Humphries, Josh (ed.) 4th ASEE/AaeE Global Colloquium on Engineering Education. Sydney, Australia 26 - 29 Sep 2005 Brisbane, Australia.
DC magnetisation of transformers
Ahfock, A. and Hewitt, A. J.. 2006. "DC magnetisation of transformers." IET Electric Power Applications. 153 (4), pp. 601-607.
DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system
Ahfock, Tony L. and Bowtell, Leslie. 2006. "DC offset elimination in a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system." AUPEC 2006: 16th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Melbourne, Australia 10 - 13 Dec 2006 Melbourne, Australia.
Curvature-related eddy-current losses in laminated axial flux machine cores
Ahfock, Tony L. and Hewitt, Andrew. 2005. "Curvature-related eddy-current losses in laminated axial flux machine cores." IET Electric Power Applications. 152 (5), pp. 1350-1358. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-erp:20045280
Modeling of the solid rotor induction motor
Ahfock, Tony L. and Hewitt, Andrew. 2005. "Modeling of the solid rotor induction motor." Negnevitsky, Michael (ed.) AUPEC 2005: 15th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. Hobart, Australia 25 - 28 Sep 2005 Hobart, Australia.
A pulsed LED system for schlieren flow visualisation
Buttsworth, David R. and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2003. A pulsed LED system for schlieren flow visualisation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.