True Meaning of Pseudocapacitors and Their Performance Metrics: Asymmetric versus Hybrid Supercapacitors

Article


Chodankar, Nilesh R., Pham, Hong Duc, Nanjundan, Ashok Kumar, Fernando, Joseph F. S., Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina, Golberg, Dmitri, Han, Young-Kyu and Dubal, Deepak P.. 2020. "True Meaning of Pseudocapacitors and Their Performance Metrics: Asymmetric versus Hybrid Supercapacitors." Small. 16 (37). https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002806
Article Title

True Meaning of Pseudocapacitors and Their Performance Metrics: Asymmetric versus Hybrid Supercapacitors

ERA Journal ID3432
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsChodankar, Nilesh R., Pham, Hong Duc, Nanjundan, Ashok Kumar, Fernando, Joseph F. S., Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina, Golberg, Dmitri, Han, Young-Kyu and Dubal, Deepak P.
Journal TitleSmall
Journal Citation16 (37)
Article Number2002806
Number of Pages35
Year2020
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Place of PublicationGermany
ISSN1613-6810
1613-6829
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002806
Web Address (URL)https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.202002806
AbstractThe development of pseudocapacitive materials for energy-oriented applications has stimulated considerable interest in recent years due to their high energy-storing capacity with high power outputs. Nevertheless, the utilization of nanosized active materials in batteries leads to fast redox kinetics due to the improved surface area and short diffusion pathways, which shifts their electrochemical signatures from battery-like to the pseudocapacitive-like behavior. As a result, it becomes challenging to distinguish “pseudocapacitive” and “battery” materials. Such misconceptions have further impacted on the final device configurations. This Review is an earnest effort to clarify the confusion between the battery and pseudocapacitive materials by providing their true meanings and correct performance metrics. A method to distinguish battery-type and pseudocapacitive materials using the electrochemical signatures and quantitative kinetics analysis is outlined. Taking solid-state supercapacitors (SSCs, only polymer gel electrolytes) as an example, the distinction between asymmetric and hybrid supercapacitors is discussed. The state-of-the-art progress in the engineering of active materials is summarized, which will guide for the development of real-pseudocapacitive energy storage systems.
Keywordsasymmetric supercapacitors
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020340604. Electrochemistry
400404. Electrochemical energy storage and conversion
Public NotesThe accessible file is the accepted version of the paper. Please refer to the URL for the published version.
Byline AffiliationsDongguk University, Korea
Centre for Future Materials
Queensland University of Technology
Indian Institute of Technology Jammu, India
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Soft-Templated Synthesis of Sheet-Like Nanoporous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons for Electrochemical Supercapacitors
Allah, Abeer Enaiet, Yamauchi, Yusuke, Wang, Jie, Bando, Yoshio, Tan, Haibo, Farghali, Ahmed A., Khedr, Mohamed Hamdy, Alshehri, Abdulmohsen, Alghamdi, Yousef Gamaan, Martin, Darren, Wahab, Mohammad A., Hossain, Md. Shahriar A. and Nanjundan, Ashok Kumar. 2019. "Soft-Templated Synthesis of Sheet-Like Nanoporous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons for Electrochemical Supercapacitors." ChemElectroChem. 6 (6), pp. 1901-1907. https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201900151
Auto-programmed heteroarchitecturing: Self-assembling ordered mesoporous carbon between two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene layers
Allah, A.E., Wang, J., Kaneti, Y.V., Li, T., Farghali, A.A., Khedr, M.H., Nanjundan, A., Ding, B., Dou, H., Zhang, X., Bando, Y. and Yamauchi, Y.. 2019. "Auto-programmed heteroarchitecturing: Self-assembling ordered mesoporous carbon between two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene layers." Nano Energy. 65, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.103991
From an Fe2P3 complex to FeP nanoparticles as efficient electrocatalysts for water-splitting
Yao, Shenglai, Forstner, Viktoria, Menezes, Prasanth W., Panda, Chakadola, Mebs, Stefan, Zolnhofer, Eva M., Miehlich, Matthias E., Szilvási, Tibor, Nanjundan, Ashok Kumar, Haumann, Michael, Meyer, Karsten, Grützmacher, HHansjorg and Driess, Matthias. 2018. "From an Fe2P3 complex to FeP nanoparticles as efficient electrocatalysts for water-splitting." Chemical Science. 9 (45), pp. 8590-8597. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8sc03407a
Encapsulation of NiCo2O4 in nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for sodium ion capacitors
Yang, Dongfang, Zhao, Qinglan, Huang, Liqing, Xu, Binghui, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Zhao, X. S.. 2018. "Encapsulation of NiCo2O4 in nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for sodium ion capacitors." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 6 (29), pp. 14146-14154. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ta03411g
Pseudocapacitive behavior of the Fe2O3 anode and its contribution to high reversible capacity in lithium ion batteries
Xiang, Yimo, Yang, Zhigao, Wang, Shengping, Hossain, Md. Shahriar A., Yu, Jingxian, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Yamauchi, Yusuke. 2018. "Pseudocapacitive behavior of the Fe2O3 anode and its contribution to high reversible capacity in lithium ion batteries." Nanoscale. 10 (37), pp. 18010-18018. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8nr04871a
Phosphorus-Based Mesoporous Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion
Mei, Peng, Kim, Jeonghun, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Pramanik, Malay, Kobayashi, Naoya, Sugahara, Yoshiyuki and Yamauchi, Yusuke. 2018. "Phosphorus-Based Mesoporous Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion." Joule. 2 (11), pp. 2289-2306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2018.08.001
Functionalized graphene-based, metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Baek, Jong-Beom. 2018. "Functionalized graphene-based, metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells." Dai, Liming (ed.) Carbon-Based Metal-Free Catalysts: Design and Applications. Germany. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. 529-554
High surface area nanoporous carbon derived from high quality jute from Bangladesh
Khan, Junayet Hossain, Lin, Jianjian, Young, Christine, Matsagar, Babasaheb M., Wu, Kevin C.W., Dhepe, Paresh L., Islam, Md Tofazzal, Rahman, Md Mahbubur, Shrestha, Lok Kumar, Alshehri, Saad M., Ahamad, Tansir, Salunkhe, Rahul R., Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Martin, Darren J., Yamauchi, Yusuke and Hossain, Md Shahriar A.. 2018. "High surface area nanoporous carbon derived from high quality jute from Bangladesh." Materials Chemistry and Physics. 216, pp. 491-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2018.05.082
Carbon nanoparticle-based three-dimensional binder-free anode for rechargeable alkali-ion batteries
Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Zhao, X.S.. 2018. "Carbon nanoparticle-based three-dimensional binder-free anode for rechargeable alkali-ion batteries." Materials Today Energy. 8, pp. 29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtener.2018.02.005
Controlled synthesis of mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons with highly ordered two-dimensional hexagonal mesostructures and their chemical activation
Allah, Abeer Enaiet, Tan, Haibo, Xu, Xingtao, Farghali, Ahmed A., Khedr, Mohamed Hamdy, Alshehri, Abdulmohsen Ali, Bando, Yoshio, Nanjundan, Nanjundan Ashok and Yamauchi, Y.. 2018. "Controlled synthesis of mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons with highly ordered two-dimensional hexagonal mesostructures and their chemical activation." Nanoscale. 10 (26), pp. 12398-12406. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8nr02647e
Graphene-Wrapped Nanoporous Nickel-Cobalt Oxide Flakes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors
Alowasheeir, Azhar, Zakaria, Mohamed B., Lin, Jianjian, Chikyow, Toyohiro, Martin, Darren J., Alghamdi, Yousef Gamaan, Alshehri, Abdulmohsen Ali, Bando, Yoshio, Hossain, Md. Shahriar A., Wu, Kevin C.-W., Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Yamauchi, Yusuke. 2018. "Graphene-Wrapped Nanoporous Nickel-Cobalt Oxide Flakes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors." Chemistry Select. 3 (29), pp. 8505-8510. https://doi.org/10.1002/slct.201801174
Synthesis of Hollow Co–Fe Prussian Blue Analogue Cubes by using Silica Spheres as a Sacrificial Template
Azhar, Alowasheeir, Zakaria, Mohamed B., Ebeid, El-Zeiny M., Chikyow, Toyohiro, Bando, Yoshio, Alshehri, Abdulmohsen, Alghamdi, Yousef Gamaan, Cai, Ze-Xing, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Lin, Jianjian, Kim, Hansu and Yamauchi, Yusuke. 2018. "Synthesis of Hollow Co–Fe Prussian Blue Analogue Cubes by using Silica Spheres as a Sacrificial Template." ChemistryOpen. 7 (8), pp. 599-603. https://doi.org/10.1002/open.201800120
Pre-sodiated nickel cobaltite for high-performance sodium-ion capacitors
Yang, Dongfang, Sun, Xiaoming, Lim, Kyungmi, Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan., Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Kang, Kisuk and Zhao, X. S.. 2017. "Pre-sodiated nickel cobaltite for high-performance sodium-ion capacitors." Journal of Power Sources. 362, pp. 358-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.053
Electrocapacitive properties of nitrogen-containing porous carbon derived from cellulose
Lu, Hao, Sun, Xiaoming, Gaddam, Rohit R., Kumar, Nanjundan A. and Zhao, X. S.. 2017. "Electrocapacitive properties of nitrogen-containing porous carbon derived from cellulose." Journal of Power Sources. 360, pp. 634-641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.05.109
Porphyrin-graphene oxide frameworks for long life sodium ion batteries
Nanjundan Ashok, Nanjundan, Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan, Suresh, Moorthy, Varanasi, Srinivasa Rao, Yang, Dongfang, Bhatia, Suresh K. and Zhao, X. S.. 2017. "Porphyrin-graphene oxide frameworks for long life sodium ion batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 5 (25), pp. 13204-13211. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7ta02370g
Capacitance-enhanced sodium-ion storage in nitrogen-rich hard carbon
Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan, Niaei, Amir H. Farokh, Hankel, Marlies, Searles, Debra J., Nanjundan, Nanjundan Ashok and Zhao, X.S.. 2017. "Capacitance-enhanced sodium-ion storage in nitrogen-rich hard carbon." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 5 (42), pp. 22186-22192. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7ta06754b
A Hybrid Mg2+/Li+ Battery Based on Interlayer-Expanded MoS2/Graphene Cathode
Fan, Xin, Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Zhao, Xiu Song. 2017. "A Hybrid Mg2+/Li+ Battery Based on Interlayer-Expanded MoS2/Graphene Cathode." Advanced Energy Materials. 7 (19). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201700317
Lithium-storage Properties of Gallic Acid-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Silicon-Graphene Composites
Xu, Binghui, Zhang, Jintao, Gu, Yi, Zhang, Zhi, Al Abdulla, Wael, Nanjundan Ashok, Kumar and Zhao, X. S.. 2016. "Lithium-storage Properties of Gallic Acid-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Silicon-Graphene Composites." Electrochimica Acta. 212, pp. 473-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.06.116
Functionalization of chemically derived graphene for improving its electrocapacitive energy storage properties
Lei, Zhibin, Zhang, Jintao, Zhang, Li Li, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Zhao, X.S.. 2016. "Functionalization of chemically derived graphene for improving its electrocapacitive energy storage properties ." Energy and Environmental Science. 9 (6), pp. 1891-1930. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ee00158k
Sodium ion storage in reduced graphene oxide
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan, Varanasi, Srinivasa Rao, Yang, Dongfang, Bhatia, Suresh K. and Zhao, X.S.. 2016. "Sodium ion storage in reduced graphene oxide." Electrochimica Acta. 214, pp. 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.08.058
Biomass derived carbon nanoparticle as anodes for high performance sodium and lithium ion batteries
Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan, Yang, Dongfang, Narayan, Ramanuj, Raju, KVSN, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Zhao, X.S.. 2016. "Biomass derived carbon nanoparticle as anodes for high performance sodium and lithium ion batteries." Nano Energy. 26, pp. 346-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.05.047
Iron metal induced deoxygenation of graphite oxide nanosheets-insights on the capacitive properties of binder-free electrodes
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Togami, Makoto, Oishi, Yudai, Tominaga, Masato, Takafuji, Makoto and Ihara, Hirotaka. 2015. "Iron metal induced deoxygenation of graphite oxide nanosheets-insights on the capacitive properties of binder-free electrodes." RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences. 5 (30), pp. 23367-23373. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra15901b
Graphene and molybdenum disulfide hybrids: Synthesis and applications
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Gul, Rukhsana and Baek, Jong-Beom. 2015. "Graphene and molybdenum disulfide hybrids: Synthesis and applications." Materials Today. 18 (5), pp. 286-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2015.01.016
Doped graphene supercapacitors
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Baek, Jong-Beom. 2015. "Doped graphene supercapacitors." Nanotechnology. 26 (49). https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/26/49/492001
Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors
Nolan, Hugo, Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, McEvoy, Niall, O'Brien, Sean, Nicolosi, Valeria and Duesberg, Georg S.. 2014. "Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 16 (6), pp. 2280-2284. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3cp54877e
Electrochemical supercapacitors from conducting polyaniline-graphene platforms
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Baek, Jong-Beom. 2014. "Electrochemical supercapacitors from conducting polyaniline-graphene platforms." Chemical Communications. 50 (48), pp. 6298-6308. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cc01049c
Nanosilicon-based thick negative composite electrodes for lithium batteries with graphene as conductive additive
Nguyen, Binh Phuong Nha, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Gaubicher, Joël, Duclairoi, Florence, Brousse, Thierry, Crosnier, Olivier, Dubois, Lionel, Bidan, Gérard, Guyomard, Dominique and Lestriez, Bernard. 2013. "Nanosilicon-based thick negative composite electrodes for lithium batteries with graphene as conductive additive." Advanced Energy Materials. 3 (10), pp. 1351-1357. https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201300330
Functionalisation of graphene surfaces with downstream plasma treatments
McEvoy, Niall, Nolan, Hugo, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Hallam, Toby and Duesberg, Georg S.. 2013. "Functionalisation of graphene surfaces with downstream plasma treatments." Carbon. 54, pp. 283-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2012.11.040
Plasma-assisted simultaneous reduction and nitrogen doping of graphene oxide nanosheets
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Nolan, Hugo, McEvoy, Niall, Rezvani, Ehsan, Doyle, Richard L., Lyons, Michael E. G. and Duesberg, Georg S.. 2013. "Plasma-assisted simultaneous reduction and nitrogen doping of graphene oxide nanosheets." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 1 (14), pp. 4431-4435. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ta10337d
Synthesis of high quality reduced graphene oxide nanosheets free of paramagnetic metallic impurities
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Gambarelli, Serge, Duclairoir, Florence, Bidan, Gérard and Dubois, Lionel. 2013. "Synthesis of high quality reduced graphene oxide nanosheets free of paramagnetic metallic impurities." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 1 (8), pp. 2789-2794. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ta01036d
Polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide for efficient electrochemical supercapacitors
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Choi, Hyun-Jung, Shin, Yeon Ran, Chang, Dong Wook, Dai, Liming and Baek, Jong-Beom. 2012. "Polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide for efficient electrochemical supercapacitors." ACS Nano. 6 (2), pp. 1715-1723. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn204688c
Electrochemical supercapacitors based on a novel graphene/conjugated polymer composite system
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Choi, Hyun Jung, Bund, Andreas, Baek, Jong-Beom and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2012. "Electrochemical supercapacitors based on a novel graphene/conjugated polymer composite system." Journal of Materials Chemistry. 22 (24), pp. 12268-12274. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2jm30701d
Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-grafted-chitosan - Natural hydroxyapatite composite for bone tissue engineering
Venkatesan, Jayachandran, Qian, Zhong-Ji, Ryu, BoMi, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Kim, Se-Kwon. 2011. "Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-grafted-chitosan - Natural hydroxyapatite composite for bone tissue engineering." Carbohydrate Polymers. 83 (2), pp. 569-577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.08.019
Highly conducting and flexible few-walled carbon nanotube thin film
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Jeon, In-Yup, Sohn, Gyung-Joo, Jain, Rahul, Kumar, Satish and Baek, Jong-Beom. 2011. "Highly conducting and flexible few-walled carbon nanotube thin film." ACS Nano. 5 (3), pp. 2324-2331. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn103630y
Covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with polyglycerol and their use as templates for anchoring magnetic nanoparticles
Pham, Tuan Anh, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2010. "Covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with polyglycerol and their use as templates for anchoring magnetic nanoparticles." Synthetic Metals. 160 (17-18), pp. 2028-2036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2010.07.034
Facile preparation of boronic acid functionalized Fe-core/Au-shell magnetic nanoparticles for covalent immobilization of adenosine
Pham, Tuan Anh, Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2010. "Facile preparation of boronic acid functionalized Fe-core/Au-shell magnetic nanoparticles for covalent immobilization of adenosine." Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 370 (1-3), pp. 95-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2010.08.053
Fabrication of conducting polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites and their use as templates for loading gold nanoparticles
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2010. "Fabrication of conducting polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites and their use as templates for loading gold nanoparticles." Polymer International. 59 (10), pp. 1367-1374. https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.2876
Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with cysteamine for the construction of CNT/gold nanoparticle hybrid nanostructures
Nanjundan, Ashok Kumar, Kim, Sung Hun, Kim, Jong Su, Kim, Jong Tae and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2009. "Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with cysteamine for the construction of CNT/gold nanoparticle hybrid nanostructures." Surface Review and Letters. 16 (3), pp. 487-492. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218625X09012895
Novel amino-acid-based polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube bio-nanocomposites: Highly water dispersible carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles
Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok, Bund, Andreas, Cho, Byung Gwon, Lim, Kwon Taek and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2009. "Novel amino-acid-based polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube bio-nanocomposites: Highly water dispersible carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles." Nanotechnology. 20 (22). https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/20/22/225608
r-2,c-6-Bis(3-methoxy­phen­yl)-t-3,t-5-dimethyl­piperidin-4-one
Parthiban, P., Ramkumar, V., Kumar, N. A., Kim, J. S. and Jeong, Y. T.. 2008. "r-2,c-6-Bis(3-methoxy­phen­yl)-t-3,t-5-dimethyl­piperidin-4-one." Acta Crystallographica Section E: Crystallographic Communications. 64 (8). https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600536808023490
Study on cluster formation of poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes
Kumar, Ashok Nanjundan, Kim, Sung Hun, Kim, Jong Tae, Lim, Kwon Taek and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2008. "Study on cluster formation of poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes." Surface Review and Letters. 15 (5), pp. 689-697. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218625X0801186X
Preparation of poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate functionalized carbon nanotubes as novel biomaterial nanocomposites
Nanjundan, Nanjundan Ashok, Ganapathy, Hullathy Subban, Kim, Jong Su, Jeong, Yong Seok and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2008. "Preparation of poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate functionalized carbon nanotubes as novel biomaterial nanocomposites." European Polymer Journal. 44 (3), pp. 579-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2007.12.009
A facile synthesis, antibacterial, and antitubercular studies of some piperidin-4-one and tetrahydropyridine derivatives
Aridoss, Gopalakrishnan, Amirthaganesan, Shanmugasundaram, Nanjundan, Nanjundan Ashok, Kim, Jong Tae, Lim, Kwon Taek, Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2008. "A facile synthesis, antibacterial, and antitubercular studies of some piperidin-4-one and tetrahydropyridine derivatives." Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 18 (24), pp. 6542-6548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.10.045
Immobilization of Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum onto P4VP polymer thin films by UV irradiation cross-linking
Park, Young Hwan, Nanjundan Ashok, Kumar, Kim, Ji Young, Kim, Jong Tae, Lim, Kwon Taek and Jeong, Yeon Tae. 2007. "Immobilization of Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum onto P4VP polymer thin films by UV irradiation cross-linking." European Polymer Journal. 43 (12), pp. 5034-5039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2007.07.040