The effect of irrigation non-uniformity on carrot production

Paper


Koech, Richard and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "The effect of irrigation non-uniformity on carrot production." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Paper/Presentation Title

The effect of irrigation non-uniformity on carrot production

Presentation TypePaper
AuthorsKoech, Richard (Author) and Raine, Steven R. (Author)
EditorsMontagu, Kelvin
Journal or Proceedings TitleAustralian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: Proceedings
Number of Pages8
Year2010
Place of PublicationSydney, Australia
Web Address (URL) of Paperhttp://www.irrigation.org.au/index.cfm?/publications/australian-irrigation-conference-2010
Conference/EventAustralian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures
Event Details
Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures
Event Date
08 to end of 10 Jun 2010
Event Location
Sydney, Australia
Abstract

Field trials were conducted at three field sites in the Fassifern Valley to determine the effect of irrigation non-uniformity on carrot production. Catch cans were used to measure the distribution uniformity. The total seasonal water at each catch can position over the entire growing period was calculated by summing the depths for each irrigation and rainfall. Yield samples were then taken at each catch can position prior to harvest and compared with the total seasonal water. Options to improve irrigation performance using simulation modelling were identified.
The distribution uniformities of the solid-set and travelling gun systems evaluated were found to be lower than the suggested industry standard of 85%. The sampled yield across the three trial sites did not show any correlation with the total seasonal water, implying that carrot yield did not vary significantly with varying irrigation uniformity. This may have been caused by the unusually high rainfall during the season. The SPACE program was used to in identify the optimal configuration of the solid-set system, while the TRAVGUN program was used to identify the optimal lane spacing and sector angles for the travelling guns.

Keywordsirrigation; carrot production
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020300207. Agricultural systems analysis and modelling
300201. Agricultural hydrology
300499. Crop and pasture production not elsewhere classified
Byline AffiliationsNational Centre for Engineering in Agriculture
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Bennett, J., Raine, S. and Eberhard, F.. 2011. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from property A and B. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Roleen, Tantatton, Pine Ridge, Ben Bow and Oakleigh
Bennett, J., Raine, S. and Eberhard, F.. 2011. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Roleen, Tantatton, Pine Ridge, Ben Bow and Oakleigh. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from the Fairview IR5, IR7 and IR8 irrigation areas
Raine, S. R. and Bennett, J.. 2011. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from the Fairview IR5, IR7 and IR8 irrigation areas. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Effect of applying feedlot effluent pond water on the permeability of soils: interim report
Bennett, J., Dalby, T. and Raine, S.. 2011. Effect of applying feedlot effluent pond water on the permeability of soils: interim report. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Real-time data requirements for model-based adaptive control of irrigation scheduling in cotton
McCarthy, A. C., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2011. "Real-time data requirements for model-based adaptive control of irrigation scheduling in cotton." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 8 (2), pp. 189-206.
Automated real time optimisation for control of furrow irrigation
Koech, Richard. 2012. Automated real time optimisation for control of furrow irrigation. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
An examination of the end-over-end shaking technique for measuring soil dispersion
So, H. B., Cook, G. D. and Raine, S. R.. 1997. "An examination of the end-over-end shaking technique for measuring soil dispersion." Australian Journal of Soil Research. 35 (1), pp. 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1071/S96062
Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2009. "Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions." Transactions of the ASABE. 52 (6), pp. 2093-2103.
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2008. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John and Bradbeer, Robin (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Germany. pp. 305-312 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74027-8_26
Estimating the furrow infiltration characteristic from a single advance point
Langat, P. K., Smith, R. J. and Raine, S. R.. 2008. "Estimating the furrow infiltration characteristic from a single advance point." Irrigation Science. 26 (5), pp. 367-374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-008-0102-7
Accounting for temporal inflow variation in the inverse solution for infiltration in surface irrigation
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "Accounting for temporal inflow variation in the inverse solution for infiltration in surface irrigation ." Irrigation Science. 25 (2), pp. 87-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0037-9
Selecting sites suitable for animal waste application using a raster GIS
Basnet, Badri Bahadur, Apan, Armando and Raine, Steven R.. 2001. "Selecting sites suitable for animal waste application using a raster GIS." Environmental Management (New York): an international journal for decision-makers, scientists and environmental auditors. 28 (4), pp. 519-531. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002670010241
The effect of polyacrylamide additions on the infiltration and erosion of disturbed lands
Vacher, Cameron A., Loch, Rob and Raine, Steven R.. 2003. "The effect of polyacrylamide additions on the infiltration and erosion of disturbed lands." Australian Journal of Soil Research. 41 (8), pp. 1509-1520. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR02114
Mapping and analysis of changes in the riparian landscape structure of the Lockyer Valley Catchment, Queensland, Australia
Apan, Armando, Raine, Steven R. and Paterson, Mark. 2002. "Mapping and analysis of changes in the riparian landscape structure of the Lockyer Valley Catchment, Queensland, Australia." Landscape and Urban Planning. 59 (1), pp. 43-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00246-8
Spatial prioritisation of revegetation sites for dryland salinity management: an analytical framework using GIS
Apan, Armando, Raine, Steven R., Le Brocque, Andrew F. and Cockfield, Geoff. 2004. "Spatial prioritisation of revegetation sites for dryland salinity management: an analytical framework using GIS." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 47 (6), pp. 811-825. https://doi.org/10.1080/0964056042000284848
Soil-water and salt movement associated with precision irrigation systems - research investment opportunities
Raine, S. R., Meyer, W. S., Rassam, D. W., Hutson, J. L. and Cook, F. J.. 2005. Soil-water and salt movement associated with precision irrigation systems - research investment opportunities. Canberra, Australia. Land and Water Australia.
The future of irrigation technologies and practices is here now.
Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "The future of irrigation technologies and practices is here now. " Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Effect of water quality on soil structure and infiltration under furrow irrigation
Emdad, Mohammad R., Raine, Steven R., Smith, Rod J. and Fardad, Hossein. 2004. "Effect of water quality on soil structure and infiltration under furrow irrigation." Irrigation Science. 23 (2), pp. 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-004-0093-y
Irrigation application efficiency and deep drainage potential under surface irrigated cotton
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R. and Minkevich, John. 2005. "Irrigation application efficiency and deep drainage potential under surface irrigated cotton." Agricultural Water Management. 71 (2), pp. 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.07.008
Evaluation of a hydrographic technique to measure on-farm water storage volumes
Gibbings, Peter and Raine, Steven R.. 2005. "Evaluation of a hydrographic technique to measure on-farm water storage volumes." Agricultural Water Management. 78 (3), pp. 209-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.02.010
Automation and control in surface irrigation systems: current status and expected future trends
Koech, Richard, Smith, Rod and Gillies, Malcolm. 2010. "Automation and control in surface irrigation systems: current status and expected future trends." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Simulation modelling in surface irrigation systems
Koech, Richard, Gillies, Malcolm and Smith, Rod. 2010. "Simulation modelling in surface irrigation systems." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2010. "Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations." Intelligent Service Robotics. 3 (4), pp. 209-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11370-010-0075-2
Effect of irrigation management on nitrate movement under a drip irrigated lettuce crop
Althaus, Kimberley, McKeering, Loretta M., McHugh, Allen and Raine, Steven R.. 2009. "Effect of irrigation management on nitrate movement under a drip irrigated lettuce crop ." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Physiological response of cotton to a root zone soil moisture gradient: implications for partial root zone drying irrigation
White, Simon C. and Raine, Steven R.. 2009. "Physiological response of cotton to a root zone soil moisture gradient: implications for partial root zone drying irrigation." Journal of Cotton Science. 13 (2), pp. 67-74.
VARIwise: a general-purpose adaptive control simulation framework for spatially and temporally varied irrigation at sub-field scale
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "VARIwise: a general-purpose adaptive control simulation framework for spatially and temporally varied irrigation at sub-field scale." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 70 (1), pp. 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2009.09.011
Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement." Journal of Cotton Science. 14 (4), pp. 221-232.
Simulation of adaptive site-specific irrigation control performance with spatially variable rainfall
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Simulation of adaptive site-specific irrigation control performance with spatially variable rainfall." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Simulation of site-specific irrigation control strategies with sparse input data
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Simulation of site-specific irrigation control strategies with sparse input data." 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2010): Sustainable Biosystems Through Engineering. Quebec City, Canada 13 - 17 Jun 2010 Quebec, Canada.
Hydraulic characteristics of large diameter gated flexible fluming
Koech, R. K., Smith, R. J. and Gillies, Malcolm H.. 2010. "Hydraulic characteristics of large diameter gated flexible fluming ." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Furrow irrigation in the Australian cotton industry: alternative water delivery systems and their potential for automation
Koech, R. K., Smith, R. J. and Gillies, Malcolm H.. 2010. Furrow irrigation in the Australian cotton industry: alternative water delivery systems and their potential for automation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Can electromagnetic induction be used to evaluate sprinkler irrigation uniformity for a shallow rooted crop?
Hussain, Amjed and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Can electromagnetic induction be used to evaluate sprinkler irrigation uniformity for a shallow rooted crop?" Gilkes, Robert J. and Prakongkep, Nattaporn (ed.) 19th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS 2010): Soil Solutions for a Changing World. Brisbane, Australia 01 - 06 Aug 2010 Warrugal, Australia.
Holistic control system design for large mobile irrigation machines
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2010. "Holistic control system design for large mobile irrigation machines." 16th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2010). Darussalam, Brunei 22 - 24 Jun 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Investigating the effect of electro-osmosis on sandy soil near saturated conditions
Huweg, Abdurrahman F. S., Kamel, Fouad and Raine, Steven. 2010. "Investigating the effect of electro-osmosis on sandy soil near saturated conditions." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Permanent raised bed configurations and renovation methods affect crop performance
Akbar, Ghani, Hamilton, Greg and Raine, Steven. 2010. "Permanent raised bed configurations and renovation methods affect crop performance." Gilkes, Robert J. and Prakongkep, Nattaporn (ed.) 19th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS 2010): Soil Solutions for a Changing World. Brisbane, Australia 01 - 06 Aug 2010 Melbourne, Australia.
Evaluation of automotive varnish as a coating for density measurements of soil clods
de Almeida, B. G., da Silva, A. P., Raine, Steven R. and Figueiredo, G. C.. 2009. "Evaluation of automotive varnish as a coating for density measurements of soil clods." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 73 (2), pp. 449-452. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2008.0191
A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system." Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw, Hanan, Jim S. and Lane, Brendan (ed.) 5th International Workshop on Functional Structural Plant Models (FSPM07). Napier, New Zealand 04 - 09 Nov 2007
Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters." Biological Sensorics 2007: Critical Technologies for Future Biosystems. Minneapolis, Australia 15 - 17 Jun 2007 St. Joseph, MI, United States.
Evaluation of a proximal vision data acquisition system for measuring spatial variability in lettuce growth
Hussain, Amjed, Raine, Steven R., Henderson, Craig and Jensen, Troy. 2008. "Evaluation of a proximal vision data acquisition system for measuring spatial variability in lettuce growth." Unkovich, M. (ed.) 14th Australian Agronomy Conference: Global Issues. Paddock Action. Adelaide, Australia 21 - 25 Sep 2008 Gosford, NSW, Australia.
Characterising land ownership patterns in a salt-affected catchment: key implications for revegetation
Apan, Armando, Raine, Steven R., Cockfield, Geoff and Le Brocque, Andrew F.. 2003. "Characterising land ownership patterns in a salt-affected catchment: key implications for revegetation." 2003 Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial Conference: Spatial Knowledge Without Boundaries (SSC2003). Canberra, Australia 22 - 27 Sep 2003 Canberra, Australia.
Development of a simulation framework for variable-rate irrigation of cotton
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Development of a simulation framework for variable-rate irrigation of cotton." 14th Australian Cotton Conference: New Beginnings – Cotton in a Climate of Change. Gold Coast, Australia 12 - 14 Aug 2008 Narrabri, NSW, Australia.
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2009. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 7 (1), pp. 79-90.
Bankless channel irrigation systems: irrigation performance assessment
Grabham, Michael, Hornbuckle, John, Raine, Steven R. and Smith, Rod. 2009. "Bankless channel irrigation systems: irrigation performance assessment." Irrigation Australia 2009: Irrigation Australia Irrigation and Drainage Conference: Irrigation Today - Meeting the Challenge. Swan Hill, Australia 18 - 21 Oct 2009 Sydney, Australia.
Exploration of data requirements for adaptive control of irrigation scheduling
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2009. "Exploration of data requirements for adaptive control of irrigation scheduling." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Towards evaluation of adaptive control systems for improved site-specific irrigation of cotton
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Towards evaluation of adaptive control systems for improved site-specific irrigation of cotton." Irrigation Australia 2008: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Share the Water, Share the Benefits. Melbourne, Australia 20 - 22 May 2008 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Measurement and management of furrow irrigation at the field scale
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Measurement and management of furrow irrigation at the field scale." Irrigation Australia 2008: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Share the Water, Share the Benefits. Melbourne, Australia 20 - 22 May 2008
A preliminary evaluation of the potential to use electromagnetic induction to assess sprinkler irrigation performance in horticultural crops
Hussain, Amjed and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "A preliminary evaluation of the potential to use electromagnetic induction to assess sprinkler irrigation performance in horticultural crops." 1st Global Workshop on High Resolution Digitial Soil Sensing and Mapping. Sydney, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2008 Sydney, Australia.
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2007. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2007: Agriculture and Engineering - Challenge Today, Technology Tomorrow. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 26 Sep 2007 Australia.
Soil-water and solute movement under precision irrigation: knowledge gaps for managing sustainable root zones
Raine, S. R., Meyer, W. S., Rassam, D. W., Hutson, J. L. and Cook, F. J.. 2007. "Soil-water and solute movement under precision irrigation: knowledge gaps for managing sustainable root zones ." Irrigation Science. 26 (1), pp. 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-007-0075-y
Errors in predicting furrow irrigation performance using single measures of infiltration
Langat, Philip K., Raine, Steven R. and Smith, R. J.. 2007. "Errors in predicting furrow irrigation performance using single measures of infiltration." Irrigation Science. 25 (4), pp. 339-349. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0049-5
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Berlin, Heidelberg.
Improving plants' water use efficiency and potential impacts from soil structure change - research investment opportunities
Loch, R. J., Grant, C. G., McKenzie, D. C. and Raine, S. R.. 2005. Improving plants' water use efficiency and potential impacts from soil structure change - research investment opportunities. Canberra, Australia. Land and Water Australia.
Using simulation modelling to improve the design and management of furrow irrigation in small-holder plots
Langat, Philip K. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Using simulation modelling to improve the design and management of furrow irrigation in small-holder plots." 10th Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network Conference. Mombasa, Kenya 04 - 06 Dec 2006 Mombasa, Kenya.
A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control." Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Brisbane.
Real time control of surface irrigation: managing infiltration variations and enhancing furrow irrigation performance
Khatri, K. L., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Real time control of surface irrigation: managing infiltration variations and enhancing furrow irrigation performance." Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Brisbane.
Is it possible to extract infiltration rates for variable inflow furrow irrigation?
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Is it possible to extract infiltration rates for variable inflow furrow irrigation?" Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Identification and management of dispersive mine spoils
Vacher, Cameron A., Loch, Rob and Raine, Steven R.. 2004. Identification and management of dispersive mine spoils. Kenmore, Australia. Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research.
Characterisation of soil profiles on four AFLQ Premier League sporting fields
Raine, Steven R. and Eberhard, Jochen. 2004. Characterisation of soil profiles on four AFLQ Premier League sporting fields. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
A scoping study on measuring and monitoring tools and technology for precision irrigation
Misra, R. K., Raine, Steven R., Pezzaniti, David, Charlesworth, Philip and Hancock, Nigel. 2005. A scoping study on measuring and monitoring tools and technology for precision irrigation . Toowoomba, Australia. CRC for Irrigation Futures.
Strategies for maximizing sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district
Baillie, Craig Peter and Raine, Steven R.. 2005. "Strategies for maximizing sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district." Annual Australian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (ANCID) Conference. Mildura, Australia 23 - 26 Oct 2005 Mildura, Australia.
Improving whole farm and infield irrigation efficiencies using Irrimate tools
Raine, Steven R., Purcell, Jim and Schmidt, Erik. 2005. "Improving whole farm and infield irrigation efficiencies using Irrimate tools." Irrigation Australia 2005: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Restoring the Balance. Townsville, Australia 17 - 19 May 2005 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
The future direction of on-farm irrigation technologies and practice research
Raine, Steven R. and Durack, Matthew K.. 2005. "The future direction of on-farm irrigation technologies and practice research." The New Age of Cotton - Managing Change and Risk in your Environment (2005). Narrabri, Australia 17 - 18 Aug 2005 Narrabri, Australia.
Recent developments and strategies in the use of plant indicators for irrigation scheduling
Misra, R. K., Fuentes, S. and Raine, Steven R.. 2005. "Recent developments and strategies in the use of plant indicators for irrigation scheduling." Irrigation Australia 2005: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Restoring the Balance. Townsville, Australia 17 - 19 May 2005 Sydney, NSW.
Geographic information system based manure application plan
Raine, Steven R., Basnet, Badri B. and Apan, Armando A.. 2002. "Geographic information system based manure application plan." Journal of Environmental Management. 64 (2), pp. 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.2001.0484