Evaluation of a proximal vision data acquisition system for measuring spatial variability in lettuce growth

Paper


Hussain, Amjed, Raine, Steven R., Henderson, Craig and Jensen, Troy. 2008. "Evaluation of a proximal vision data acquisition system for measuring spatial variability in lettuce growth." Unkovich, M. (ed.) 14th Australian Agronomy Conference: Global Issues. Paddock Action. Adelaide, Australia 21 - 25 Sep 2008 Gosford, NSW, Australia.
Paper/Presentation Title

Evaluation of a proximal vision data acquisition system for measuring spatial variability in lettuce growth

Presentation TypePaper
AuthorsHussain, Amjed (Author), Raine, Steven R. (Author), Henderson, Craig (Author) and Jensen, Troy (Author)
EditorsUnkovich, M.
Journal or Proceedings TitleProceedings of the 14th Australian Agronomy Conference: Global Issues. Paddock Action
Number of Pages4
Year2008
Place of PublicationGosford, NSW, Australia
ISBN9781920842345
Web Address (URL) of Paperhttp://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2008/index.htm
Conference/Event14th Australian Agronomy Conference: Global Issues. Paddock Action
Event Details
14th Australian Agronomy Conference: Global Issues. Paddock Action
Event Date
21 to end of 25 Sep 2008
Event Location
Adelaide, Australia
Abstract

[Abstract]: In-field crop mapping provides the growth and yield data required to spatially manage inputs such as irrigation water and fertiliser. This study evaluated the potential to use low cost cameras as proximal sensors to spatially map lettuce growth throughout a growing season. Two 9 x 11 m measurement plots of 42 sampling points each were established within a sprinkler irrigated lettuce crop. Ten non-uniform irrigations were applied during the season. After each irrigation, the canopy and head diameter of two plants at each sampling point were physically measured. Colour digital cameras were also used to capture images of the lettuces from either 1.15 m or 10 m above the ground surface. Image processing software was then used to calculate the individual plant canopy area and lettuce head diameter. The lettuce growth measurements obtained using the 1.15 m camera were generally well correlated (R2 = 0.73-0.89) with the physical measurements 23 days after transplanting. Weaker correlations (R2 = 0.35-0.74) were observed at earlier dates possibly due to physical measurement errors of plant size early in the season. The correlations between the canopy measurements obtained using the 10 m camera and the physical measurements were generally 0.1 to 0.2 lower than those obtained using the 1.15 m camera, presumably due to lower pixel resolution. Correlations between the head diameter obtained using the 1.15 m camera and the physical measurements ranged from 0.83 to 0.92

Keywordscrop mapping; yield data; growth data; lettuce; irrigation
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020300407. Crop and pasture nutrition
300201. Agricultural hydrology
300202. Agricultural land management
Public Notes

Copyright © 2008 Australian Society of Agronomy.
This publication may be of assistance but the publisher, editors and authors do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaim all liability for any error, loss or other consequence, which may arise from your relying on any information in this publication.

Byline AffiliationsNational Centre for Engineering in Agriculture
Cooperative Research Centre for Irrigation Futures
Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland
Department of Primary Industries, Queensland
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Bramley, R. G. V. and Jensen, T. A.. 2013. "Sugarcane yield monitoring: a protocol for yield map interpolation and key considerations in the collection of yield data." Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 35th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2013). Townsville, Australia 16 - 18 Apr 2013 Mackay, Australia.
Application of spectroscopic method to predict sugar content of sugarcane internodes
Nawi, N. M., Jensen, T. and Chen, G.. 2014. "Application of spectroscopic method to predict sugar content of sugarcane internodes." Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science. 41 (2), pp. 211-220.
Change in the cotton harvesting system: a review and implications for the John Deere 7760 cotton picker
Woodhouse, N. P., Bennett, J. McL. and Jensen, T. A.. 2013. Change in the cotton harvesting system: a review and implications for the John Deere 7760 cotton picker. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Technological and integrated approaches for practical and rapid assessment of compaction in agricultural soils: a review.
Bennett, J. McL., Antille, D. L. and Raine, S. R.. 2013. Technological and integrated approaches for practical and rapid assessment of compaction in agricultural soils: a review. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
In-field measurement and sampling technologies for monitoring quality in the sugarcane industry: a review
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2014. "In-field measurement and sampling technologies for monitoring quality in the sugarcane industry: a review." Precision Agriculture. 15 (6), pp. 684-703. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-014-9362-9
Advances in intelligent and autonomous systems to improve irrigation and fertiliser efficiency
Raine, Steven R. and McCarthy, Alison C.. 2014. "Advances in intelligent and autonomous systems to improve irrigation and fertiliser efficiency." Currie, L. D. and Christensen, C. L. (ed.) Nutrient management for the farm, catchment and community. Palmerston North, New Zealand 18 - 20 Feb 2014 Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Modification of the McNeal clay swelling model improves prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of applied water quality
Ezlit, Y. D., Bennett, J. McL., Raine, S. R. and Smith, R. J.. 2013. "Modification of the McNeal clay swelling model improves prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of applied water quality." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 77 (6), pp. 2149-2156. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2013.03.0097
VARIwise simulation of variable-rate irrigation of cotton via adaptive control: first results
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2010. "VARIwise simulation of variable-rate irrigation of cotton via adaptive control: first results." 15th Australian Cotton Conference 2010: Fashioning the Future. Gold Coast, Australia 10 - 12 Aug 2010 Gold Coast, Australia.
Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy for predicting sugar content of sugarcane based on a cross-sectional scanning method
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2013. "Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy for predicting sugar content of sugarcane based on a cross-sectional scanning method." Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy. 21 (4), pp. 289-297. https://doi.org/10.1255/jnirs.1060
Annual report 2008: South-East Queensland Irrigation Futures: research and development support
Raine, S. R. and McHugh, A. D.. 2009. Annual report 2008: South-East Queensland Irrigation Futures: research and development support. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
A review of salinity and sodicity in irrigation
Ezlit, Younes D., Smith, Rod J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. A review of salinity and sodicity in irrigation. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
A grower guide to plant based sensing for irrigation scheduling
White, S. C. and Raine, S. R.. 2008. A grower guide to plant based sensing for irrigation scheduling. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy to predict sugarcane quality from clear and raw juice samples
Nawi, N. M., Chen, G. and Jensen, T.. 2013. "Visible and shortwave near infrared spectroscopy to predict sugarcane quality from clear and raw juice samples." 3rd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2013). Sydney, Australia 04 - 05 Jul 2013 Sydney, Australia.
Application of visible and shortwave near infrared spectrometer to predict sugarcane quality from different sample forms
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan and Jensen, Troy. 2013. "Application of visible and shortwave near infrared spectrometer to predict sugarcane quality from different sample forms." Kondo, Naoshi (ed.) 1st International Conference on Sensing Technologies for Biomaterial, Food and Agriculture (SeTBio 2013). Yokohama, Japan 23 - 25 Apr 2013 Bellingham, WA. United States. SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2029395
A review of the potential issues associated with using coal seam gas associated water for dust suppression
Bennett, J. McL. and Raine, S. R.. 2012. A review of the potential issues associated with using coal seam gas associated water for dust suppression. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Precision agriculture technologies for the Australian nut industries
McCarthy, Alison and Jensen, Troy. 2012. "Precision agriculture technologies for the Australian nut industries." 3rd Australian Nut Industry Research Forum (ANIC 2012). Brisbane, Australia 21 Sep 2012 Gold Coast, Australia.
Within block spatial variation in CCS: another potentially important consideration in the application of precision agriculture to sugarcane production
Bramley, R. G. V., Panitz, J. H., Jensen, T. A. and Baillie, C. P.. 2012. "Within block spatial variation in CCS: another potentially important consideration in the application of precision agriculture to sugarcane production." Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 34th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2012). Palm Cove, Australia 01 - 04 May 2012 Mackay, Australia.
An assessment of sugarcane yield monitoring concepts and techniques from commercial yield monitoring systems
Jensen, T. A., Baillie, C., Bramley, R. G. V. and Panitz, J. H.. 2012. "An assessment of sugarcane yield monitoring concepts and techniques from commercial yield monitoring systems." Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 34th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2012). Palm Cove, Australia 01 - 04 May 2012 Mackay, Australia.
Sustainable biomass supply chain for the Mallee woody crop industry
Schmidt, Erik, Giles, Rick, Davis, Rod, Baillie, Craig, Jensen, Troy, Sandell, Gary and Norris, Chris. 2012. Sustainable biomass supply chain for the Mallee woody crop industry. Canberra, Australia. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
Prediction and classification of sugar content of sugarcane based on skin scanning using visible and shortwave near infrared
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Mehdizadeh, Saman Abdanan. 2013. "Prediction and classification of sugar content of sugarcane based on skin scanning using visible and shortwave near infrared." Biosystems Engineering. 115 (2), pp. 154-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2013.03.005
Tribological consideration in roller mill machines for agriculture applications
Al-Sandooq, J. M., Yousif, B. F. and Jensen, T. A.. 2012. "Tribological consideration in roller mill machines for agriculture applications." Surface Review and Letters. 19 (6), pp. 1250065-1. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218625X12500655
Using treated CSG water for irrigation in the Surat Basin: opportunity or threat?
Raine, Steven. 2012. "Using treated CSG water for irrigation in the Surat Basin: opportunity or threat?" Queensland Mining and Energy Bulletin. Autumn, pp. 36-39.
Review of precision irrigation technologies and their application
Smith, R. J., Baillie, J. N., McCarthy, A. C., Raine, S. R. and Baillie, C. P.. 2010. Review of precision irrigation technologies and their application. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Macarthur River
Bennett, J. McL., Raine, S. R. and Eberhard, F.. 2012. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Macarthur River. Towoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Roma fields Roleen property
Bennett, J. McL., Raine, S. R. and Eberhard, F.. 2012. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Roma fields Roleen property. Towoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
The impact of rain water on soil pore networks following irrigation with saline-sodic water
Awedat, A. M., Bennett, J. McL., Raine, S. R. and Misra, R. K.. 2012. "The impact of rain water on soil pore networks following irrigation with saline-sodic water." Birkett, Lucy and Sparrow, Leigh (ed.) 5th Joint Australian and New Zealand Soil Science Conference (SSA 2012): Soil Solutions for Diverse Landscapes. Hobart, Australia 02 - 07 Dec 2012 Melbourne, Australia.
Influence of porosity and permeate suspended clay concentration on clay entrainment within a red ferrosol
Awedat, A. M., Raine, S. R., Bennett, J. McL. and Misra, R. K.. 2012. "Influence of porosity and permeate suspended clay concentration on clay entrainment within a red ferrosol." Birkitt, Lucy and Sparrow, Leigh (ed.) 5th Joint Australian and New Zealand Soil Science Conference (SSA 2012): Soil Solutions for Diverse Landscapes. Hobart, Australia 02 - 07 Dec 2012 Melbourne, Australia.
The soil specific nature of threshold electrolyte concentration analysis
Bennett, J. McL. and Raine, S. R.. 2012. "The soil specific nature of threshold electrolyte concentration analysis." Birkett, L. L. and Sparrow, L. A. (ed.) 5th Joint Australian and New Zealand Soil Science Conference (SSA 2012): Soil Solutions for Diverse Landscapes. Hobart, Australia 02 - 07 Dec 2012 Hobart, Australia.
The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Jensen, Troy and Chen, Guangnan. 2012. "The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning." American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists Journal. 32, pp. 16-27.
Advanced process control of irrigation: the current state and an analysis to aid future development
McCarthy, Alison C., Hancock, Nigel H. and Raine, Steven R.. 2013. "Advanced process control of irrigation: the current state and an analysis to aid future development." Irrigation Science. 31 (3), pp. 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-011-0313-1
Potential technologies to measure sugarcane quality in the field
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2012. "Potential technologies to measure sugarcane quality in the field." 2012 International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng 2012). Valencia, Spain 08 - 12 Jul 2012 Valencia, Spain.
Prediction of sugar content along the height of sugarcane internodes using VisNIR
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2012. "Prediction of sugar content along the height of sugarcane internodes using VisNIR." 2012 International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng 2012). Valencia, Spain 08 - 12 Jul 2012 Valencia, Spain.
Impact of renovating permanent raised beds on water use productivity under vertisol
Akbar, Ghani, Raine, Steven, McHugh, Allen and Hamilton, Greg. 2012. "Impact of renovating permanent raised beds on water use productivity under vertisol." Currey, Anne (ed.) ICID & Irrigation Australia 2012 Conference and Trade Show. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 29 Jun 2012 Sydney, Australia.
A soil management technique to enhance lateral infiltration (subbing) in permanent raised beds
Akbar, Ghani, Raine, Steven, McHugh, Allen and Hamilton, Greg. 2012. "A soil management technique to enhance lateral infiltration (subbing) in permanent raised beds." Currey, Anne (ed.) ICID & Irrigation Australia 2012 Conference and Trade Show. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 29 Jun 2012 Sydney, Australia.
Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil
Al-lwayzy, Saddam H., Yusaf, Talal and Jensen, Troy. 2012. "Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil." 1st International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2011). Kuantan, Malaysia 05 - 07 Dec 2011 United States. Informa UK(IOP Books). https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/36/1/012042
Evaluating whole field irrigation performance using statistical inference of inter-furrow infiltration variation
Gillies, M. H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, S. R.. 2011. "Evaluating whole field irrigation performance using statistical inference of inter-furrow infiltration variation." Biosystems Engineering. 110 (2), pp. 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.07.008
A preliminary evaluation of in-season variations in sprinkler irrigation application patterns
Hussain, Amjed and Raine, Steven R.. 2011. "A preliminary evaluation of in-season variations in sprinkler irrigation application patterns." Thompson, Chris (ed.) Irrigation 2011: New Horizons, Fresh Ideas Regional Conference and Exhibition. Launceston, Australia 22 - 25 Aug 2011 Sydney, Australia.
The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle as a remote sensing platform in agriculture
Jensen, T. A., Zeller, L. C. and Apan, A. A.. 2011. "The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle as a remote sensing platform in agriculture." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 8 (2), pp. 139-146.
Transferring technology of measuring sugarcane quality from the laboratory to the field: what is possible?
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2011. "Transferring technology of measuring sugarcane quality from the laboratory to the field: what is possible?" Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Jensen, Troy, Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2011. "The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
The economics of sprinkler irrigation uniformity for lettuce production with in-season rainfall
Hussain, A., Raine, S. R. and Smith, R. J.. 2009. "The economics of sprinkler irrigation uniformity for lettuce production with in-season rainfall." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Queensland.
An improved solution for the infiltration advance problem in irrigation hydraulics
Cook, F. J., Knight, J. H., Doble, R. C. and Raine, S. R.. 2013. "An improved solution for the infiltration advance problem in irrigation hydraulics." Irrigation Science. 31 (5), pp. 1113-1123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-012-0392-7
Modified threshold electrolyte concentration analysis for soils from Greenacres
Bennett, J. McL. and Raine, S. R.. 2011. Modified threshold electrolyte concentration analysis for soils from Greenacres . Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Environmental effects of applying coal seam gas associated water to unsealed roads for dust suppression: final report
Bennett, J. McL. and Raine, S. R.. 2011. Environmental effects of applying coal seam gas associated water to unsealed roads for dust suppression: final report. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Effect of applying feedlot effluent pond water on the permeability of soils: final report
Bennett, J. McL., Dalby, T. and Raine, S. R.. 2011. Effect of applying feedlot effluent pond water on the permeability of soils: final report. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from property A and B
Bennett, J., Raine, S. and Eberhard, F.. 2011. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from property A and B. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Roleen, Tantatton, Pine Ridge, Ben Bow and Oakleigh
Bennett, J., Raine, S. and Eberhard, F.. 2011. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from Roleen, Tantatton, Pine Ridge, Ben Bow and Oakleigh. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from the Fairview IR5, IR7 and IR8 irrigation areas
Raine, S. R. and Bennett, J.. 2011. Threshold electrolyte concentration relationships for soils from the Fairview IR5, IR7 and IR8 irrigation areas. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Effect of applying feedlot effluent pond water on the permeability of soils: interim report
Bennett, J., Dalby, T. and Raine, S.. 2011. Effect of applying feedlot effluent pond water on the permeability of soils: interim report. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Real-time data requirements for model-based adaptive control of irrigation scheduling in cotton
McCarthy, A. C., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2011. "Real-time data requirements for model-based adaptive control of irrigation scheduling in cotton." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 8 (2), pp. 189-206.
Quantifying the role of irrigation uniformity on lettuce production and profitability in the Lockyer Valley, Queensland
Hussain, Amjed. 2010. Quantifying the role of irrigation uniformity on lettuce production and profitability in the Lockyer Valley, Queensland. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
An examination of the end-over-end shaking technique for measuring soil dispersion
So, H. B., Cook, G. D. and Raine, S. R.. 1997. "An examination of the end-over-end shaking technique for measuring soil dispersion." Australian Journal of Soil Research. 35 (1), pp. 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1071/S96062
Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2009. "Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions." Transactions of the ASABE. 52 (6), pp. 2093-2103.
Mechanical harvesting reduces sphacelia/sclerote levels of claviceps africana
Ryley, M. J., Jensen, T. and Kyei, A. N.. 2003. "Mechanical harvesting reduces sphacelia/sclerote levels of claviceps africana." International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter.
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2008. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John and Bradbeer, Robin (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Germany. pp. 305-312 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74027-8_26
Estimating the furrow infiltration characteristic from a single advance point
Langat, P. K., Smith, R. J. and Raine, S. R.. 2008. "Estimating the furrow infiltration characteristic from a single advance point." Irrigation Science. 26 (5), pp. 367-374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-008-0102-7
Accounting for temporal inflow variation in the inverse solution for infiltration in surface irrigation
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "Accounting for temporal inflow variation in the inverse solution for infiltration in surface irrigation ." Irrigation Science. 25 (2), pp. 87-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0037-9
Selecting sites suitable for animal waste application using a raster GIS
Basnet, Badri Bahadur, Apan, Armando and Raine, Steven R.. 2001. "Selecting sites suitable for animal waste application using a raster GIS." Environmental Management (New York): an international journal for decision-makers, scientists and environmental auditors. 28 (4), pp. 519-531. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002670010241
The effect of polyacrylamide additions on the infiltration and erosion of disturbed lands
Vacher, Cameron A., Loch, Rob and Raine, Steven R.. 2003. "The effect of polyacrylamide additions on the infiltration and erosion of disturbed lands." Australian Journal of Soil Research. 41 (8), pp. 1509-1520. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR02114
Mapping and analysis of changes in the riparian landscape structure of the Lockyer Valley Catchment, Queensland, Australia
Apan, Armando, Raine, Steven R. and Paterson, Mark. 2002. "Mapping and analysis of changes in the riparian landscape structure of the Lockyer Valley Catchment, Queensland, Australia." Landscape and Urban Planning. 59 (1), pp. 43-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00246-8
Spatial prioritisation of revegetation sites for dryland salinity management: an analytical framework using GIS
Apan, Armando, Raine, Steven R., Le Brocque, Andrew F. and Cockfield, Geoff. 2004. "Spatial prioritisation of revegetation sites for dryland salinity management: an analytical framework using GIS." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 47 (6), pp. 811-825. https://doi.org/10.1080/0964056042000284848
Soil-water and salt movement associated with precision irrigation systems - research investment opportunities
Raine, S. R., Meyer, W. S., Rassam, D. W., Hutson, J. L. and Cook, F. J.. 2005. Soil-water and salt movement associated with precision irrigation systems - research investment opportunities. Canberra, Australia. Land and Water Australia.
The future of irrigation technologies and practices is here now.
Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "The future of irrigation technologies and practices is here now. " Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Effect of water quality on soil structure and infiltration under furrow irrigation
Emdad, Mohammad R., Raine, Steven R., Smith, Rod J. and Fardad, Hossein. 2004. "Effect of water quality on soil structure and infiltration under furrow irrigation." Irrigation Science. 23 (2), pp. 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-004-0093-y
Irrigation application efficiency and deep drainage potential under surface irrigated cotton
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R. and Minkevich, John. 2005. "Irrigation application efficiency and deep drainage potential under surface irrigated cotton." Agricultural Water Management. 71 (2), pp. 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.07.008
Evaluation of a hydrographic technique to measure on-farm water storage volumes
Gibbings, Peter and Raine, Steven R.. 2005. "Evaluation of a hydrographic technique to measure on-farm water storage volumes." Agricultural Water Management. 78 (3), pp. 209-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.02.010
Assessing various techniques to monitor yield in sugarcane
Jensen, T. A., Fokkema, B. and Baillie, C.. 2011. "Assessing various techniques to monitor yield in sugarcane ." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2010. "Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations." Intelligent Service Robotics. 3 (4), pp. 209-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11370-010-0075-2
Effect of irrigation management on nitrate movement under a drip irrigated lettuce crop
Althaus, Kimberley, McKeering, Loretta M., McHugh, Allen and Raine, Steven R.. 2009. "Effect of irrigation management on nitrate movement under a drip irrigated lettuce crop ." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
The possibility of using polymers in agriculture milling equipment
Al-Sandooq, J. M., Yousif, B. F. and Jensen, T. A.. 2011. "The possibility of using polymers in agriculture milling equipment." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Harvesting, processing and marketing Australian native grass seeds
Loch, D. S., Johnston, P. W., Jensen, troy and Harvey, G. L.. 1996. "Harvesting, processing and marketing Australian native grass seeds." New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 39, pp. 591-599.
Physiological response of cotton to a root zone soil moisture gradient: implications for partial root zone drying irrigation
White, Simon C. and Raine, Steven R.. 2009. "Physiological response of cotton to a root zone soil moisture gradient: implications for partial root zone drying irrigation." Journal of Cotton Science. 13 (2), pp. 67-74.
Drying rate and damage to navy beans
Radajewski, W., Jensen, T., Abawi, G. Y. and McGahan, E. J.. 1992. "Drying rate and damage to navy beans." Transactions of the ASABE. 35 (2), pp. 583-590.
VARIwise: a general-purpose adaptive control simulation framework for spatially and temporally varied irrigation at sub-field scale
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "VARIwise: a general-purpose adaptive control simulation framework for spatially and temporally varied irrigation at sub-field scale." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 70 (1), pp. 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2009.09.011
Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement." Journal of Cotton Science. 14 (4), pp. 221-232.
Simulation of adaptive site-specific irrigation control performance with spatially variable rainfall
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Simulation of adaptive site-specific irrigation control performance with spatially variable rainfall." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Simulation of site-specific irrigation control strategies with sparse input data
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Simulation of site-specific irrigation control strategies with sparse input data." 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2010): Sustainable Biosystems Through Engineering. Quebec City, Canada 13 - 17 Jun 2010 Quebec, Canada.
The effect of irrigation non-uniformity on carrot production
Koech, Richard and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "The effect of irrigation non-uniformity on carrot production." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Assessment of sugarcane yield monitoring technology for precision agriculture
Jensen, T., Baillie, C., Bramley, R., Di Bella, L., Whiteing, C. and Davis, R.. 2010. "Assessment of sugarcane yield monitoring technology for precision agriculture." Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2010). Bundaberg, Australia 11 - 14 May 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Can electromagnetic induction be used to evaluate sprinkler irrigation uniformity for a shallow rooted crop?
Hussain, Amjed and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Can electromagnetic induction be used to evaluate sprinkler irrigation uniformity for a shallow rooted crop?" Gilkes, Robert J. and Prakongkep, Nattaporn (ed.) 19th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS 2010): Soil Solutions for a Changing World. Brisbane, Australia 01 - 06 Aug 2010 Warrugal, Australia.
Holistic control system design for large mobile irrigation machines
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2010. "Holistic control system design for large mobile irrigation machines." 16th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2010). Darussalam, Brunei 22 - 24 Jun 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Investigating the effect of electro-osmosis on sandy soil near saturated conditions
Huweg, Abdurrahman F. S., Kamel, Fouad and Raine, Steven. 2010. "Investigating the effect of electro-osmosis on sandy soil near saturated conditions." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Permanent raised bed configurations and renovation methods affect crop performance
Akbar, Ghani, Hamilton, Greg and Raine, Steven. 2010. "Permanent raised bed configurations and renovation methods affect crop performance." Gilkes, Robert J. and Prakongkep, Nattaporn (ed.) 19th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS 2010): Soil Solutions for a Changing World. Brisbane, Australia 01 - 06 Aug 2010 Melbourne, Australia.
Evaluation of automotive varnish as a coating for density measurements of soil clods
de Almeida, B. G., da Silva, A. P., Raine, Steven R. and Figueiredo, G. C.. 2009. "Evaluation of automotive varnish as a coating for density measurements of soil clods." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 73 (2), pp. 449-452. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2008.0191
Relating satellite imagery with grain protein content
Basnet, Badri Bahadur, Apan, Armando, Kelly, Rob, Jensen, Troy, Strong, Wayne and Butler, David. 2003. "Relating satellite imagery with grain protein content." 2003 Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial Conference: Spatial Knowledge Without Boundaries (SSC2003). Canberra, Australia 22 - 27 Sep 2003 Canberra, Australia.
A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system." Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw, Hanan, Jim S. and Lane, Brendan (ed.) 5th International Workshop on Functional Structural Plant Models (FSPM07). Napier, New Zealand 04 - 09 Nov 2007
Real-time protein monitoring - Australian experiences
Jensen, T., Zeller, L., Fox, G., Town, W. and Kelly, R.. 2005. "Real-time protein monitoring - Australian experiences." Stafford, John V. (ed.) 5th European Conference on Precision Agriculture. Uppsala, Sweden 09 - 12 Jun 2005 Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Grain crop attributes detected using digital imagery acquired from a low-altitude helium balloon
Jensen, T., Apan, A., Young, F. and Zeller, L.. 2005. "Grain crop attributes detected using digital imagery acquired from a low-altitude helium balloon." Stafford, John V. (ed.) 5th European Conference on Precision Agriculture. Uppsala, Sweden 09 - 12 Jun 2005 Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to determine quality of sorghum crops
Wells, Natasha, Kelly, Rob, Phinn, Stuart, Apan, Armando, Jensen, Troy, Cooper, John and Strong, Wayne. 2004. "Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to determine quality of sorghum crops." 12th Australasian Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Conference (ARSPC 2004): To Measure is to Manage. Fremantle, Australia 18 - 22 Oct 2004 Adelaide, South Australia.
Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters." Biological Sensorics 2007: Critical Technologies for Future Biosystems. Minneapolis, Australia 15 - 17 Jun 2007 St. Joseph, MI, United States.
Application of probability analysis to assess nitrogen supply to grain crops in Northern Australia
Kelly, R. M., Strong, W. M., Jensen, T. A. and Butler, D.. 2004. "Application of probability analysis to assess nitrogen supply to grain crops in Northern Australia." Precision Agriculture. 5 (2), pp. 95-110. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:PRAG.0000022356.01537.67
Crop maturity mapping using a low-cost low-altitude remote sensing system
Jensen, Troy, Apan, Armando and Zeller, Les. 2009. "Crop maturity mapping using a low-cost low-altitude remote sensing system." Ostendorf, Bertram, Baldock, Penny, Bruce, David, Burdett, Michael and Corcoran, Paul (ed.) 2009 Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial International Conference (SSC 2009): Spatial Diversity. Adelaide, Australia 28 Sep - 02 Oct 2009 Adelaide, Australia.
Characterising land ownership patterns in a salt-affected catchment: key implications for revegetation
Apan, Armando, Raine, Steven R., Cockfield, Geoff and Le Brocque, Andrew F.. 2003. "Characterising land ownership patterns in a salt-affected catchment: key implications for revegetation." 2003 Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial Conference: Spatial Knowledge Without Boundaries (SSC2003). Canberra, Australia 22 - 27 Sep 2003 Canberra, Australia.
Development of a simulation framework for variable-rate irrigation of cotton
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Development of a simulation framework for variable-rate irrigation of cotton." 14th Australian Cotton Conference: New Beginnings – Cotton in a Climate of Change. Gold Coast, Australia 12 - 14 Aug 2008 Narrabri, NSW, Australia.
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2009. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 7 (1), pp. 79-90.
The use of a UAV as a remote sensing platform in agriculture
Jensen, Troy, Apan, Armando and Zeller, Leslie. 2009. "The use of a UAV as a remote sensing platform in agriculture." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Bankless channel irrigation systems: irrigation performance assessment
Grabham, Michael, Hornbuckle, John, Raine, Steven R. and Smith, Rod. 2009. "Bankless channel irrigation systems: irrigation performance assessment." Irrigation Australia 2009: Irrigation Australia Irrigation and Drainage Conference: Irrigation Today - Meeting the Challenge. Swan Hill, Australia 18 - 21 Oct 2009 Sydney, Australia.
Exploration of data requirements for adaptive control of irrigation scheduling
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2009. "Exploration of data requirements for adaptive control of irrigation scheduling." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Towards evaluation of adaptive control systems for improved site-specific irrigation of cotton
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Towards evaluation of adaptive control systems for improved site-specific irrigation of cotton." Irrigation Australia 2008: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Share the Water, Share the Benefits. Melbourne, Australia 20 - 22 May 2008 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Measurement and management of furrow irrigation at the field scale
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Measurement and management of furrow irrigation at the field scale." Irrigation Australia 2008: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Share the Water, Share the Benefits. Melbourne, Australia 20 - 22 May 2008
A preliminary evaluation of the potential to use electromagnetic induction to assess sprinkler irrigation performance in horticultural crops
Hussain, Amjed and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "A preliminary evaluation of the potential to use electromagnetic induction to assess sprinkler irrigation performance in horticultural crops." 1st Global Workshop on High Resolution Digitial Soil Sensing and Mapping. Sydney, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2008 Sydney, Australia.
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2007. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2007: Agriculture and Engineering - Challenge Today, Technology Tomorrow. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 26 Sep 2007 Australia.
Soil-water and solute movement under precision irrigation: knowledge gaps for managing sustainable root zones
Raine, S. R., Meyer, W. S., Rassam, D. W., Hutson, J. L. and Cook, F. J.. 2007. "Soil-water and solute movement under precision irrigation: knowledge gaps for managing sustainable root zones ." Irrigation Science. 26 (1), pp. 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-007-0075-y
Errors in predicting furrow irrigation performance using single measures of infiltration
Langat, Philip K., Raine, Steven R. and Smith, R. J.. 2007. "Errors in predicting furrow irrigation performance using single measures of infiltration." Irrigation Science. 25 (4), pp. 339-349. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0049-5
Detecting the attributes of a wheat crop using digital 3D imagery acquired from a low-altitude platform
Jensen, T., Apan, A., Young, F. and Zeller, L.. 2007. "Detecting the attributes of a wheat crop using digital 3D imagery acquired from a low-altitude platform." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 59 (1-2), pp. 66-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2007.05.004
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Berlin, Heidelberg.
Improving plants' water use efficiency and potential impacts from soil structure change - research investment opportunities
Loch, R. J., Grant, C. G., McKenzie, D. C. and Raine, S. R.. 2005. Improving plants' water use efficiency and potential impacts from soil structure change - research investment opportunities. Canberra, Australia. Land and Water Australia.
Using simulation modelling to improve the design and management of furrow irrigation in small-holder plots
Langat, Philip K. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Using simulation modelling to improve the design and management of furrow irrigation in small-holder plots." 10th Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network Conference. Mombasa, Kenya 04 - 06 Dec 2006 Mombasa, Kenya.
A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control." Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Brisbane.
Real time control of surface irrigation: managing infiltration variations and enhancing furrow irrigation performance
Khatri, K. L., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Real time control of surface irrigation: managing infiltration variations and enhancing furrow irrigation performance." Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Brisbane.
Is it possible to extract infiltration rates for variable inflow furrow irrigation?
Gillies, Malcolm H., Smith, R. J. and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "Is it possible to extract infiltration rates for variable inflow furrow irrigation?" Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Assessing grain crop attributes using digital imagery acquired from a low-altitude remote controlled aircraft
Jensen, Troy, Apan, Armando, Young, Frank R., Zeller, Leslie Charles and Cleminson, Ken. 2003. "Assessing grain crop attributes using digital imagery acquired from a low-altitude remote controlled aircraft." 2003 Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial Conference: Spatial Knowledge Without Boundaries (SSC2003). Canberra, Australia 22 - 27 Sep 2003 Canberra, Australia.
Identification and management of dispersive mine spoils
Vacher, Cameron A., Loch, Rob and Raine, Steven R.. 2004. Identification and management of dispersive mine spoils. Kenmore, Australia. Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research.
Characterisation of soil profiles on four AFLQ Premier League sporting fields
Raine, Steven R. and Eberhard, Jochen. 2004. Characterisation of soil profiles on four AFLQ Premier League sporting fields. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
A scoping study on measuring and monitoring tools and technology for precision irrigation
Misra, R. K., Raine, Steven R., Pezzaniti, David, Charlesworth, Philip and Hancock, Nigel. 2005. A scoping study on measuring and monitoring tools and technology for precision irrigation . Toowoomba, Australia. CRC for Irrigation Futures.
Strategies for maximizing sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district
Baillie, Craig Peter and Raine, Steven R.. 2005. "Strategies for maximizing sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district." Annual Australian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (ANCID) Conference. Mildura, Australia 23 - 26 Oct 2005 Mildura, Australia.
Improving whole farm and infield irrigation efficiencies using Irrimate tools
Raine, Steven R., Purcell, Jim and Schmidt, Erik. 2005. "Improving whole farm and infield irrigation efficiencies using Irrimate tools." Irrigation Australia 2005: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Restoring the Balance. Townsville, Australia 17 - 19 May 2005 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
The future direction of on-farm irrigation technologies and practice research
Raine, Steven R. and Durack, Matthew K.. 2005. "The future direction of on-farm irrigation technologies and practice research." The New Age of Cotton - Managing Change and Risk in your Environment (2005). Narrabri, Australia 17 - 18 Aug 2005 Narrabri, Australia.
Recent developments and strategies in the use of plant indicators for irrigation scheduling
Misra, R. K., Fuentes, S. and Raine, Steven R.. 2005. "Recent developments and strategies in the use of plant indicators for irrigation scheduling." Irrigation Australia 2005: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Restoring the Balance. Townsville, Australia 17 - 19 May 2005 Sydney, NSW.
Geographic information system based manure application plan
Raine, Steven R., Basnet, Badri B. and Apan, Armando A.. 2002. "Geographic information system based manure application plan." Journal of Environmental Management. 64 (2), pp. 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.2001.0484