Waste management in the meat processing industry: conversion of paunch and DAF sludge into solid fuel

Article


Hamawand, Ihsan, Pittaway, Pam, Lewis, Larry, Chakrabarty, Sayan, Caldwell, Justin, Eberhard, Jochen and Chakraborty, Arpita. 2017. "Waste management in the meat processing industry: conversion of paunch and DAF sludge into solid fuel." Waste Management. 60, pp. 340-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.11.034
Article Title

Waste management in the meat processing industry: conversion of paunch and DAF sludge into solid fuel

ERA Journal ID4691
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsHamawand, Ihsan (Author), Pittaway, Pam (Author), Lewis, Larry (Author), Chakrabarty, Sayan (Author), Caldwell, Justin (Author), Eberhard, Jochen (Author) and Chakraborty, Arpita (Author)
Journal TitleWaste Management
Journal Citation60, pp. 340-350
Number of Pages11
Year2017
PublisherElsevier
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0956-053X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.11.034
Abstract

This article addresses the novel dewatering process of immersion-frying of paunch and dissolved air
flotation (DAF) sludge to produce high energy pellets. Literature have been analysed to address the feasibility
of replacing conventional boiler fuel at meat processing facilities with high energy paunch-DAF
sludge pellets (capsules). The value proposition of pelleting and frying this mixture into energy pellets
is based on a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). The CBA is based on information derived from the literature
and consultation with the Australian Meat Processing Industry.
The calorific properties of a mixture of paunch cake solids and DAF sludge were predicted from literature
and industry consultation to validate the product. This study shows that the concept of pelletizing
and frying paunch is economically feasible. The complete frying and dewatering of the paunch and DAF
sludge mixture produces pellets with energy content per kilogram equivalent to coal. The estimated cost
of this new product is half the price of coal and the payback period is estimated to be between 1.8 and
3.2 years. Further research is required for proof of concept, and to identify the technical challenges associated with integrating this technology into existing meat processing plants

Keywordswaste management; paunch; energy pellets; frying; DAF sludge; biofuel
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020380105. Environment and resource economics
410404. Environmental management
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Byline AffiliationsSchool of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture
No affiliation
Institute for Resilient Regions
Oakey Beef Export, Australia
Griffith University
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Yusaf, Talal, Hamawand, Ihsan, Schmidt, Erik, Binnie, James, Rees, Steven and Chakrabarty, Sayan. 2014. "Coals seam gas (CSG) in agriculture - a review: technical and market analysis for Australia ." Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 8, pp. 149-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2014.08.005
Direct reaction of silicon with ethyl chloride in a fluidized bed reactor
Hamawand, Ihsan, Mohammed, Thamer and Jalhoom, Moayyed G.. 2009. "Direct reaction of silicon with ethyl chloride in a fluidized bed reactor." International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 7. https://doi.org/10.2202/1542-6580.1869
Interpreting results for plant growth promotion and disease suppression bioassays using compost
Pittaway, P.. 2014. "Interpreting results for plant growth promotion and disease suppression bioassays using compost." Biala, J., Prange, R. and Raviv, M. (ed.) 1st International Symposium Organic Matter Management and Compost in Horticulture (ISHS 2011). Adelaide, Australia 04 - 07 Apr 2011 Leuven, Belgium.
Beginning teacher support in Australia: towards an online community to augment current support
Kelly, Nick, Reushle, Shirley, Chakrabarty, Sayan and Kinnane, Anna. 2014. "Beginning teacher support in Australia: towards an online community to augment current support." Australian Journal of Teacher Education. 39 (4), pp. 68-82. https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2014v39n4.6
A liquid diffusion model to describe drying of whole bananas using boundary-fitted coordinates
da Silva, Wilton Pereira, Hamawand, Ihsan and e Silva, Cleide M.D.P.S.. 2014. "A liquid diffusion model to describe drying of whole bananas using boundary-fitted coordinates." Journal of Food Engineering. 137, pp. 32-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2014.03.029
Description of seedless grape drying and determination of drying rate
da Silva, Wilton Pereira, do Nascimento, Pedro Luiz, e Silva, Cleide Maria Diniz Pereira da Silva, Gomes, Josivanda Palmeira and Hamawand, Ihsan. 2014. "Description of seedless grape drying and determination of drying rate." Journal of Agricultural Studies. 2 (2), pp. 1-10.
Compost application to replace sphagnum peat and to suppress pythium root rot in turf
Pittaway, P.. 2014. "Compost application to replace sphagnum peat and to suppress pythium root rot in turf." Biala, J., Prange, R. and Raviv, M. (ed.) 1st International Symposium on Organic Matter Management and Compost Use in Horticulture (ISHS 2014). Adelaide, Australia 2014 Leuven, Belgium.
Calculating application rates for composted mulch and soil conditioners to maximise soil health
Pittaway, P. A.. 2010. "Calculating application rates for composted mulch and soil conditioners to maximise soil health." Stirling, Graham R. (ed.) ASDS 2010: 6th Australasian Soilborne Diseases Symposium. Twin Waters, Australia 09 - 11 Aug 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Impact of micrometeorological conditions on the efficiency of artificial monolayers in reducing evaporation
Gallego-Elvira, Belen, Martinez-Alvarez, Victoriano, Pittaway, Pamela, Brink, Gavin and Martin-Gorrez, Bernardo. 2013. "Impact of micrometeorological conditions on the efficiency of artificial monolayers in reducing evaporation." Water Resources Management. 27 (7), pp. 2251-2266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-013-0286-3
Does social labelling encourage child schooling and discourage child labour in Nepal?
Chakrabarty, Sayan, Grote, Ulrike and Luchters, Guido. 2011. "Does social labelling encourage child schooling and discourage child labour in Nepal?" International Journal of Educational Development. 31 (5), pp. 489-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2010.11.002
Effect of colloidal particles associated with the liquid bridge in sticking during drying in superheated steam
Hamawand, I.. 2011. "Effect of colloidal particles associated with the liquid bridge in sticking during drying in superheated steam." International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications. 24 (2), pp. 119-126.
Coal seam gas and associated water: a review paper
Hamawand, Ihsan, Yusaf, Talal and Hamawand, Sara. 2013. "Coal seam gas and associated water: a review paper." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 22, pp. 550-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.02.030
Study and modelling drying of banana slices under superheated steam
Hamawand, Ihsan, Yusaf, Talal and Bennett, John. 2014. "Study and modelling drying of banana slices under superheated steam." Asia Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 9 (4), pp. 591-603. https://doi.org/10.1002/apj.1788
Assessing a new approach to covered anaerobic pond design in the treatment of abattoir wastewater
McCabe, B. K., Harris, P., Baillie, C., Pittaway, P. and Yusaf, T.. 2013. "Assessing a new approach to covered anaerobic pond design in the treatment of abattoir wastewater." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 10 (1), pp. 81-93. https://doi.org/10.7158/N12-AE07.2013.10.1.
Investigating wastewater modelling as a tool to predict anaerobic decomposition and biogas yield of abattoir effluent
McCabe, Bernadette K., Hamawand, Ihsan and Baillie, Craig. 2013. "Investigating wastewater modelling as a tool to predict anaerobic decomposition and biogas yield of abattoir effluent." Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 1 (4), pp. 1375-1379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2013.07.015
The effect of methanol-diesel blended ratio on CI engine performance
Yusaf, T., Hamawand, I., Baker, P. and Najafi, G.. 2013. "The effect of methanol-diesel blended ratio on CI engine performance." International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering. 8 (1), pp. 1385-1395. https://doi.org/10.15282/ijame.8.2013.26.0114
Effect of compressed natural gas mixing on the engine performance and emissions
Yusaf, T., Baker, P., Hamawand, I. and Noor, M. M.. 2013. "Effect of compressed natural gas mixing on the engine performance and emissions." International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering. 8 (1), pp. 1416-1429.
Particles motion in a cascading rotary drum dryer
Hamawand, Ihsan and Yusaf, Talal. 2014. "Particles motion in a cascading rotary drum dryer." Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 92 (4), pp. 648-662. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.21845
Recycling of waste engine oils using a new washing agent
Hamawand, Ihsan, Yusaf, Talal and Rafat, Sardasht. 2013. "Recycling of waste engine oils using a new washing agent." Energies. 6 (2), pp. 1023-1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/en6021023
Drying steps under superheated steam: a review and modeling
Hamawand, Ihsan. 2013. "Drying steps under superheated steam: a review and modeling." Energy and Environment Research. 3 (2), pp. 107-125. https://doi.org/10.5539/eer.v3n2p107
A case study for biogas generation from covered anaerobic ponds treating abattoir wastewater: investigation of pond performance and potential biogas production
McCabe, Bernadette K., Hamawand, Ihsan, Harris, Peter, Baillie, Craig and Yusaf, Talal. 2014. "A case study for biogas generation from covered anaerobic ponds treating abattoir wastewater: investigation of pond performance and potential biogas production." Applied Energy. 114, pp. 798-808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.020
Economic viability of biogas and green self-employment opportunities
Chakrabarty, Sayan, Boksh, F. I. M. Muktadir and Chakraborty, Arpita. 2013. "Economic viability of biogas and green self-employment opportunities." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 28, pp. 757-766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.002
Child labor in carpet weaving: impact of social labeling in India and Nepal
Chakrabarty, Sayan and Grote, Ulrike. 2009. "Child labor in carpet weaving: impact of social labeling in India and Nepal." World Development. 37 (10), pp. 1683-1693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.013
Financial viability and eco-efficiency of the solar home systems (SHS) in Bangladesh
Chakrabarty, Sayan and Islam, Tawhidul. 2011. "Financial viability and eco-efficiency of the solar home systems (SHS) in Bangladesh." Energy. 36 (8), pp. 4821-4827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.05.016
Improving irrigation efficiency through precision irrigation in South East Queensland
Eberhard, J., McHugh, A., Scobie, M., Schmidt, E., McCarthy, A., Uddin, Md J., McKeering, L. and Poulter, R.. 2013. Improving irrigation efficiency through precision irrigation in South East Queensland. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Does micro credit increase child labour in absence of micro insurance?
Chakrabarty, Sayan. 2012. Does micro credit increase child labour in absence of micro insurance? Geneva, Switzerland. International Labour Office.
Microbial and environmental implications for use of monolayers to reduce evaporative losses from water storages
Pittaway, Pam and van den Ancker, Tania. 2010. Microbial and environmental implications for use of monolayers to reduce evaporative losses from water storages . Toowoomba, Australia. CRC for Irrigation Futures.
Impact of artificial monolayers on water quality, potable water treatment, human health and lake ecology
Pittaway, Pam. 2011. Impact of artificial monolayers on water quality, potable water treatment, human health and lake ecology . Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
South-east Queensland irrigation futures research and development support: progress report
McHugh, A. D. and Eberhard, J.. 2011. South-east Queensland irrigation futures research and development support: progress report. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter: the impact on monolayers
Stuckey, N. G., Pittaway, P. A. and Larsen, K.. 2012. "Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter: the impact on monolayers." Begbie, D. K., Kenway, S. J., Biermann, S. M. and Wakem, S. L. (ed.) UWSRA 2012: Science Forum and Stakeholder Engagement: Building Linkages, Collaboration and Science Quality. Brisbane, Australia 19 - 20 Jun 2012 Brisbane, Australia.
The impact of artificial monolayers on water quality: data from tank and field trials
Pittaway, P., Martinez-Alvarez, V., Gallego-Elvira, B. and Hancock, N.. 2012. "The impact of artificial monolayers on water quality: data from tank and field trials." Begbie, D. K., Kenway, S. J., Biermann, S. M. and Wakem, S. L. (ed.) 4th Urban Water Security Research Alliance Science Forum and Stakeholder Engagement. Brisbane, Australia 19 - 20 Jun 2012 Brisbane, Australia.
Optimising the design, installation and operation of a monolayer application system on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew, Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Schmidt, Erik. 2011. "Optimising the design, installation and operation of a monolayer application system on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'." Thompson, Chris (ed.) Irrigation 2011: New Horizons, Fresh Ideas Regional Conference and Exhibition. Launceston, Australia 22 - 25 Aug 2011 Sydney, Australia.
Effect of a monolayer on water quality at the air-water interface
Pittaway, P., Matveev, V. and Stuckey, N.. 2011. "Effect of a monolayer on water quality at the air-water interface." Begbie, D. K. and Wakem, S. L. (ed.) 3rd Urban Water Security Reseach Alliance Science Forum and Stakeholder Engagement. Brisbane, Australia 14 - 15 Sep 2011 Brisbane, Australia.
Assessment of the performance of evaporation suppressant films: analysis and limitations of simple trialling methods
Hancock, N. H., Pittaway, P. A. and Symes, T. W.. 2011. "Assessment of the performance of evaporation suppressant films: analysis and limitations of simple trialling methods." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 8 (2), pp. 157-168.
Monitoring the performance of covered anaerobic ponds in the treatment of abattoir waste
McCabe, B. K., Pittaway, P., Baillie, C. and Harris, P.. 2011. "Monitoring the performance of covered anaerobic ponds in the treatment of abattoir waste." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Compost application to replace spagnum peat and to suppress pythium root rot in turf in the Middle East
Pittaway, P.. 2011. "Compost application to replace spagnum peat and to suppress pythium root rot in turf in the Middle East." 1st International Symposium on Organic Matter Management and Compost Use in Horticulture (ISHS 2014). Adelaide, Australia 2014 Adelaide, South Australia.
Growth and characterisation of Chlorella vulgaris under increased lipid culture regimes
Harris, Peter, McCabe, Bernadette K. and Pittaway, Pam. 2010. "Growth and characterisation of Chlorella vulgaris under increased lipid culture regimes." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Resilience to bacterial degradation and biosurfactant disruption as selection criteria for improved artificial monolayer compounds
Pittaway, Pam, Herzig, Michael, van den Ancker, Tania and Barnes, Geoff. 2009. "Resilience to bacterial degradation and biosurfactant disruption as selection criteria for improved artificial monolayer compounds." Lemckert, Charles (ed.) IWER 2009: International Workshop on Evaporation from Reservoirs. Gold Coast, Australia 09 - 11 Dec 2009 Gold Coast, Australia.
Revisiting artificial monolayers as a strategy to reduce evaporative loss from large open water storages
Pittaway, P., Hancock, N., Brink, G., Symes, T. and Schmidt, E.. 2009. "Revisiting artificial monolayers as a strategy to reduce evaporative loss from large open water storages ." Kenway, S. J. and Begbie, D. K. (ed.) 1st Urban Water Security Research Alliance Science Forum (UWSRA 2009). Brisbane, Australia 17 - 18 Aug 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Effects of a suspended shade cloth cover on water quality of an agricultural reservoir for irrigation
Maestre-Valero, J. F., Martinez-Alvarez, V., Gallego-Elvira, B. and Pittaway, P.. 2011. "Effects of a suspended shade cloth cover on water quality of an agricultural reservoir for irrigation." Agricultural Water Management. 100 (1), pp. 70-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.08.020
Microbial and environmental implications for use of monolayers to reduce evaporative loss from water storages
Pittaway, Pam and van den Ancker, Tania. 2010. Microbial and environmental implications for use of monolayers to reduce evaporative loss from water storages. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Photodegradation of Australian freshwater microlayers
Stuckey, Nick, Pittaway, Pam and Larsen, Kim. 2010. "Photodegradation of Australian freshwater microlayers." Ghiggino, Kenneth P. and Smith, Gerald (ed.) 6th Asian Photochemistry Conference 2010. Wellington, New Zealand 14 - 18 Nov 2010
Photodegradation of Australian freshwater microlayers and the implications for potable water management
Stuckey, Nicholas, Pittaway, Pam and Larsen, Kim. 2010. "Photodegradation of Australian freshwater microlayers and the implications for potable water management." Begbie, D. K. and Wakem, S. L. (ed.) 2nd Urban Water Security Research Alliance Science Forum and Stakeholder Engagement. Brisbane, Australia 28 - 29 Sep 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Microalgae as alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) Engines
Allwayzy, S. H., Yusaf, T., McCabe, B., Pittaway, P. and Aravinthan, V.. 2010. "Microalgae as alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) Engines." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Water quality performance criteria for monolayer product specifications: selecting the right product for the job
Pittaway, Pam. 2010. "Water quality performance criteria for monolayer product specifications: selecting the right product for the job ." Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
The impact of water quality on monolayer performance in reducing evaporative loss from water storages
Pittaway, Pam and van den Ancker, Tania. 2010. "The impact of water quality on monolayer performance in reducing evaporative loss from water storages." Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Determining operational requirements to optimise monolayer performance on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2010. "Determining operational requirements to optimise monolayer performance on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Will artificial monolayers adversely affect water quality? Insights from twelve months of monitoring with no monolayer
Pittaway, Pam. 2010. "Will artificial monolayers adversely affect water quality? Insights from twelve months of monitoring with no monolayer ." Begbie, D. K. and Wakem, S. L. (ed.) 2nd Urban Water Security Research Alliance Science Forum and Stakeholder Engagement. Brisbane, Australia 28 - 29 Sep 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Properties of natural microlayers on Australian freshwater storages and their potential to interact with artificial monolayers
Pittaway, Pam and van den Ancker, Tania. 2010. "Properties of natural microlayers on Australian freshwater storages and their potential to interact with artificial monolayers." Marine and Freshwater Research. 61 (10), pp. 1083-1091. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF09159
A ‘universal design framework’ for installation planning and operational management of evaporation-suppressing films on agricultural reservoirs
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2010. "A ‘universal design framework’ for installation planning and operational management of evaporation-suppressing films on agricultural reservoirs." Genet, Roger (ed.) International Conference on Agricultural Engineering: Towards Environmental Technologies (2010). Clermont-Ferrand, France 06 - 08 Sep 2010
The combined use of shade-cloth covers and monolayers to prevent evaporation in irrigation reservoirs
Gallego-Elvira, B., Martinez Alvarez, V., Pittaway, Pam, Symes, Troy and Hancock, Nigel. 2010. "The combined use of shade-cloth covers and monolayers to prevent evaporation in irrigation reservoirs." International Conference on Agricultural Engineering: Towards Environmental Technologies (2010). Clermont-Ferrand, France 06 - 08 Sep 2010
Irrigation and sprinkling
Sourell, H. and Eberhard, Jochen. 2009. "Irrigation and sprinkling." Harms, Hans-Heinrich and Meier, Friedhelm (ed.) 2009 Yearbook agricultural engineering. Frankfurt, Germany. DLG-Verlag. pp. 119-125
Towards a biophysical understanding of observed performance of evaporation suppressant films applied to agricultural water storages - first analyses
Hancock, Nigel, Pittaway, Pam and Symes, Troy. 2009. "Towards a biophysical understanding of observed performance of evaporation suppressant films applied to agricultural water storages - first analyses ." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Smart monolayer application and management to reduce evaporation on farm dams - formulation of a universal design framework
Brink, Gavin, Symes, Troy, Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel, Pather, Selvan and Schmidt, Erik. 2009. "Smart monolayer application and management to reduce evaporation on farm dams - formulation of a universal design framework." Venkatraman, K. (ed.) 2009 Environmental Research Event. Noosa, Australia 10 - 13 May 2009
Improving the performance of chemical monolayers in reducing farm dam evaporation
Craig, Ian, Schmidt, Erik, Hancock, Nigel, Barnes, Geoff, Turnbull, David J., Pittaway, Pam and Morrison, Pippa. 2006. "Improving the performance of chemical monolayers in reducing farm dam evaporation." 3rd CRC-IF Annual Research Forum. Narrabri, Australia 05 - 06 Dec 2006 Toowoomba, Queensland.
Evaporation, seepage and water quality management in storage dams: a review of research methods
Craig, Ian, Aravinthan, Vasantha, Baillie, Craig Peter, Beswick, Alan, Barnes, Geoff, Bradbury, Ron, Connell, Luke, Cooper, Paul, Fellows, Christopher, Fitzmaurice, Li, Foley, Joseph P., Hancock, Nigel, Lamb, David, Morrison, Pippa, Mossad, Ruth, Misra, R. K., Pittaway, Pam, Prime, Emma, Rees, Steve, ..., Turnbull, David. 2007. "Evaporation, seepage and water quality management in storage dams: a review of research methods." Environmental Health. 7 (3), pp. 84-97.
Optimizing overhead irrigation systems
Foley, Joseph P., Wigginton, David and Eberhard, Jochen. 2006. "Optimizing overhead irrigation systems." 13th Australian Cotton Conference: Product, Production, Profit - Progressing our National Advantage (2006). Gold Coast, Australia 08 - 10 Aug 2006 Narrabri, NSW.
Characterisation of soil profiles on four AFLQ Premier League sporting fields
Raine, Steven R. and Eberhard, Jochen. 2004. Characterisation of soil profiles on four AFLQ Premier League sporting fields. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.