Influence of Moisture Dependency of Pressboard on Transformer Winding Clamping Pressure

Article


Naranpanawe, Lakshitha, Ekanayake, Chandima, Saha, Tapan Kumar and Annamalai, Naranpanawe1, Chandima Ekanayake2, Tapan Kumar Saha1 and Pratheep K.. 2017. "Influence of Moisture Dependency of Pressboard on Transformer Winding Clamping Pressure." IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 24 (5), pp. 3191-3200. https://doi.org/10.1109/Tdei.2017.006206
Article Title

Influence of Moisture Dependency of Pressboard on Transformer Winding Clamping Pressure

ERA Journal ID4449
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsNaranpanawe, Lakshitha, Ekanayake, Chandima, Saha, Tapan Kumar and Annamalai, Naranpanawe1, Chandima Ekanayake2, Tapan Kumar Saha1 and Pratheep K.
Journal TitleIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Journal Citation24 (5), pp. 3191-3200
Number of Pages10
Year2017
PublisherIEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN1070-9878
1558-4135
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1109/Tdei.2017.006206
Web Address (URL)https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8120379
AbstractShort circuit (SC) strength of a power transformer is influenced by its winding clamping pressure. The required level of clamping pressure is selected at the design stage based on the maximum allowable SC current level of the transformer. Progressive loss of clamping pressure is a common problem in power transformers. Shrinkage and fading of the stiffness of solid insulation due to thermal degradation are the most common causes of this problem. It has also been identified that changes in the moisture content and repetitive compression cycles on pressboard during high current faults tend to change the winding clamping pressure. This study aims to investigate the effects of moisture and compression cycles on winding clamping pressure through a set of laboratory experiments and finite element analyses. Thickness change and compressive stress-strain curves of pressboard were measured under different moisture conditions. The results were then used to calculate changes in winding geometry and clamping pressure of a 100 kVA three phase, disc type transformer winding.
Keywordspower transformer; winding clamping pressure; cellulose; stressstrai; hysteresis; hygroscopic swelling
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400805. Electrical energy transmission, networks and systems
401610. Timber, pulp and paper
340305. Physical properties of materials
Public NotesFiles associated with this item cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Queensland
Griffith University
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Synthesis and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcing agent in solely palm based polyurethane foam
Septevani, Athanasia Amanda, Annamalai, Pratheep K. and Martin, Darren J.. 2017. "Synthesis and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcing agent in solely palm based polyurethane foam." 3rd International Symposium on Applied Chemistry (ISAC) 2017. Jakarta, Indonesia 23 - 24 Oct 2017 AIP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5011899
Conducting polymer–graphite binary and hybrid composites
Ramanujam, B.T.S. and Annamalai, Pratheep K.. 2017. "Conducting polymer–graphite binary and hybrid composites." Thakur, Vijay Kumar, Thakur, Manju Kumari and Pappu, Asokan (ed.) Hybrid Polymer Composite Materials. India. Elsevier. pp. 1-34
Cellulose Nanocrystals with Enhanced Thermal Stability Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane
Amin, Khairatun Najwa, Annamalai, , Pratheep Kumar and Martin, Darren. 2017. "Cellulose Nanocrystals with Enhanced Thermal Stability Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane." Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 21 (3), pp. 754-761. https://doi.org/10.17576/mjas-2017-2103-25
Cellulose Nanofibers as Rheology Modifiers and Enhancers of Carbonization Efficiency in Polyacrylonitrile
Jiang, Edward, Amiralian, Nasim, Maghe, Maxime, Laycock, Bronwyn, McFarland, Eric M, Fox, Bronwyn F, Martin, D.J. and Annamalai, Pratheep K.. 2017. "Cellulose Nanofibers as Rheology Modifiers and Enhancers of Carbonization Efficiency in Polyacrylonitrile." ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering. 5 (4), pp. 3296-3304. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b03144
Reinforcement of natural rubber latex using lignocellulosic nanofibers isolated from spinifex grass
Hosseinmardi, Alireza, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Wang, Lianzhou, Martin, Darren and Amiralian, Nasim. 2017. "Reinforcement of natural rubber latex using lignocellulosic nanofibers isolated from spinifex grass." Nanoscale. 9 (27), pp. 9510-9519. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7nr02632c
Spinifex nanocellulose derived hard carbon anodes for high-performance sodium-ion batteries
Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan., Jiang, Edward, Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Martin, Darren J., Nanjundan, Nanjundan and Zhao, X. S.. 2017. "Spinifex nanocellulose derived hard carbon anodes for high-performance sodium-ion batteries." Sustainable Energy & Fuels. 1 (5), pp. 1090-1097. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7se00169j
High aspect ratio nanocellulose from an extremophile spinifex grass by controlled acid hydrolysis
Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, . Pratheep K., Garvey, Christopher J., Jiang, Edward, Memmott, Paul and Martin, Darren J.. 2017. "High aspect ratio nanocellulose from an extremophile spinifex grass by controlled acid hydrolysis." Cellulose. 24 (9), pp. 3753-3766. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1379-6
Effect of pressboard ageing on power transformer mechanical vibration characteristics
Naranpanawe, W. M. L. B., Bandara, K. M. K. S., Saha, T.K., Ekanayake, C. and Annamalai, Pratheep Kumar. 2016. "Effect of pressboard ageing on power transformer mechanical vibration characteristics." 2015 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC 2015). Brisbane, Australia 15 - 18 Nov 2015 Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/APPEEC.2015.7380951
Dip-and-Drag Lateral Force Spectroscopy for Measuring Adhesive Forces between Nanofibers
Dolan, Grace K., Yakubov, Gleb E., Greene, George W., Amiralian, NasimNasim, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Martin, Darren J. and Stokes, Jason R.. 2016. "Dip-and-Drag Lateral Force Spectroscopy for Measuring Adhesive Forces between Nanofibers." Langmuir: the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. 32 (50), pp. 13340-13348. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03467
Understanding the Ageing Aspects of Natural Ester Based Insulation liquid in Power Transformer
Badana, Kapila, Ekanayake, Chandima, Saha, Tapan Kumar and Annamalai, Pratheep Kumar. 2016. "Understanding the Ageing Aspects of Natural Ester Based Insulation liquid in Power Transformer." IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 23 (1), pp. 246-257. https://doi.org/10.1109/Tdei.2015.004744
Systematic production of high quality and low cost cellulose nanofibres and their potential applications
Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, Pratheep and Martin, Darren J.. 2016. "Systematic production of high quality and low cost cellulose nanofibres and their potential applications." TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2016. Grenoble, France 13 - 16 Jun 2016 France.
Scalable processing of thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites toughened with nanocellulose
Amin, Khairatun Najwa Mohd, Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Edwards, Grant, Chaleat, Celine and Martin, Darren J.. 2016. "Scalable processing of thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites toughened with nanocellulose." Chemical Engineering Journal. 302, pp. 406-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.05.067
Cleaner and scalable processing of cellulose nanocrystal reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites
Mohd Amin, Khairatun Najwa, Amin, Mohd, Annamalai, Pratheep Kumar, Edwards, Grant A.B., Chaleat, Celine and Martin, Darren J.. 2016. "Cleaner and scalable processing of cellulose nanocrystal reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites." TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2016. Grenoble, France 13 - 16 Jun 2016 France.
Polymers from Biomass: Characterization, Modification, Degradation, and Applications
Adsul, Mukund, Tuli, Deepak K., Annamalai, Pratheep K., Depan, Dilip and Shankar, Shiv. 2016. "Polymers from Biomass: Characterization, Modification, Degradation, and Applications." International Journal of Polymer Science. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1857297
Transformer Hot Spot Temperature Prediction Using a Hybrid Algorithm of Support Vector Regression and Information Granulation
Cui, Yi, Ma, Hui and Saha, Tapan. 2016. "Transformer Hot Spot Temperature Prediction Using a Hybrid Algorithm of Support Vector Regression and Information Granulation." 2015 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC 2015). Brisbane, Australia 15 - 18 Nov 2015 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/APPEEC.2015.7381066
Effect of Rooftop-PV on Power Transformer Insulation and On-Load Tap Changer Operation
Martin, D., Saha, T., Krause, O., Cui, Y, McPhail, D., MacArthur, T. and Condon, D.. 2016. "Effect of Rooftop-PV on Power Transformer Insulation and On-Load Tap Changer Operation." 2015 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC 2015). Brisbane, Australia 15 - 18 Nov 2015 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/APPEEC.2015.7380952
A systematic study substituting polyether polyol with palm kernel oil based polyester polyol in rigid polyurethane foam
Septevani, Athanasia A., Evans, David A.C., Chaleat, Celine, Martin, Darren J. and Annamalai, Pratheep K.. 2015. "A systematic study substituting polyether polyol with palm kernel oil based polyester polyol in rigid polyurethane foam." Industrial Crops and Products. 66, pp. 16-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.11.053
Production of cellulose nanocrystals via a scalable mechanical method
Amin, Khairatun Najwa Mohd, Annamalai, Pratheep Kumar, Morrow, Isabel Catherine and Martin, Darren. 2015. "Production of cellulose nanocrystals via a scalable mechanical method." RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences. 5 (70), pp. 57133-57140. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra06862b
Easily deconstructed, high aspect ratio cellulose nanofibres from Triodia pungens; an abundant grass of Australia's arid zone
Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Memmott, Paul, Taran, Elena, Schmidt, Susanne and Martin, Darren J.. 2015. "Easily deconstructed, high aspect ratio cellulose nanofibres from Triodia pungens; an abundant grass of Australia's arid zone." RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences. 5 (41), pp. 32124-32132. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra02936h
Isolation of cellulose nanofibrils from Triodia pungens via different mechanical methods
Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Memmott, Paul and Martin, Darren. J.. 2015. "Isolation of cellulose nanofibrils from Triodia pungens via different mechanical methods ." Cellulose. 22 (4), pp. 2483-2498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0688-x
Erratum to “Optimization of resin extraction from an Australian arid grass ‘Triodia pungens’ and its preliminary evaluation as an anti-termite timber coating” [Ind. Crops Prod. 59 (2014) 241–247]
Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Fitzgerald, Chris, Memmott, Paul and Martin, Darren J.. 2015. "Erratum to “Optimization of resin extraction from an Australian arid grass ‘Triodia pungens’ and its preliminary evaluation as an anti-termite timber coating” [Ind. Crops Prod. 59 (2014) 241–247]." Industrial Crops and Products. 67, pp. 512-512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.12.037
Optimisation of resin extraction from an Australian arid grass ‘Triodia pungens’ and its preliminary evaluation as an anti-termite timber coating
Amiralian, Nasim, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Fitzgerald, Chris, Memmott, Paul and Martin, Darren J.. 2014. "Optimisation of resin extraction from an Australian arid grass ‘Triodia pungens’ and its preliminary evaluation as an anti-termite timber coating." Industrial Crops and Products. 59, pp. 241-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.04.045
Stability of chitosan/montmorillonite nanohybrid towards enzymatic degradation on grafting with poly(lactic acid)
Depan, D., Annamalai, A. Pratheep, Singh, R. P. and Misra, R. D. K.. 2014. "Stability of chitosan/montmorillonite nanohybrid towards enzymatic degradation on grafting with poly(lactic acid)." Materials Science and Technology. 30 (5), pp. 587-592. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743284713y.0000000501
Can clay nanoparticles accelerate environmental biodegradation of polyolefins?
Annamalai, P. K. and Martin, D. J.. 2014. "Can clay nanoparticles accelerate environmental biodegradation of polyolefins?" Materials Science and Technology. 30 (5), pp. 593-602. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743284713y.0000000498
Water-Responsive Mechanically Adaptive Nanocomposites Based on Styrene–Butadiene Rubber and Cellulose Nanocrystals—Processing Matters
Annamalai, Pratheep K., Dagnon, Koffi L., Monemian, Seyedali, Foster, E. Johan, Rowan, Stuart J. and Weder, Christoph. 2014. "Water-Responsive Mechanically Adaptive Nanocomposites Based on Styrene–Butadiene Rubber and Cellulose Nanocrystals—Processing Matters ." ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 6 (2), pp. 967-76. https://doi.org/10.1021/am404382x
Pattern Recognition Techniques for Power Transformer Insulation Diagnosis - A Comparative Study Part 2: Implementation, Case Study, and Statistical Analysis
Cui, Yi, Ma, Hui and Saha, Tapan. 2014. "Pattern Recognition Techniques for Power Transformer Insulation Diagnosis - A Comparative Study Part 2: Implementation, Case Study, and Statistical Analysis." International Transactions on Electrical Energy System. 25 (10), pp. 2260-2274. https://doi.org/10.1002/etep.1963
Pattern Recognition Techniques for Power Transformer Insulation Diagnosis - A Comparative Study Part 1: Framework, Literature, and Illustration
Cui, Yi, Ma, Hui and Saha, Tapan. 2014. "Pattern Recognition Techniques for Power Transformer Insulation Diagnosis - A Comparative Study Part 1: Framework, Literature, and Illustration." International Transactions on Electrical Energy System. 25 (10), pp. 2247-2259. https://doi.org/10.1002/etep.1959
Studies on the feasibility of recycled polystyrene doped with NLO active meta-Nitroaniline for optoelectronics applications
Sureshkumar, M.S., Goyal, R.L., Negi, Y.s., Pratheepkumar, A., Reddy, K. Raghunatha, Singh, R.P., Dadge, J.W. and Aiyer, R.C.. 2011. "Studies on the feasibility of recycled polystyrene doped with NLO active meta-Nitroaniline for optoelectronics applications ." Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 22 (12), pp. 1865-1871. https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.1685
Bioinspired Mechanically Adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites with Water-Activated Shape-Memory Effect
Mendez, Julie, Annamalai, Pratheep K., Eichhorn, Stephen J., Rusli, Rafeadah, Rowan, Stuart J., Foste, E. Johan and Weder, Christoph. 2011. "Bioinspired Mechanically Adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites with Water-Activated Shape-Memory Effect." Macromolecules. 44 (17), pp. 6827-6835. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma201502k
Commercial aspects associated with bio-nanocomposites
Lonkar, Sunil P., Kumar, A. Pratheep and Singh, R. P.. 2011. "Commercial aspects associated with bio-nanocomposites." Nanocomposites with Biodegradable Polymers: Synthesis, Properties, and Future Perspectives. United Kingdom. Oxford University Press. pp. 400-420
Kinetics of mass transfer during vapour-induced phase separation (VIPS) process and its influence on poly-(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)membrane structure and surface morphology
Annamalai, Pratheep Kumar, Pochat-Bohatier, Celine, Bouyer, Denis, Li, Chia-Ling, Deratani, André and Wang, Da-Ming. 2011. "Kinetics of mass transfer during vapour-induced phase separation (VIPS) process and its influence on poly-(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)membrane structure and surface morphology ." Desalination and Water Treatment. 34 (1-3), pp. 204-210. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.2809
Nanoscale particles for polymer degradation and stabilization—Trends and future perspectives
Annamalai, Annamalai Pratheep, Depan, Dilip, Tomer, Namrata Singh and Singh, Raj Pal. 2009. "Nanoscale particles for polymer degradation and stabilization—Trends and future perspectives ." Progress in Polymer Science. 34 (6), pp. 479-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.01.002
Cell proliferation and controlled drug release studies of nanohybrids based on chitosan-g-lactic acid and montmorillonite
Depan, Dilip, Annamalai, Annamalai Pratheep and Singh, Raj Pal. 2009. "Cell proliferation and controlled drug release studies of nanohybrids based on chitosan-g-lactic acid and montmorillonite." Acta Biomaterialia. 5 (1), pp. 93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2008.08.007
Single Step Synthesis and Properties of M/MFe2O4 and PVDF/M/MFe2O4 (M = Co, Ni) Magnetic Nanocomposites
Deka, Sasanka, Joy, P. A. and Annamalai, A. Pratheep. 2009. "Single Step Synthesis and Properties of M/MFe2O4 and PVDF/M/MFe2O4 (M = Co, Ni) Magnetic Nanocomposites ." Science of Advanced Materials. 1 (3), pp. 262-268. https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2009.1053
Effect of γ-dose rate on crystallinity and morphological changes of γ-sterilized biomedical polypropylene
Alariqi, Sameh A.S., Annamalai, A. Pratheep, Rao, B.S.M. and Singh, R.P.. 2009. "Effect of γ-dose rate on crystallinity and morphological changes of γ-sterilized biomedical polypropylene." Polymer Degradation and Stability. 94 (2), pp. 272-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2008.10.027
Biocomposites of cellulose reinforced starch: improvement of properties by photo-induced crosslinking
Kumar, Annamalai Pratheep and Singh, Raj Pal. 2008. "Biocomposites of cellulose reinforced starch: improvement of properties by photo-induced crosslinking." Bioresource Technology. 99 (18), pp. 8803-8809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.04.045
Novel hybrid of clay, cellulose, and thermoplastics. I. Preparation and characterization of composites of ethylene–propylene copolymer
Kumar, Annamalai Pratheep and Singh, Raj Pal. 2007. "Novel hybrid of clay, cellulose, and thermoplastics. I. Preparation and characterization of composites of ethylene–propylene copolymer." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 104 (4), pp. 2672-2682. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.25659
Photo-stabilization of EPDM-clay nanocomposites: effect of antioxidant on the preparation and durability
Lonkar, Sunil P., Annamalai, A. Pratheep and Singh, Raj Pal. 2007. "Photo-stabilization of EPDM-clay nanocomposites: effect of antioxidant on the preparation and durability." Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 18 (11), pp. 891-900. https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.925
Stabilization of γ-sterilized biomedical polyolefins by synergistic mixtures of oligomeric stabilizers. Part II. Polypropylene matrix
Alariqi, Sameh A.S., Kumar, A. Pratheep, Rao, B.S.M. Rao and Singh, R.P.. 2007. "Stabilization of γ-sterilized biomedical polyolefins by synergistic mixtures of oligomeric stabilizers. Part II. Polypropylene matrix ." Polymer Degradation and Stability. 92 (2), pp. 299-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.10.010
Photo-/Bio-degradability of Agro Waste and Ethylene–Propylene Copolymers Composites Under Abiotic and Biotic Environments
Kumar, A. Pratheep, Pandey, Jitendra K., Kumar, Bijendra and Singh, R. P.. 2006. "Photo-/Bio-degradability of Agro Waste and Ethylene–Propylene Copolymers Composites Under Abiotic and Biotic Environments." Journal of Polymers and the Environment. 14 (2), pp. 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-006-0012-9
Preparation and characterization of novel hybrid of chitosan-g-lactic acid and montmorillonite
Depan, Dilip, Annamalai, Annamalai Pratheep and Singh, Raj Pal. 2006. "Preparation and characterization of novel hybrid of chitosan-g-lactic acid and montmorillonite." Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 78 (2), pp. 372-82. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.30738
Stabilization of γ-sterilized biomedical polyolefins by synergistic mixtures of oligomeric stabilizers
Alariqi, Sameh. A.S., Annamalai, A. Pratheep, Rao, B.S.M., Tevtia, Amit K. and Singh, R.P.. 2006. "Stabilization of γ-sterilized biomedical polyolefins by synergistic mixtures of oligomeric stabilizers ." Polymer Degradation and Stability. 91 (10), pp. 2451-2464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.03.010
Biodegradation of γ-sterilised biomedical polyolefins under composting and fungal culture environments
Alariqi, Sameh A.S., Kumar, A. Pratheep, Rao, B.S.M. and Singh, R.P.. 2006. "Biodegradation of γ-sterilised biomedical polyolefins under composting and fungal culture environments." Polymer Degradation and Stability. 91 (5), pp. 1105-1116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.07.004
An overview on the degradability of polymer nanocomposites
Pandey, Jitendra K., Reddy, K. Raghunatha, Kumar, A. Pratheep and Singh, R.P.. 2005. "An overview on the degradability of polymer nanocomposites." Polymer Degradation and Stability. 88 (2), pp. 234-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.09.013
Recent Advances in Biodegradable Nanocomposites
Pandey, Jitendra K., Kumar, A. Pratheep, Misra, Manjusri, Mohanty, Amar K., Drzal, Lawrence T. and Singh, Raj. 2005. "Recent Advances in Biodegradable Nanocomposites ." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 5 (4), pp. 497-526. https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2005.111
Degradability of composites, prepared from ethylene–propylene copolymer and jute fiber under accelerated aging and biotic environments
Annamalai, Annamalai Pratheep, Singh, Raj Pal and Sarwade, Bhimrao D.. 2005. "Degradability of composites, prepared from ethylene–propylene copolymer and jute fiber under accelerated aging and biotic environments." Materials Chemistry and Physics. 92 (2-3), pp. 458-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2005.01.027
Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of novel stabilized TDI-based polyurethane coatings under accelerated weathering
Kumar, A. Pratheep, Reddy, K. Raghunatha, Rana, Sravendra, Lonkar, Sunil P., Raut, K.G. and Singh, Raj Pal. 2005. "Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of novel stabilized TDI-based polyurethane coatings under accelerated weathering." Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology. 11 (1), pp. 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/vnl.20032
Biodegradation of packaging materials: Composting of polyolefins
Pandey, Jitendra K., Kumar, A. Pratheep and Singh, R.P.. 2003. "Biodegradation of packaging materials: Composting of polyolefins." Macromolecular Symposia. 197 (1), pp. 411-420. https://doi.org/10.1002/masy.200350735