A mixed acid methodology to produce thermally stable cellulose nanocrystal at high yield using phosphoric acid

Article


Amin, Khairatun Najwa, Hosseinmardi, Alireza, Martin, Darren J. and Annamalai, Pratheep K.. 2022. "A mixed acid methodology to produce thermally stable cellulose nanocrystal at high yield using phosphoric acid." Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts. 7 (2), pp. 99-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobab.2021.12.002
Article Title

A mixed acid methodology to produce thermally stable cellulose nanocrystal at high yield using phosphoric acid

Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsAmin, Khairatun Najwa, Hosseinmardi, Alireza, Martin, Darren J. and Annamalai, Pratheep K.
Journal TitleJournal of Bioresources and Bioproducts
Journal Citation7 (2), pp. 99-108
Number of Pages10
Year2022
PublisherElsevier
KeAi Publishing Communications Ltd.
Place of PublicationChina
ISSN2369-9698
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobab.2021.12.002
Web Address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2369969821000864
AbstractCellulose nanocrystal (CNC) with distinctive shape-morphology, enhanced thermal stability and dispersibility is essential for overcoming the challenges in processing polymer/CNC nanocomposites through melt compounding at elevated temperatures. This study shows a mixed acid hydrolysis method to produce CNC with improved thermal stability and high productivity. The use of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), as a mild acid, in combination with a strong acid either sulphuric acid (H2SO4) or hydrochloric acid (HCl) leads to reduced use of strong acids and low impact on our environment. The influences of acid combination and sequence of addition on the production yield were investigated by retaining the proportion of H3PO4 to corrosive acid (H2SO4 and HCl) 4 to 1, and solid to liquid ratio 1꞉75. This methodology has enabled to isolate CNC with higher thermal stability, dispersibility and productivity in terms of amount acid used 1 g of CNC, as compared with single acid hydrolysis. The CNC produced using the combination of H3PO4 and HCl exhibits high thermal stability, dispersibility and rod-like shape morphology with length and width of (424 ± 86) and (22 ± 3) nm, respectively. Moreover, this approach has reduced H3PO4 consumption by 54% as compared with single acid hydrolysis method for the production of same amount of CNC.
KeywordsCellulose nanocrystal (CNC); Acid hydrolysis; Thermal stability; Mixed acid; Crystallinity; Production yield
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020300705. Forestry biomass and bioproducts
340303. Nanochemistry
401807. Nanomaterials
Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Queensland
Universiti Malaysia Pahang Al-Sultan Abdullah, Malaysia
Centre for Future Materials (Research)
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