Individual, country and societal cluster differences on measures of personality, attitudes, values, and social norms

Article


Stankov, Lazar. 2011. "Individual, country and societal cluster differences on measures of personality, attitudes, values, and social norms." Learning and Individual Differences: journal of psychology and education. 21 (1), pp. 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.09.002
Article Title

Individual, country and societal cluster differences on measures of personality, attitudes, values, and social norms

ERA Journal ID6506
Article CategoryArticle
Authors
AuthorStankov, Lazar
Journal TitleLearning and Individual Differences: journal of psychology and education
Journal Citation21 (1), pp. 55-66
Number of Pages12
Year2011
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN1041-6080
1873-3425
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.09.002
Web Address (URL)http://ac.els-cdn.com/S104160801000107X/1-s2.0-S104160801000107X-main.pdf?_tid=1141a19c-78b8-11e7-a2f4-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1501811943_631cdb7867ac3884b5ae4f5f0f7ce3a5
Abstract

This study investigated cross-cultural differences on 38 subscales from 4 major domains-personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms. These scales were administered to participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language™ (TOEFL®, N=1,600) and U.S. college students (N=429). Total variability of each subscale was split into individual, country (45), and societal cluster (9 world regions) components using hierarchical linear modeling procedures. Individual variability accounted for between 67.69% and 96.43%, and country and societal clusters accounted for, on average, 11% of the total variance. Furthermore, cross-cultural effects attributable to country and societal clusters were less pronounced on measures of personality and values than they were on measures of social attitudes and social norms. A composite representing the conservatism dimension showed pronounced cultural differences (25% of total variance), and the pattern of means revealed that Europeans hold more liberal attitudes, values, and beliefs than people from other world regions.

Keywordscross-cultural differences; HLM analysis; personality; social attitudes; social norms
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020529999. Other psychology not elsewhere classified
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Byline AffiliationsNational Institute of Education, Singapore
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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