The influence of training level on manual flight in connection to performance, scan pattern, and task load

Article


Friedrich, Maik, Lee, Seung Yong, Bates, Paul, Martin, Wayne and Faulhaber, Anja K.. 2021. "The influence of training level on manual flight in connection to performance, scan pattern, and task load." Cognition, Technology and Work. 23 (4), pp. 715-730. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10111-020-00663-8
Article Title

The influence of training level on manual flight in connection to performance, scan pattern, and task load

ERA Journal ID125035
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsFriedrich, Maik (Author), Lee, Seung Yong (Author), Bates, Paul (Author), Martin, Wayne (Author) and Faulhaber, Anja K. (Author)
Journal TitleCognition, Technology and Work
Journal Citation23 (4), pp. 715-730
Number of Pages16
Year2021
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN1435-5558
1435-5566
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s10111-020-00663-8
Web Address (URL)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10111-020-00663-8
Abstract

This work focuses on the analysis of pilots’ performance during manual flight operations in different stages of training and their influence on gaze strategy. The secure and safe operation of air traffic is highly dependent on the individual perfor-mances of the pilots. Before becoming a pilot, he/she has to acquire a broad set of skills by training to pass all the necessary qualification and licensing standards. A basic skill for every pilot is manual control operations, which is a closed-loop control process with several cross-coupled variables. Even with increased automation in the cockpit, the manual control operations are essential for every pilot as a last resort in the event of automation failure. A key element in the analysis of manual flight operations is the development over time in relation to performance and visual perception. An experiment with 28 participants (including 11 certified pilots) was conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator. For defined flight phases, the dynamic time warping method was applied to evaluate the performance for selected criteria, and eye-tracking methodology was utilized to analyze the gaze-pattern development. The manipulation of workload and individual experience influences the performance and the gaze pattern at the same time. Findings suggest that the increase of workload has an increased influence on pilots depending on the flight phase. Gaze patterns from experienced pilots provide insights into the training requirements of both novices and experts. The connection between workload, performance and gaze pattern is complex and needs to be analyzed under as many differing conditions. The results imply the necessity to evaluate manual flight operations with respect to more flight phases and a detailed selection of performance indications.

Keywordstask load, pilot performance, gaze pattern, eye tracking, pilot versus novices
Related Output
Is supplemented byCorrection to: The influence of training level on manual fight in connection to performance, scan pattern, and task load
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020529999. Other psychology not elsewhere classified
Byline AffiliationsGerman Aerospace Centre, Germany
School of Business
Central Queensland University
Institute of Flight Guidance, Germany
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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