Disease Severity Estimates-Effects of Rater Accuracy and Assessment Methods for Comparing Treatments

Article


Bock, C. H., El Jarroudi, M., Kouadio, L. A., Mackels, C., Chiang, K.-S. and Delfosse, P.. 2015. "Disease Severity Estimates-Effects of Rater Accuracy and Assessment Methods for Comparing Treatments." Plant Disease. 99 (8), pp. 1104-1112. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0925-RE
Article Title

Disease Severity Estimates-Effects of Rater Accuracy and Assessment Methods for Comparing Treatments

Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBock, C. H., El Jarroudi, M., Kouadio, L. A., Mackels, C., Chiang, K.-S. and Delfosse, P.
Journal TitlePlant Disease
Journal Citation99 (8), pp. 1104-1112
Number of Pages9
YearAug 2015
Place of PublicationUnited States
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0925-RE
Web Address (URL)https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/full/10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0925-RE
Abstract

Assessment of disease severity is required for several purposes in plant pathology; most often, the estimates are made visually. It is established that visual estimates can be inaccurate and unreliable. The ramifications of biased or imprecise estimates by raters have not been fully explored using empirical data, partly because of the logistical difficulties involved in different raters assessing the same leaves for which actual disease has been measured in a replicated experiment with multiple treatments. In this study, nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB) on leaves of winter wheat from nontreated and fungicide-treated plots were assessed in both 2006 and 2007 by four raters and compared with assumed actual values measured using image analysis. Lin’s concordance correlation (LCC, Pc) was used to assess agreement between the two approaches. NPEs were converted to Horsfall-Barratt (HB) midpoints and were compared with actual values. The estimates of SLB severity from fungicide-treated and nontreated plots were analyzed using generalized linear mixed modeling to ascertain effects of rater using both the NPE and HB values. Rater 1 showed good accuracy Pc = 0.986 to 0.999), while raters 3 and 4 were less accurate (Pc = 0.205 to 0.936). Conversion to the HB scale had little effect on bias but reduced numerically both precision and accuracy for most raters on most assessment dates (precision, r = −0.001 to −0.132; and accuracy, Pc = −0.003 to −0.468). Interrater reliability was also reduced slightly by conversion of estimates to HB midpoint values. Estimates of mean SLB severity were significantly different between image analysis and raters 2, 3, and 4, and there were frequently significant differences among raters (F = 151 to 1,260, P= 0.001 to P < 0.0001). Only on 26 June 2007 did conversion to the HB scale change the means separation ranking of rater estimates. Nonetheless, image analysis and all raters were able to differentiate control and treated-plot treatments (F = 116 to 1,952, P = 0.002 to P < 0.0001, depending on date and rater). Conversion of NPEs to the HB scale tended to reduce F values slightly (2006: NPEs, F = 116 to 276, P = 0.002 to 0.0005; and, for the HB-converted values, F = 101 to 270, P = 0.002 to 0.0005; 2007: NPEs, F = 164 to 1,952, P = 0.001 to P < 0.0001; and, for HB-converted values, F = 126 to 1,633, P=0.002 to P < 0.0001). The results reaffirmthe need for accurate and reliable disease assessment to minimize over- or underestimates compared with actual disease, and the data we present support the view that, where multiple raters are deployed, they should be assigned in a manner to reduce any potential effect of rater differences on the analysis.

KeywordsSeptoria; Triticum aestivum
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Byline AffiliationsDepartment of Agriculture, United States
University of Liege, Belgium
Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada
National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
No affiliation
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El Jarroudi, Moussa, Kouadio, Louis, Delfosse, Philippe and Tychon, Bernard. 2014. "Brown rust disease control in winter wheat: I. Exploring an approach for disease progression based on night weather conditions." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 21 (7), pp. 4797-4808. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2463-6
An integrated, probabilistic model for improved seasonal forecasting of agricultural crop yield under environmental uncertainty
Newlands, Nathaniel K., Zamar, David S., Kouadio, Louis A., Zhang, Yinsuo, Chipanshi, Aston, Potgieter, Andries, Toure, Souleymane and Hill, Harvey S. J.. 2014. "An integrated, probabilistic model for improved seasonal forecasting of agricultural crop yield under environmental uncertainty." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2, pp. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2014.00017
A comparison of raters and disease assessment methods for estimating disease severity for purposes of hypothesis testing
Bock, Clive, El Jarroudi, Moussa, Kouadio, Louis, Mackels, Christophe, Chiang, Kuo-Szu and Delfosse, Philippe. 2014. "A comparison of raters and disease assessment methods for estimating disease severity for purposes of hypothesis testing." Phytopathology: International Journal of the American Phytopathological Society. 104 (11), pp. 15-16.
Importance of a well-distributed frequency of measurements in the senescence monitoring of winter wheat and yield estimates
Kouadio, Louis, Djaby, Bakary, El Jarroudi, Moussa and Tychon, Bernard. 2012. "Importance of a well-distributed frequency of measurements in the senescence monitoring of winter wheat and yield estimates." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology . 2 (12), pp. 1203-1213.
Estimating winter wheat yield through the decreasing phase of its green area [Cinetique de decroissance de la surface verte et estimation du rendement du ble d'hiver]
Kouadio, Amani Louis, Djaby, Bakary, Duveiller, Gregory, El Jarroudi, Moussa and Tychon, Bernard. 2012. "Estimating winter wheat yield through the decreasing phase of its green area [Cinetique de decroissance de la surface verte et estimation du rendement du ble d'hiver]." Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment. 16 (2), pp. 179-191.
Typology of the main fungal diseases affecting winter wheat in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa, Kouadio, Louis, Delfosse, Philippe, Giraud, Frederic, Junk, Jurgen, Hoffmann, Lucien, Maraite, Henri and Tychon, Bernard. 2012. "Typology of the main fungal diseases affecting winter wheat in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology . 2 (12), pp. 1386-1399.
Spatial distribution of calibrated WOFOST parameters and their influence on the performances of a regional yield forecasting system
Djaby, Bakary, de Wit, Allard, Kouadio, Louis, El Jarroudi, Moussa and Tychon, Bernard. 2013. "Spatial distribution of calibrated WOFOST parameters and their influence on the performances of a regional yield forecasting system." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2 (4), pp. 12-29. https://doi.org/10.5539/sar.v2n4p12
Disease severity assessment in epidemiological studies: accuracy and reliability of visual estimates of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB) in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa, Kouadio, Louis, Mackels, Christophe, Tychon, Bernard, Delfosse, Philippe and Bock, Clive H.. 2014. "Disease severity assessment in epidemiological studies: accuracy and reliability of visual estimates of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB) in winter wheat." 2014 APS-CPS Joint Meeting. Minneapolis, United States of America 09 - 13 Aug 2014 United States. American Phytopathological Society. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-104-11-S3.1