Evaluation of stereovision for extracting plant features

Paper


Mohammed Amean, Z., Low, T., McCarthy, C. and Hancock, N.. 2013. "Evaluation of stereovision for extracting plant features." SEAg 2013: Innovative Agricultural Technologies for a Sustainable Future. Barton, Australia 22 - 25 Sep 2013 Canberra, Australia.
Paper/Presentation Title

Evaluation of stereovision for extracting plant features

Presentation TypePaper
AuthorsMohammed Amean, Z. (Author), Low, T. (Author), McCarthy, C. (Author) and Hancock, N. (Author)
Journal or Proceedings TitleProceedings of the 2013 Conference of the Australian Society for Engineering in Agriculture (SEAg 2013)
Number of Pages10
Year2013
Place of PublicationCanberra, Australia
ISBN9781922107114
Web Address (URL) of Paperhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/260196685_EVALUATION_OF_STEREOVISION_FOR_EXTRACTING_PLANT_FEATURES_Z_Mohammed_Amean1_T_Low1_C_McCarthy2_and_N_Hancock2
Conference/EventSEAg 2013: Innovative Agricultural Technologies for a Sustainable Future
Event Details
SEAg 2013: Innovative Agricultural Technologies for a Sustainable Future
Event Date
22 to end of 25 Sep 2013
Event Location
Barton, Australia
Abstract

Visual sensors produce an image that can be analysed by computational algorithms to extract useful
information about image features. Plants have complex object structures in which images can help
extract, however, not all plant features can be recognised through a single image. Stereovision
enhances the single image features by adding the third dimension, depth, to obtain more accurate
localisation of the plant’s structures. Stereovision is a technique that produces a disparity map of a
scene through the use of two or more images taken from different points of view. Depth information
can be used to enhance the detection of fruit and plant parts; however research in using Stereovision
for extracting plant structures is sparse.

In this paper, Stereovision is analysed in its ability to extract important features from two types of
nursery plants taken in indoor and outdoor lighting conditions. From the colour images, colour and
shape segmentation are evaluated on their ability to extract certain plant features, such as stems,
branches and leaf. Depth images are also evaluated on their accuracy, coverage, and ability to improve
image segmentation for colour images. The depth images have some gaps and missing data. The new
algorithm develops the depth images by interpolating the gap data and smoothing depth images.
Preliminary results show good plant feature can be extracted from depth images at indoor
environment, while depth data from an outdoor environment contains more noise due to the variation
in lighting conditions.

Keywords3D perception, depth perception, disparity map, feature extraction, image segmentation mobile robot, plant part detection, precision agriculture.
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400799. Control engineering, mechatronics and robotics not elsewhere classified
Public Notes

File reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher/author.

Byline AffiliationsFaculty of Engineering and Surveying
National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Pittaway, P., Hancock, N., Brink, G., Symes, T. and Schmidt, E.. 2009. "Revisiting artificial monolayers as a strategy to reduce evaporative loss from large open water storages ." Kenway, S. J. and Begbie, D. K. (ed.) 1st Urban Water Security Research Alliance Science Forum (UWSRA 2009). Brisbane, Australia 17 - 18 Aug 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity
Hancock, Nigel H., Maxwell, Andrew D. and Ahfock, Tony L.. 2008. Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity. AG01N2702FI
Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2009. "Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions." Transactions of the ASABE. 52 (6), pp. 2093-2103.
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2008. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John and Bradbeer, Robin (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Germany. pp. 305-312 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74027-8_26
Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2010. "Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations." Intelligent Service Robotics. 3 (4), pp. 209-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11370-010-0075-2
Machine vision-based weed spot spraying: a review and where next for sugarcane?
McCarthy, Cheryl, Rees, Steven and Baillie, Craig. 2010. "Machine vision-based weed spot spraying: a review and where next for sugarcane?" Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2010). Bundaberg, Australia 11 - 14 May 2010 Australia.
Ground-plane classification for robot navigation: combining multiple cues toward a visual-based learning system
Low, Tobias and Manzanera, Antoine. 2010. "Ground-plane classification for robot navigation: combining multiple cues toward a visual-based learning system." 11th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV 2010). Singapore 07 - 10 Dec 2010 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICARCV.2010.5707289
VARIwise: a general-purpose adaptive control simulation framework for spatially and temporally varied irrigation at sub-field scale
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "VARIwise: a general-purpose adaptive control simulation framework for spatially and temporally varied irrigation at sub-field scale." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 70 (1), pp. 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2009.09.011
Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement." Journal of Cotton Science. 14 (4), pp. 221-232.
Droplet evaporation losses during sprinkler irrigation: an overview
Uddin, Jasim, Smith, Rod, Hancock, Nigel and Foley, Joseph P.. 2010. "Droplet evaporation losses during sprinkler irrigation: an overview." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Applied machine vision in agriculture at the NCEA
McCarthy, Cheryl and Billingsley, John. 2009. "Applied machine vision in agriculture at the NCEA." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Reliable, modest-cost seepage and evaporation measurement for farm dams using 'EvapCalc'
Symes, Troy, Hancock, Nigel and Schmidt, Erik. 2010. "Reliable, modest-cost seepage and evaporation measurement for farm dams using 'EvapCalc'." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney,Australia.
Simulation of adaptive site-specific irrigation control performance with spatially variable rainfall
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Simulation of adaptive site-specific irrigation control performance with spatially variable rainfall." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Simulation of site-specific irrigation control strategies with sparse input data
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Simulation of site-specific irrigation control strategies with sparse input data." 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2010): Sustainable Biosystems Through Engineering. Quebec City, Canada 13 - 17 Jun 2010 Quebec, Canada.
Cattle liveweight estimation using machine vision assessment of objective body measurements: first results
McCarthy, C., Billingsley, J., Finch, N., Murray, P. and Gaughan, J.. 2010. "Cattle liveweight estimation using machine vision assessment of objective body measurements: first results." 28th Biennial Australian Society of Animal Production Conference. Armidale, Australia 11 - 15 Jul 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Determining operational requirements to optimise monolayer performance on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2010. "Determining operational requirements to optimise monolayer performance on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
A ‘universal design framework’ for installation planning and operational management of evaporation-suppressing films on agricultural reservoirs
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2010. "A ‘universal design framework’ for installation planning and operational management of evaporation-suppressing films on agricultural reservoirs." Genet, Roger (ed.) International Conference on Agricultural Engineering: Towards Environmental Technologies (2010). Clermont-Ferrand, France 06 - 08 Sep 2010
Holistic control system design for large mobile irrigation machines
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2010. "Holistic control system design for large mobile irrigation machines." 16th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2010). Darussalam, Brunei 22 - 24 Jun 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
EvapCalc – a modest-cost technique for real-time measurement of evaporation (and seepage) from farm dams
Hancock, Nigel and Symes, Troy. 2009. "EvapCalc – a modest-cost technique for real-time measurement of evaporation (and seepage) from farm dams." IWER 2009: International Workshop on Evaporation from Reservoirs. Gold Coast, Australia 09 - 11 Dec 2009 Gold Coast, Australia.
The combined use of shade-cloth covers and monolayers to prevent evaporation in irrigation reservoirs
Gallego-Elvira, B., Martinez Alvarez, V., Pittaway, Pam, Symes, Troy and Hancock, Nigel. 2010. "The combined use of shade-cloth covers and monolayers to prevent evaporation in irrigation reservoirs." International Conference on Agricultural Engineering: Towards Environmental Technologies (2010). Clermont-Ferrand, France 06 - 08 Sep 2010
Development of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis and plant identification technology
Rees, Steven, McCarthy, Cheryl, Artizzu, X. P. B., Baillie, Craig and Dunn, Mark. 2009. "Development of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis and plant identification technology." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Towards a biophysical understanding of observed performance of evaporation suppressant films applied to agricultural water storages - first analyses
Hancock, Nigel, Pittaway, Pam and Symes, Troy. 2009. "Towards a biophysical understanding of observed performance of evaporation suppressant films applied to agricultural water storages - first analyses ." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Smart monolayer application and management to reduce evaporation on farm dams - formulation of a universal design framework
Brink, Gavin, Symes, Troy, Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel, Pather, Selvan and Schmidt, Erik. 2009. "Smart monolayer application and management to reduce evaporation on farm dams - formulation of a universal design framework." Venkatraman, K. (ed.) 2009 Environmental Research Event. Noosa, Australia 10 - 13 May 2009
Towards adaptive operational requirements for optimal application of evaporation-suppressing monolayer to reservoirs via a 'universal design framework'
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2009. "Towards adaptive operational requirements for optimal application of evaporation-suppressing monolayer to reservoirs via a 'universal design framework'." IWER 2009: International Workshop on Evaporation from Reservoirs. Gold Coast, Australia 09 - 11 Dec 2009 Gold Coast, Australia.
A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system." Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw, Hanan, Jim S. and Lane, Brendan (ed.) 5th International Workshop on Functional Structural Plant Models (FSPM07). Napier, New Zealand 04 - 09 Nov 2007
Improving the performance of chemical monolayers in reducing farm dam evaporation
Craig, Ian, Schmidt, Erik, Hancock, Nigel, Barnes, Geoff, Turnbull, David J., Pittaway, Pam and Morrison, Pippa. 2006. "Improving the performance of chemical monolayers in reducing farm dam evaporation." 3rd CRC-IF Annual Research Forum. Narrabri, Australia 05 - 06 Dec 2006 Toowoomba, Queensland.
Development of a 'smart' monolayer application system for reducing evaporation from farm dams: introductory paper
Brink, Gavin, Symes, Troy and Hancock, Nigel. 2009. "Development of a 'smart' monolayer application system for reducing evaporation from farm dams: introductory paper." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
EvapCalc software for the determination of dam evaporation and seepage
Craig, Ian, Schmidt, Erik and Hancock, Nigel. 2007. "EvapCalc software for the determination of dam evaporation and seepage." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2007: Agriculture and Engineering - Challenge Today, Technology Tomorrow. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 26 Sep 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters." Biological Sensorics 2007: Critical Technologies for Future Biosystems. Minneapolis, Australia 15 - 17 Jun 2007 St. Joseph, MI, United States.
Development of a simulation framework for variable-rate irrigation of cotton
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Development of a simulation framework for variable-rate irrigation of cotton." 14th Australian Cotton Conference: New Beginnings – Cotton in a Climate of Change. Gold Coast, Australia 12 - 14 Aug 2008 Narrabri, NSW, Australia.
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2009. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 7 (1), pp. 79-90.
Exploration of data requirements for adaptive control of irrigation scheduling
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2009. "Exploration of data requirements for adaptive control of irrigation scheduling." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Sensors in, for and by mechatronics: a symbiosis [Introduction]
Hancock, Nigel H.. 2000. "Sensors in, for and by mechatronics: a symbiosis [Introduction]." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 101-103
Automated carbon dioxide measurement via miniaturised chemical reaction chambers under mechatronic control
Maxwell, Andrew, Hancock, Nigel and Tran-Cong, Thanh. 2000. "Automated carbon dioxide measurement via miniaturised chemical reaction chambers under mechatronic control." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 135-142
Towards evaluation of adaptive control systems for improved site-specific irrigation of cotton
McCarthy, Alison, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2008. "Towards evaluation of adaptive control systems for improved site-specific irrigation of cotton." Irrigation Australia 2008: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition: Share the Water, Share the Benefits. Melbourne, Australia 20 - 22 May 2008 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control
Smith, R. J., Raine, Steven R., McCarthy, Alison and Hancock, Nigel. 2007. "Managing spatial and temporal variability in irrigated agriculture through adaptive control." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2007: Agriculture and Engineering - Challenge Today, Technology Tomorrow. Adelaide, Australia 24 - 26 Sep 2007 Australia.
Evaporation, seepage and water quality management in storage dams: a review of research methods
Craig, Ian, Aravinthan, Vasantha, Baillie, Craig Peter, Beswick, Alan, Barnes, Geoff, Bradbury, Ron, Connell, Luke, Cooper, Paul, Fellows, Christopher, Fitzmaurice, Li, Foley, Joseph P., Hancock, Nigel, Lamb, David, Morrison, Pippa, Mossad, Ruth, Misra, R. K., Pittaway, Pam, Prime, Emma, Rees, Steve, ..., Turnbull, David. 2007. "Evaporation, seepage and water quality management in storage dams: a review of research methods." Environmental Health. 7 (3), pp. 84-97.
Non-contact extrudate profilometer: introductory paper
Taylor, Reginald, Hancock, Nigel and Tran-Cong, Thanh. 1997. "Non-contact extrudate profilometer: introductory paper." Werner, B. (ed.) 4th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 1997). Toowoomba, Australia 23 - 25 Sep 1997 USA. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.1997.625315
Carbon dioxide sensing - a mechatronic approach
Maxwell, Andrew, Hancock, Nigel and Billingsley, John. 1997. "Carbon dioxide sensing - a mechatronic approach." Werner, B. (ed.) 4th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 1997). Toowoomba, Australia 23 - 25 Sep 1997 Los Alamitos, CA. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.1997.625292
Methods for assessing dam evaporation - an introductory paper
Craig, Ian and Hancock, Nigel. 2004. "Methods for assessing dam evaporation - an introductory paper." Burnett, Jolyon (ed.) Irrigation Australia 2004: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Adelaide, Australia 11 - 13 May 2004 Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Berlin, Heidelberg.
A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control." Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Brisbane.
Development of a CFD based dam evaporation model
Craig, I. P., Mossad, R. and Hancock, N.. 2006. "Development of a CFD based dam evaporation model." 11th International Health Summer School. Brisbane, Australia 21 - 22 Nov 2006 Brisbane, Queensland.
Universal acidity - conductivity relations in commercial bulk starter production
Hancock, N. H., McKinnon, I. and Maxwell, A. D.. 2006. "Universal acidity - conductivity relations in commercial bulk starter production." Australian Journal of Dairy Technology. 61 (2), pp. 189-192.
A scoping study on measuring and monitoring tools and technology for precision irrigation
Misra, R. K., Raine, Steven R., Pezzaniti, David, Charlesworth, Philip and Hancock, Nigel. 2005. A scoping study on measuring and monitoring tools and technology for precision irrigation . Toowoomba, Australia. CRC for Irrigation Futures.