Cattle liveweight estimation using machine vision assessment of objective body measurements: first results

Poster


McCarthy, C., Billingsley, J., Finch, N., Murray, P. and Gaughan, J.. 2010. "Cattle liveweight estimation using machine vision assessment of objective body measurements: first results." 28th Biennial Australian Society of Animal Production Conference. Armidale, Australia 11 - 15 Jul 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Paper/Presentation Title

Cattle liveweight estimation using machine vision assessment of objective body measurements: first results

Presentation TypePoster
AuthorsMcCarthy, C. (Author), Billingsley, J. (Author), Finch, N. (Author), Murray, P. (Author) and Gaughan, J. (Author)
Journal or Proceedings TitleProceedings of the 28th Biennial Australian Society of Animal Production Conference
ERA Conference ID50303
Journal Citation28, p. 120
Number of Pages1
Year2010
Place of PublicationBrisbane, Australia
Web Address (URL) of Paperhttp://www.asap.asn.au/asap28/files/mccarthy120.pdf
Conference/Event28th Biennial Australian Society of Animal Production Conference
Australian Society of Animal Production Biennial Conference
Event Details
28th Biennial Australian Society of Animal Production Conference
Event Date
11 to end of 15 Jul 2010
Event Location
Armidale, Australia
Event Details
Australian Society of Animal Production Biennial Conference
ASAP Biennial Conference
Abstract

This paper describes first results in the development of a machine vision system that estimates the liveweight of cattle based on objective body measurements (i.e. body length and area). The apparatus has potential use in pasture and feedlot situations with application to automated drafting.
A trial conducted at Bengalla Station (42 km east of Goondiwindi, Queensland) consisted of video collection for thirty pasture-fed Bos indicus steers for one day in August 2009. Video apparatus was installed in a laneway enclosed in a shed through which the animals walked enroute to a watering point. Video recording was motion-triggered and indexed by cattle identifications from an electronic ear tag reader at the entry of the laneway. The animals were stationary-weighed the day before the video collection occurred.
The video apparatus comprised a single camera view of the laneway. The laneway was backlit with nearinfrared (NIR) floodlights such that a silhouetted side view of the animal was acquired as the animal walked through the laneway. A camera fitted with a NIR optical filter logged video to a personal computer. NIR wavelengths were used so the floodlights could be powered on and off automatically without disturbing the animals.
Image processing algorithms were written to automatically extract body length and area from the images. Firstly, dark pixels in the image were assigned as animal pixels and light pixels were assigned as the background. Body length was estimated as the distance between the approximate tailhead and shoulder positions in imagery. Body area was estimated using the body height and length.
Body length and area measured by the developed method was linearly related to body weight with coefficients of correlation of 0.52 and 0.53, respectively. The results agree with the finding of Wanderstock and Salisbury (1946) that body length is correlated with liveweight. Further work includes improving the weight estimation by incorporating other body measurements and camera views, extending the system to estimate condition score and trialing different breeds.

Keywordsmachine vision; body measurement; Bos indicus
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020300301. Animal growth and development
460304. Computer vision
400707. Manufacturing robotics
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Byline AffiliationsNational Centre for Engineering in Agriculture
University of Queensland
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Detection of crown rot in wheat utilising near-infrared spectroscopy: towards remote and robotic sensing
Humpal, Jacob, McCarthy, Cheryl, Percy, Cassy and Thomasson, J. Alex. 2020. "Detection of crown rot in wheat utilising near-infrared spectroscopy: towards remote and robotic sensing." Thomasson, J. Alex and Torres-Rua, Alfonso F. (ed.) Autonomous Air and Ground Sensing Systems for Agricultural Optimization and Phenotyping V (SPIE 2020). Online 27 Apr - 08 May 2020 United States. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2557949
Machine vision learning for crop disease and quality parameters
Humpal, Jacob, McCarthy, Cheryl, Thomasson, J. Alex and Percy, Cassy. 2018. "Machine vision learning for crop disease and quality parameters." 21st Precision Agriculture Symposium (2018). Adelaide, Australia Australia.
Space Agriculture: Sensing Crops in Space
Humpal, Jacob, McCarthy, Cheryl, Baillie, Craig, Percy, Cassy and Brett, Peter. 2022. "Space Agriculture: Sensing Crops in Space." GRDC Update Papers.
Comparison of post-exercise cooling methods in horses
Kang, H., Zsoldos, R. R., Skinner, J. E., Gaughan, J. B. and Guitart, A. S.. 2021. "Comparison of post-exercise cooling methods in horses." 2021 Equine Science Society Virtual Symposium. Champaign, United States 01 - 04 Jun 2021 United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2021.103485
Movement of free-ranging koalas in response to male vocalisation playbacks
Jiang, Alex Zijian, Murray, Peter, Phillips, Clive, Tribe, Andrew and Ellis, William. 2022. "Movement of free-ranging koalas in response to male vocalisation playbacks." Animals. 12 (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030287
Preliminary evaluation of real-time sensing of harvester losses by machine vision
McCarthy Chery. 2022. "Preliminary evaluation of real-time sensing of harvester losses by machine vision ." 43rd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2022). Mackay, Australia 19 - 22 Apr 2022 Australia. Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. pp. 108-110
The altruistic robot: do what I want, not just what I say
Billingsley, Richard, Billingsley, John, Gardenfors, Peter, Peppas, Pavlos, Prade, Henri, Skillicorn, David and Williams, Mary-Anne. 2017. "The altruistic robot: do what I want, not just what I say." Moral, S., Pivert, O., Sánchez, D. and Marín, N. (ed.) 11th International Conference on Scalable Uncertainty Management (SUM 2017). Granada, Spain 04 - 06 Oct 2017 Germany. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67582-4_11
Movement and dispersal of a habitat specialist in human-dominated landscapes: a case study of the red panda
Bista, Damber, Baxter, Greg S., Hudson, Nicholas J., Lama, Sonam Tashi, Weerman, Janno and Murray, Peter John. 2021. "Movement and dispersal of a habitat specialist in human-dominated landscapes: a case study of the red panda." Movement Ecology. 9, pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40462-021-00297-z
Identification and prevalence of a gammaherpesvirus in free-ranging northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus)
Langhorne, Charlotte, Sullivan, Jennifer, Hoy, Julia, Kopp, Steven, Murray, Peter and McMichael, Lee. 2021. "Identification and prevalence of a gammaherpesvirus in free-ranging northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus)." Journal of Wildlife Disease. 57 (4), pp. 912-916. https://doi.org/10.7589/JWD-D-20-00166
Do livestock injure and kill koalas? Insights from wildlife hospital and rescue group admissions and an online survey of livestock–koala conflicts
Jiang, Alex, Tribe, Andrew, Phillips, Clive and Murray, Peter John. 2021. "Do livestock injure and kill koalas? Insights from wildlife hospital and rescue group admissions and an online survey of livestock–koala conflicts." Animals. 11 (9), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092684
First record of Bengal Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus, 1758 (Felidae), in eastern Nepal
Bista, Damber, Tashi Lama, Sonam, Shrestha, Janam, Rumba, Yam Bahadur, Weerman, Janno, Thapa, Maghuri Karki, Acharya, Haribhadra, Sherpa, Ang Phuri, Hudson, Nicholas J., Baxter, Greg S. and Murray, Peter John. 2021. "First record of Bengal Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus, 1758 (Felidae), in eastern Nepal." Check List. 17 (5), pp. 1249-1253. https://doi.org/10.15560/17.5.1249
Habitat influence on activity patterns of brush-tailed rock-wallabies in Queensland
Botma, Kiarra-Lea, Shapland, Felicity, Hoy, Julia M., Pritchard, Tanya and Murray, Peter J.. 2021. "Habitat influence on activity patterns of brush-tailed rock-wallabies in Queensland." Australian Journal of Zoology. 68 (3), pp. 136-144. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO20090
Haematology and serum biochemistry results for anaesthetised northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus) in south east Queensland
Langhorne, Charlotte, McMichael, Lee, Hoy, Julia, Kopp, Stephen and Murray, Peter. 2021. "Haematology and serum biochemistry results for anaesthetised northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus) in south east Queensland." Australian Veterinary Journal. 99 (9), pp. 408-411. https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.13098
Effect of disturbances and habitat fragmentation on an arboreal habitat specialist mammal using GPS telemetry: a case of the red panda
Bista, Damber, Baxter, Greg S., Hudson, Nicholas J., Lama, Sonam Tashi and Murray, Peter John. 2022. "Effect of disturbances and habitat fragmentation on an arboreal habitat specialist mammal using GPS telemetry: a case of the red panda." Landscape Ecology. 37 (3), pp. 795-809. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-021-01357-w
Aging Sambar (Rusa unicolor) using Cementum Annuli and eruption and wear: implications for predicting populations
Watter, Kurt, Thomas, Elaine, White, Neil, Finch, Neal and Murray, Peter J.. 2021. "Aging Sambar (Rusa unicolor) using Cementum Annuli and eruption and wear: implications for predicting populations." Wildlife Society Bulletin. 45 (3), pp. 383-389. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.1216
Clinical pathology of captive endangered mahogany gliders (Petaurus gracilis) in responses to environmental change
McMichael, Lee, Adam, Darlene, Tribe, Andrew, Bynon, Brian, Bradshaw, Lana, Hoy, Julia, Murray, Peter and Kopp, Steven. 2021. "Clinical pathology of captive endangered mahogany gliders (Petaurus gracilis) in responses to environmental change." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 52 (1), pp. 268-275. https://doi.org/10.1638/2019-0163
In situ training of brushtail possums to use microchip-automated doors
Watson, Shania J., Hoy, Julia M., Edwards, Megan C. and Murray, Peter J.. 2021. "In situ training of brushtail possums to use microchip-automated doors." Wildlife Society Bulletin. 45 (3), pp. 390-395. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.1217
Boer goats under the microscope. Part 2. Are Boer bucks best?
Murray, Peter, Sumarmono, Juni and Werdi Pratiwi, Ni Made. 2002. "Boer goats under the microscope. Part 2. Are Boer bucks best?" Boer Briefs. Winter 2002 (29), pp. 18-24.
Boer goats under the microscope. Part 1. Are Boer bucks best?
Murray, Peter, Sumarmono, Juni and Werdi Pratiwi, Ni Made. 2002. "Boer goats under the microscope. Part 1. Are Boer bucks best?" Boer Briefs. Autumn 2002 (28), pp. 10-17.
Myth or fact: you can't catch an Echidna in a trap?
O'Hara, Patricia, Flint, Mark and Murray, Peter. 2003. "Myth or fact: you can't catch an Echidna in a trap?" Australian Biologist. 16 (2), pp. 91-93.
Towards a profitable and sustainable future for grain growers - a professional development model for farm partners
Murray, Chris, Condell, Jillian and Murray, Peter. 2005. "Towards a profitable and sustainable future for grain growers - a professional development model for farm partners." International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology. 1 (4), pp. 89-100.
Animal management in the Australian rangelands
Finch, Neal, Murray, Peter, Dunn, Mark and Billingsley, John. 2008. "Animal management in the Australian rangelands." SPIE Newsroom. https://doi.org/10.1117/2.1200801.0960
Relaxed predation theory: size, sex and brains matter
Edwards, Megan C., Hoy, Julia M., FitzGibbon, Sean I. and Murray, Peter J.. 2021. "Relaxed predation theory: size, sex and brains matter." Biological Reviews. 96 (1), pp. 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12611
Current and future goat production in Jembrana Regency, Bali Province
Doloksaribu, L., McLachlan, B. P., Copland, R. S. and Murray, Peter. 2018. "Current and future goat production in Jembrana Regency, Bali Province." 1st International Conference on Food and Agriculture 2018. Bali, Indonesia 20 - 21 Oct 2018 United Kingdom. IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/207/1/012027
Effect of time and diet change on the bacterial community structure throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in faeces of the northern brown bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus
O'Hara, Patricia J., Klieve, Athol V., Murray, Peter J., Maguire, Anita J., Ouwerkerk, Diane and Harper, Karen. 2016. "Effect of time and diet change on the bacterial community structure throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in faeces of the northern brown bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus." Australian Journal of Zoology. 64 (1), pp. 48-60. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO15078
The effects of acute exposure to mining machinery noise on the behaviour of eastern blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua scincoides)
Mancera, K. F., Murray, P. J., Lisle, A., Dupont, C., Faucheux, F. and Phillips, C. J. C.. 2017. "The effects of acute exposure to mining machinery noise on the behaviour of eastern blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua scincoides)." Animal Welfare. 26 (1), pp. 11-24. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.26.1.011
How to train your wildlife: A review of predator avoidance training
Edwards, Megan C., Ford, Caitlin, Hoy, Julia M., FitzGibbon, Sean and Murray, Peter J.. 2020. "How to train your wildlife: A review of predator avoidance training." Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 234, pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2020.105170
Seasonal diet preferences of chital deer in the northern Queensland dry tropics, Australia
Watter, Kurt, Baxter, Greg, Brennan, Michael, Pople, T. and Murray, Peter. 2020. "Seasonal diet preferences of chital deer in the northern Queensland dry tropics, Australia." The Rangeland Journal. 42 (3), pp. 211-220. https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ20015
Dietary overlap between cattle and chital in the Queensland dry tropics
Watter, Kurt, Baxter, Greg S., Pople, Anthony and Murray, Peter J.. 2020. "Dietary overlap between cattle and chital in the Queensland dry tropics." The Rangeland Journal. 42 (3), pp. 221-225. https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ20075
Development of the Mata Hari Judas Queen (Felis catus)
Murray, Peter J., Rogie, Melanie, Fraser, Natalie, Hoy, Julia and Kempster, Samantha. 2020. "Development of the Mata Hari Judas Queen (Felis catus)." Animals. 10 (10), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101843
You Are Not My Handler! Impact of Changing Handlers on Dogs’ Behaviours and Detection Performance
Jamieson, La Toya J., Baxter, Greg S. and Murray, Peter J.. 2018. "You Are Not My Handler! Impact of Changing Handlers on Dogs’ Behaviours and Detection Performance." Animals. 8 (10), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8100176
Who’s a Good Handler? Important Skills and Personality Profiles of Wildlife Detection Dog Handlers
Jamieson, La Toya J., Baxter, Greg S. and Murray, Peter J.. 2018. "Who’s a Good Handler? Important Skills and Personality Profiles of Wildlife Detection Dog Handlers." Animals. 8 (12), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8120222
Training a wild-born marsupial to use microchip-automated devices: the brush-tailed phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa) as proof of concept
Edwards, M. C., Hoy, J. M., FitzGibbon, S. and Murray, P. J.. 2018. "Training a wild-born marsupial to use microchip-automated devices: the brush-tailed phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa) as proof of concept." Australian Mammalogy. 41 (2), pp. 279-282. https://doi.org/10.1071/AM18017
The development of an improved scat survey method for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)
Jiang, Alex, Tribe, Andrew and Murray, Peter. 2020. "The development of an improved scat survey method for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)." Australian Journal of Zoology. 67 (3), pp. 125-133. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO20006
Effects of wet season mineral nutrition on chital deer distribution in northern Queensland
Watter, Kurt, Baxter, Greg S., Pople, Tony and Murray, Peter J.. 2019. "Effects of wet season mineral nutrition on chital deer distribution in northern Queensland." Wildlife Research. 46 (6), pp. 499-508. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR19039
Bandicoot bunkers: training wild-caught northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus) to use microchip-automated safe refuge
Edwards, M. C., Hoy, J. M., FitzGibbon, S. I. and Murray, P. J.. 2020. "Bandicoot bunkers: training wild-caught northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus) to use microchip-automated safe refuge." Wildlife Research. 47 (3), pp. 239-243. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR19151
What is driving the increased demand for red panda pelts?
Bista, Damber, Baxter, Greg S. and Murray, Peter John. 2020. "What is driving the increased demand for red panda pelts?" Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 25 (4), pp. 324-338. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2020.1728788
Monitoring with microchips: Microchip‐automated doors as a potential novel method for tracking the survival of released Northern Brown Bandicoots
Edwards, Megan C., Hoy, Julia M., FitzGibbon, Sean I. and Murray, Peter J.. 2020. "Monitoring with microchips: Microchip‐automated doors as a potential novel method for tracking the survival of released Northern Brown Bandicoots." Ecological Management and Restoration. 21 (3), pp. 254-256. https://doi.org/10.1111/emr.12434
Reproductive seasonality and rate of increase of wild sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in a new environment, Victoria, Australia
Watter, K., Thomas, E., White, N., Finch, N. and Murray, P. J.. 2020. "Reproductive seasonality and rate of increase of wild sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in a new environment, Victoria, Australia." Animal Reproduction Science. 223, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2020.106630
Where are the platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) now? A snapshot in time of their distribution in the Greater Brisbane region
Brunt, Tamielle, Cecil, Matt, Griffiths, Josh, Adams-Hosking, Christine and Murray, Peter. 2021. "Where are the platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) now? A snapshot in time of their distribution in the Greater Brisbane region." Australian Mammalogy. 43, pp. 368-372. https://doi.org/10.1071/AM20052
The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out
Kearney, P. E., Murray, P. J., Hoy, J. M., Hohenhaus, M. and Kotze, A.. 2016. "The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out." Veterinary Parasitology. 220, pp. 93-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.02.028
Identifying suitable detection dogs
Jamieson, La Toya J., Baxter, Greg S. and Murray, Peter J.. 2017. "Identifying suitable detection dogs." Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 195, pp. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.06.010
Development of body, head and brain features in the Australian fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata; Marsupialia: Dasyuridae); A postnatal model of forebrain formation
Suarez, Rodrigo, Paolino, Annalisa, Kozulin, Peter, Fenlon, Laura R., Morcom, Laura R., Englebright, Robert, O'Hara, Patricia J., Murray, Peter J. and Richards, Linda J.. 2017. "Development of body, head and brain features in the Australian fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata; Marsupialia: Dasyuridae); A postnatal model of forebrain formation." PLoS One. 12 (9), pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184450
Prime real estate for the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): Habitat requirements in a peri-urban environment
Brunt, Tamielle, Adams-Hosking, Christine and Murray, Peter. 2018. "Prime real estate for the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): Habitat requirements in a peri-urban environment." The Queensland Naturalist. 56 (4/5/6), pp. 25-39.
Microchips for macropods: First use of a microchip-automated door by a bridled nailtail wallaby (Onychogalea fraenata)
Muns, Sabrina J., Hoy, Julia M. and Murray, Peter J.. 2018. "Microchips for macropods: First use of a microchip-automated door by a bridled nailtail wallaby (Onychogalea fraenata)." Zoo Biology. 37 (4), pp. 274-278. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21419
Faecal analysis reveals the insectivorous diet of the Black-breasted Button-quail Turnix melanogaster
Webster, Patrick, Lisle, Allan and Murray, Peter. 2018. "Faecal analysis reveals the insectivorous diet of the Black-breasted Button-quail Turnix melanogaster." Corella. 43, pp. 19-25.
First use of a microchip-automated nest box in situ by a brush-tailed phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa)
Watson, Shania J., Hoy, Julia M., Edwards, Megan C. and Murray, Peter J.. 2022. "First use of a microchip-automated nest box in situ by a brush-tailed phascogale (Phascogale tapoatafa)." Australian Mammalogy. 44 (1), pp. 139-142. https://doi.org/10.1071/AM20046
Decline in body condition and high drought mortality limit the spread of wild chital deer in north-east Queensland, Australia
Watter, Kurt, Baxter, Greg, Brennan, Michael, Pople, Anthony and Murray, Peter. 2019. "Decline in body condition and high drought mortality limit the spread of wild chital deer in north-east Queensland, Australia." The Rangeland Journal. 41 (4), pp. 293-299. https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ18113
Control of a Tower Crane with a Pragmatic Hierarchical Algorithm
Abduljabbar, Bilal H. and Billingsley, John. 2021. "Control of a Tower Crane with a Pragmatic Hierarchical Algorithm." Journal of Applied Nonlinear Dynamics. 10 (2), pp. 197-209. https://doi.org/10.5890/JAND.2021.06.001
A pragmatic controller for a gantry crane
Abduljabbar, Bilal, Billingsley John and Wen, Paul. 2021. "A pragmatic controller for a gantry crane." 2020 International Symposium on Automation, Mechanical and Design Engineering (SAMDE). Beijing, China 16 - 18 Oct 2020 https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1780/1/012007
Essentials of Dynamics and Vibrations
Billingsley, John. 2018. Essentials of Dynamics and Vibrations. Switzerland. Springer.
Deep learning - method overview and review of use for fruit detection and yield estimation
Koirala, Anand, Walsh, Kerry B., Wang, Zhenglin and McCarthy, Cheryl. 2019. "Deep learning - method overview and review of use for fruit detection and yield estimation." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 162, pp. 219-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2019.04.017
Deep learning for real‑time fruit detection and orchard fruit load estimation: benchmarking of ‘MangoYOLO’
Koirala, A, Walsh, K.B, Wang, Z and McCarthy, C. 2019. "Deep learning for real‑time fruit detection and orchard fruit load estimation: benchmarking of ‘MangoYOLO’." Precision Agriculture. 20 (6), pp. 1107-1135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-019-09642-0
Machine vision in agriculture
Billingsley, John. 2011. "Machine vision in agriculture." Glinski, Jan, Horabik, Jozef and Lipiec, Jerzy (ed.) Encyclopedia of Agrophysics. Netherlands. Springer. pp. 433-435
Robotics in agriculture and forestry
Bergerman, Marcel, Billingsley, John, Reid, John and van Henten, Eldert. 2016. "Robotics in agriculture and forestry." Siciliano, Bruno and Khatib, Oussama (ed.) Springer handbook of robotics. Germany. Springer. pp. 1463-1492
Mechanical design of a large scale amphibious walking and swimming robot
Cubero, S. N., Billingsley, J. and Mohammed, J.. 2011. "Mechanical design of a large scale amphibious walking and swimming robot." 18th Annual International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2011). Brisbane, Australia 06 - 07 Dec 2011
A review of autonomous navigation systems in agricultural environments
Shalal, N., Low, T., McCarthy, C. and Hancock, N.. 2013. "A review of autonomous navigation systems in agricultural environments." SEAg 2013: Innovative Agricultural Technologies for a Sustainable Future. Barton, Australia 22 - 25 Sep 2013
Row and water front detection from UAV thermal-infrared imagery for furrow irrigation monitoring
Long, Derek, McCarthy, Cheryl and Jensen, Troy. 2016. "Row and water front detection from UAV thermal-infrared imagery for furrow irrigation monitoring." 2016 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM 2016). Banff, Canada 12 - 15 Jul 2016 https://doi.org/10.1109/AIM.2016.7576783
Error-resilient multi-view video coding for next generation 3-D video broadcasting
Gao, Pan, Xiang, Wei, Billingsley, John and Zhang, Yongbing. 2013. "Error-resilient multi-view video coding for next generation 3-D video broadcasting." 4th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC 2013): Future Creative Convergence Technologies for New ICT Ecosystems. Jeju Island, South Korea 14 - 16 Oct 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICTC.2013.6675545
The place of Mechatronics within the faculty structure - A personal view
Billingsley, John. 2012. "The place of Mechatronics within the faculty structure - A personal view." Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J. (ed.) 16th International Conference on Mechatronics Technology: Advanced Mechatronics, Precision Measurement and NanoManufacturing (ICMT 2012). Tianjing, China 16 - 19 Oct 2012 China.
A rate–distortion optimized error-resilient algorithm for multi-view video coding
Gao, Pan, Xiang, Wei, Peng, Qiang and Billingsley, John. 2016. "A rate–distortion optimized error-resilient algorithm for multi-view video coding." Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing. 35 (1), pp. 301-323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00034-015-0065-x
Ockham, Olbers and dark matter
Billingsley, John. 2016. Ockham, Olbers and dark matter. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1487.2564
Experimental measurement of direct thermal radiation through single-layer square-cell plain woven screens
Hashempour, Javad, Sharifian, Ahmad and Billingsley, John. 2016. "Experimental measurement of direct thermal radiation through single-layer square-cell plain woven screens." Journal of Heat Transfer: Transactions of the ASME. 138 (1), pp. 012701-1-012701-6. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4031110
Significant advance in logical predictive control
Billingsley, John and Ghude, Sarang. 2015. "Significant advance in logical predictive control." Electronics Letters. 51 (16), pp. 1240-1241. https://doi.org/10.1049/el.2015.0272
Orchard mapping and mobile robot localisation using on-board camera and laser scanner data fusion – Part B: mapping and localisation
Shalal, Nagham, Low, Tobias, McCarthy, Cheryl and Hancock, Nigel. 2015. "Orchard mapping and mobile robot localisation using on-board camera and laser scanner data fusion – Part B: mapping and localisation." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 119, pp. 267-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2015.09.026
Orchard mapping and mobile robot localisation using on-board camera and laser scanner data fusion – Part A: tree detection
Shalal, Nagham, Low, Tobias, McCarthy, Cheryl and Hancock, Nigel. 2015. "Orchard mapping and mobile robot localisation using on-board camera and laser scanner data fusion – Part A: tree detection." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 119, pp. 254-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2015.09.025
Bushfire traps: the application of mesh screens to contain bushfires
Hashempour, Javad, Sharifian, Ahmad and Billingsley, John. 2015. "Bushfire traps: the application of mesh screens to contain bushfires." 2015 Fire Protection Australia Conference (FPA2015). Gold coast, Australia 25 - 26 Mar 2015
Design concepts for an energy-efficient amphibious unmanned underwater vehicle
Cubero, Samuel N. and Billingsley, John. 2015. "Design concepts for an energy-efficient amphibious unmanned underwater vehicle." Billingsley, John and Brett, Peter (ed.) Machine vision and mechatronics in practice. Heidelberg, Germany. Springer. pp. 209-223
Controlled damping of a 48-metre wide spray rig
Billingsley, John. 2015. "Controlled damping of a 48-metre wide spray rig." Billingsley, John and Brett, Peter (ed.) Machine vision and mechatronics in practice. Heidelberg, Germany. Springer. pp. 185-196
Game development tools for simulating robots and creating interactive learning experiences
Cubero, Samuel N. and Billingsley, John. 2015. "Game development tools for simulating robots and creating interactive learning experiences." Billingsley, John and Brett, Peter (ed.) Machine vision and mechatronics in practice. Heidelberg, Germany. Springer. pp. 113-134
Nutrition and Feeding Strategies
Klieve, Athol V., O'Hara, Patricia and Murray, Peter J.. 2015. "Nutrition and Feeding Strategies." Klieve, Athol, Hogan, Lindsay, Johnston, Stephen and Murray, Peter (ed.) Marsupials and Monotremes: Nature’s Enigmatic Mammals. New York, United States. Nova Science Publishers. pp. 229-260
Evaluation of stereovision for extracting plant features
Mohammed Amean, Z., Low, T., McCarthy, C. and Hancock, N.. 2013. "Evaluation of stereovision for extracting plant features." SEAg 2013: Innovative Agricultural Technologies for a Sustainable Future. Barton, Australia 22 - 25 Sep 2013 Canberra, Australia.
The Turtle, a legged submerged inspection vehicle
Billingsley, John. 2013. "The Turtle, a legged submerged inspection vehicle." Waldron, Kenneth J., Tokhi, Mohammad O. and Virk, Gurvinder S. (ed.) 16th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines (CLAWAR 2013). Sydney, Australia 14 - 17 Jul 2013 United States. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814525534_0058
IEEE robotics and automation society technical committee on agricultural robotics and automation
Bergerman, Marcel, Van Henten, Eldert, Billingsley, John, Reid, John and Mingcong, Deng. 2013. "IEEE robotics and automation society technical committee on agricultural robotics and automation." IEEE Robotics and Automation magazine. 20 (2), pp. 20-23 + 125. https://doi.org/10.1109/MRA.2013.2255513
Simulating the kinematics and motions of robotic manipulators using 3D game development tools
Cubero, Samuel N. and Billingsley, John. 2013. "Simulating the kinematics and motions of robotic manipulators using 3D game development tools." Eroglu, Aylin K., Turhan, Cigdem, Erden, Zuhal and Erden, Abdulkadir (ed.) 20th Annual International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2013). Ankara, Turkey 18 - 20 Sep 2013 United States.
A preliminary evaluation of vision and laser sensing for tree trunk detection and orchard mapping
Shalal, Nagham, Low, Tobias, McCarthy, Cheryl and Hancock, Nigel. 2013. "A preliminary evaluation of vision and laser sensing for tree trunk detection and orchard mapping." Katupitiya, Jayantha, Guivant, Jose and Eaton, Ray (ed.) Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA 2013). Sydney, Australia 02 - 04 Dec 2013 Australia.
Automatic plant branch segmentation and classification using vesselness measure
Mohammed Amean, Z., Low, T., McCarthy, C. and Hancock, N.. 2013. "Automatic plant branch segmentation and classification using vesselness measure." Katupitiya, Jayantha, Guivant, Jose and Eaton, Ray (ed.) Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA 2013). Sydney, Australia 02 - 04 Dec 2013 Australia.
I just want to count them! Considerations when choosing a deer population monitoring method
Amos, Matthew, Baxter, Greg, Finch, Neal, Lisle, Allan and Murray, Peter. 2014. "I just want to count them! Considerations when choosing a deer population monitoring method." Wildlife Biology. 20 (6), pp. 362-370. https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.00080
Commercialisation of precision agriculture technologies in the macadamia industry
Rees, Steven, Dunn, Mark, Werkman, Peter and McCarthy, Cheryl. 2009. Commercialisation of precision agriculture technologies in the macadamia industry. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Preliminary evaluation of shape and colour image sensing for automated weed identification in sugarcane
McCarthy, Cheryl, Rees, Steven and Baillie, Craig. 2012. "Preliminary evaluation of shape and colour image sensing for automated weed identification in sugarcane." Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 34th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2012). Palm Cove, Australia 01 - 04 May 2012 Australia.
Iterative fast model control strategy with state constraints: an example of aircraft lateral control
Ghude, Sarang and Billingsley, John. 2012. "Iterative fast model control strategy with state constraints: an example of aircraft lateral control." Moir, Tom (ed.) 19th International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2012). Auckland, New Zealand 28 - 30 Nov 2012 United States.
Development and evaluation of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis to target guinea grass in sugarcane
Rees, S. J., McCarthy, C. L., Baillie, C. P., Burgos-Artizzu, X. P. and Dunn, M. T.. 2011. "Development and evaluation of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis to target guinea grass in sugarcane." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 8 (2), pp. 97-106.
Terramechanics based traction control of underwater wheeled robot
Boh, Tjasa, Billingsley, John, Bradbeer, Robin S. and Hodgson, Paul. 2010. "Terramechanics based traction control of underwater wheeled robot." Ferguson, Brian (ed.) OCEANS 2010: Showcasing Advances in Marine Science and Engineering. Sydney, Australia 24 - 27 May 2010 Piscataway, NJ, USA. https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603859
Vehicle guidance system
Billingsley, John and Schoenfisch, Murray. 1998. Vehicle guidance system. AU 691051 (B2)
The facts about carbon and climate: a presentation of data for the reader's evaluation
Billingsley, John. 2010. "The facts about carbon and climate: a presentation of data for the reader's evaluation." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Controlled damping of a 48-metre wide spray rig
Billingsley, John. 2010. "Controlled damping of a 48-metre wide spray rig." 16th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2010). Darussalam, Brunei 22 - 24 Jun 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2009. "Automated internode length measurement of cotton plants under field conditions." Transactions of the ASABE. 52 (6), pp. 2093-2103.
Agricultural robotics
Billingsley, John, Oetomo, Denny and Reid, John. 2009. "Agricultural robotics." IEEE Robotics and Automation magazine. 16 (4), pp. 16, cont-19. https://doi.org/10.1109/MRA.2009.934829
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven. 2008. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John and Bradbeer, Robin (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Germany. pp. 305-312 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74027-8_26
Measuring the density of dingo teeth with machine vision
Billingsley, John and Withers, Kerry. 2004. "Measuring the density of dingo teeth with machine vision." Sensor Review. 24 (4), pp. 361-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/02602280410558386
Field testing of vision based macadamia yield monitoring
Dunn, Mark, Billingsley, John and Bell, David. 2005. "Field testing of vision based macadamia yield monitoring." Billingsley, John (ed.) 12th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2005). Manila, Philippines 29 Nov - 01 Dec 2005 Hertfordshire, England.
Force and position control using pneumatic cylinders
McLatchey, Graham and Billingsley, John. 2006. "Force and position control using pneumatic cylinders." 9th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots: CLAWAR 2006. Brussels, Belgium 12 - 14 Sep 2006 Sheffield, UK.
Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, N. H. and Raine, S. R.. 2010. "Applied machine vision of plants: a review with implications for field deployment in automated farming operations." Intelligent Service Robotics. 3 (4), pp. 209-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11370-010-0075-2
Machine vision-based weed spot spraying: a review and where next for sugarcane?
McCarthy, Cheryl, Rees, Steven and Baillie, Craig. 2010. "Machine vision-based weed spot spraying: a review and where next for sugarcane?" Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2010). Bundaberg, Australia 11 - 14 May 2010 Australia.
Behaviour of juvenile antechinus flavipes: a preliminary study
Wollenhaupt, Anja, Withers, Kerry and Billingsley, John. 2009. "Behaviour of juvenile antechinus flavipes: a preliminary study." 26th Annual Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry (ANZSCPB 2009). Geelong, Australia 27 - 29 Nov 2009 Perth, Australia.
Strain specific differences in parameters of energy balance are related to the onset of diet-induced obesity in young male mice
Hesse, Deike, Dunn, Mark, Billingsley, John, Withers, Kerry, Klingenspor, Martin and Rozman, Jan. 2007. "Strain specific differences in parameters of energy balance are related to the onset of diet-induced obesity in young male mice." 15th European Congress on Obesity. Budapest, Hungary 22 - 25 Apr 2007 London, United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803597
Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2010. "Apparatus and infield evaluations of a prototype machine vision system for cotton plant internode length measurement." Journal of Cotton Science. 14 (4), pp. 221-232.
Applied machine vision in agriculture at the NCEA
McCarthy, Cheryl and Billingsley, John. 2009. "Applied machine vision in agriculture at the NCEA." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
18th Annual International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice 2011 (M2VIP 2011)
Billingsley J.. 2011. 18th Annual International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice 2011 (M2VIP 2011) . United States. Curran Associates, Inc..
Development of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis and plant identification technology
Rees, Steven, McCarthy, Cheryl, Artizzu, X. P. B., Baillie, Craig and Dunn, Mark. 2009. "Development of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis and plant identification technology." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Development of a multi-drive submersible platform for deep seabed research
Boh, Tjasa, Billingsley, John, Bradbeer, Robin and Hodgson, Paul. 2009. "Development of a multi-drive submersible platform for deep seabed research." Wefer, Gerold (ed.) OCEANS 2009: Balancing Technology with Future Needs. Bremen, Germany 11 - 14 May 2009 Piscataway, United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSE.2009.5278287
Automated macadamia nut orchard yield monitoring
Dunn, Mark and Billingsley, John. 2005. "Automated macadamia nut orchard yield monitoring." Billingsley, John (ed.) 12th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP 2005). Manila, Philippines 29 Nov - 01 Dec 2005 Hertfordshire, England.
A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "A preliminary field evaluation of an automated vision-based plant geometry measurement system." Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw, Hanan, Jim S. and Lane, Brendan (ed.) 5th International Workshop on Functional Structural Plant Models (FSPM07). Napier, New Zealand 04 - 09 Nov 2007
Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters
McCarthy, C. L., Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2007. "Automated machine vision sensing of plant structural parameters." Biological Sensorics 2007: Critical Technologies for Future Biosystems. Minneapolis, Australia 15 - 17 Jun 2007 St. Joseph, MI, United States.
Automation and the farmer
Billingsley, John. 2009. "Automation and the farmer." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Essentials of control techniques and theory
Billingsley, John. 2010. Essentials of control techniques and theory. Boca Raton, FL. United States. CRC Press.
Viewpoint: Localisation
Billingsley, John. 2008. "Viewpoint: Localisation." Sensor Review. 28 (2).
Some agricultural applications of machine vision
Billingsley, John. 2008. "Some agricultural applications of machine vision." Nicolescu, Monica (ed.) 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2008). Pasadena, California 19 - 23 May 2008 Pasadena, California.
Low cost GPS for the autonomous robot farmhand
Billingsley, John. 2000. "Low cost GPS for the autonomous robot farmhand." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 119-125
A roller skating robot
Kanesen, Nantha K. and Billingsley, John. 2000. "A roller skating robot." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 283-292
The BrowsMouse - computer access with eyebrows
Aigner, Peter and Billingsley, John. 2000. "The BrowsMouse - computer access with eyebrows." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 189-195
Listening for cane loss
McCarthy, Stuart G., Harris, Harry and Billingsley, John. 2000. "Listening for cane loss." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 113-118
Development of low cost range sensing instrumentation for collision avoidance applications
Stone, Nicholas and Billingsley, John. 2000. "Development of low cost range sensing instrumentation for collision avoidance applications." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 127-133
The mechatronic bakery
Schultz, Bradley J., Billingsley, John and Adamczak, Thomas. 2000. "The mechatronic bakery." Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 105-112
Innovative mechatronic technologies in horticultural systems
Billingsley, John. 2008. "Innovative mechatronic technologies in horticultural systems." The 2008 National and Trans-Tasman Horticultural Science Conference. Surfers Paradise, Australia 21 - 23 Jul 2008 Australia.
Robotics in agriculture and forestry
Billingsley, John, Visala, Arto and Dunn, Mark. 2008. "Robotics in agriculture and forestry." Siciliano, Bruno and Khatib, Oussama (ed.) Springer handbook of robotics. Berlin, Germany. Springer. pp. 1065-1077
More machine vision applications in the NCEA
Billingsley, John. 2008. "More machine vision applications in the NCEA." Billingsley, John and Bradbeer, Robin (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision in practice. Berlin, Germany. Springer. pp. 333-343
Control of the sugar cane harvester topper
McCarthy, Stuart G., Billingsley, John and Harris, Harry. 2002. "Control of the sugar cane harvester topper." Bradbeer, Robin and Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision 2002: current practice. Baldock, United Kingdom. Research Studies Press. pp. 253-259
The counting of macadamia nuts
Billingsley, John. 2002. "The counting of macadamia nuts." Bradbeer, Robin and Billingsley, John (ed.) Mechatronics and machine vision 2002: current practice. Baldock, Hertfordshire, England. Research Studies Press. pp. 221-228
Mechatronics and machine vision 2002: current practice
Bradbeer, Robin and Billingsley, John. Bradbeer, Robin and Billingsley, John (ed.) 2002. Mechatronics and machine vision 2002: current practice. Hertfordshire, England. Research Studies Press.
Maintaining the ancient bunya tree (Araucaria bidwillii Hook.) - dispersal and mast years
Smith, I. R., Withers, Kerry and Billingsley, John. 2007. "Maintaining the ancient bunya tree (Araucaria bidwillii Hook.) - dispersal and mast years." Hill, Bill (ed.) 5th International Southern Connection Conference. Adelaide, Australia 21 - 25 Jan 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
Industry and academe - which one holds the cutting edge?
Billingsley, John. 2007. "Industry and academe - which one holds the cutting edge?" 9th Electrical Manufacturing Lecture. Brisbane, Australia 19 Sep 2007
Bovine intelligence for training horses
Billingsley, John. 2007. "Bovine intelligence for training horses." Bradbeer, Robin and Ku, Kenneth (ed.) 14th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision In Practice (M2VIP 2007). Xiamen, China 03 - 05 Dec 2007 Hong Kong. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.2007.4430708
Climbing up the wall
Billingsley, John. 2007. "Climbing up the wall." Xie, Ming, Dubowsky, Steven, Fontaine, Jean-Guy, Tokhi, M. Osman and Virk, Gurvinder S. (ed.) 10th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Supporting Technologies for Mobile Machines: CLAWAR 2007. Singapore 16 - 18 Jul 2007 Singapore.
The use of machine vision for assessment of fodder quality
Dunn, Mark T. and Billingsley, John. 2007. "The use of machine vision for assessment of fodder quality." Bradbeer, Robin and Ku, Kenneth (ed.) 14th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision In Practice (M2VIP 2007). Xiamen, China 03 - 05 Dec 2007 Hong Kong. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.2007.4430739
Vision applications in agriculture
Billingsley, John. 2007. "Vision applications in agriculture." Bradbeer, Robin and Ku, Kenneth (ed.) 14th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision In Practice (M2VIP 2007). Xiamen, China 03 - 05 Dec 2007 Hong Kong. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.2007.4430754
Improving power to weight ratio of pneumatically powered legged robots
McLatchey, Graham and Billingsley, John. 2007. "Improving power to weight ratio of pneumatically powered legged robots." Xie, Ming, Dubowsky, Steven, Fontaine, Jean-Guy, Tokhi, M. Osman and Virk, Gurvinder S. (ed.) 10th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Supporting Technologies for Mobile Machines: CLAWAR 2007. Singapore 16 - 18 Jul 2007 Singapore.
Vision based macadamia yield assessment
Billingsley, John, Dunn, Mark and Bell, David. 2006. "Vision based macadamia yield assessment." Sensor Review. 26 (4), pp. 312-317. https://doi.org/10.1108/02602280610692024
Using machine vision classification to control access of animals to water
Finch, N. A., Murray, P. J., Dunn, M. T. and Billingsley, J.. 2006. "Using machine vision classification to control access of animals to water." Animal Production Science. 46 (6-7), pp. 837-839. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA05325
Viewpoint: The future of mechatronics
Billingsley, John. 2004. "Viewpoint: The future of mechatronics." Assembly Automation: the international journal of assembly technology and management. 24 (4), pp. 337-339.
A sensor for the sugar cane harvester topper
McCarthy, Stuart and Billingsley, John. 2002. "A sensor for the sugar cane harvester topper." Sensor Review. 22 (3), pp. 242-246. https://doi.org/10.1108/02602280210433089
Automatic guidance of agricultural mobiles at the NCEA
Billingsley, John. 2000. "Automatic guidance of agricultural mobiles at the NCEA." Industrial Robot. 27 (6), pp. 449-457. https://doi.org/10.1108/01439910010378860
Fuzzy future for robotics?
Billingsley, John. 1999. "Fuzzy future for robotics?" Industrial Robot. 26 (4), pp. 246-247.
The successful development of a vision guidance system for agriculture
Billingsley, J. and Schoenfisch, M.. 1997. "The successful development of a vision guidance system for agriculture." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 16 (2), pp. 147-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1699(96)00034-8
An engineer's lament
Billingsley, John. 1997. "An engineer's lament." Australiasian Science Magazine. 6 (2), pp. 50-51.
Application of machine vision to determine the density of dingo teeth
Withers, Kerry W. and Billingsley, J.. 2004. "Application of machine vision to determine the density of dingo teeth." Buttemer, W. A., Else, P. L., Hulbert, A. J., Faulks, S. C. and Turner, N. (ed.) ANZSCPB 2004: 21st Annual Meeting of Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Wollongong, Australia 09 - 12 Dec 2004 Wollongong, Australia.
Control of watering point access using machine vision classification of animals
Finch, Neal A., Murray, Peter J., Dunn, Mark T. and Billingsley, John. 2006. "Control of watering point access using machine vision classification of animals." Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society. 42, pp. 16-19.
High precision GPS guidance of mobile robots
Willgoss, Richard, Rosenfeld, Vivian and Billingsley, John. 2003. "High precision GPS guidance of mobile robots." Roberts, Jonathan and Wyeth, Gordon (ed.) 2003 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA 2003). Brisbane, Australia 01 - 03 Dec 2003 Brisbane, Australia.
Machine vision system for counting macadamia nuts
Dunn, Mark and Billingsley, John. 2003. "Machine vision system for counting macadamia nuts." Roberts, Jonathan and Wyeth, Gordon (ed.) 2003 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA 2003). Brisbane, Australia 01 - 03 Dec 2003 Brisbane, Australia.
Teaching control fundamentals for mechatronics and robotics - the use of JavaScript for simulation and animation
Billingsley, John. 1999. "Teaching control fundamentals for mechatronics and robotics - the use of JavaScript for simulation and animation." Wyeth, Gordon and Roberts, Jonathan (ed.) ACRA 1999: Australian Conference on Robotics and Automation. Brisbane, Australia 30 Mar - 01 Apr 1999 Brisbane, Australia.
Force, compliance and position control for a space frame manipulator
Cubero, Samuel N. and Billingsley, John. 1997. "Force, compliance and position control for a space frame manipulator." Werner, Bob (ed.) 4th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 1997). Toowoomba, Australia 23 - 25 Sep 1997 Los Alamitos, CA. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.1997.625306
Autonomous LHD loading
Petty, Matt K., Billingsley, John and Tran-Cong, Thanh. 1997. "Autonomous LHD loading." Werner, Bob (ed.) 4th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 1997). Toowoomba, Australia 23 - 25 Sep 1997 Los Alamitos, CA. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.1997.625330
Carbon dioxide sensing - a mechatronic approach
Maxwell, Andrew, Hancock, Nigel and Billingsley, John. 1997. "Carbon dioxide sensing - a mechatronic approach." Werner, B. (ed.) 4th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 1997). Toowoomba, Australia 23 - 25 Sep 1997 Los Alamitos, CA. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMVIP.1997.625292
More machine vision applications in the NCEA
Billingsley, John. 2006. "More machine vision applications in the NCEA." Billingsley, John (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Manila, Philippines.
On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "On-the-go machine vision sensing of cotton plant geometric parameters: first results." Billingsley, John (ed.) 13th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice. (M2VIP 2006). Toowoomba, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2006 Berlin, Heidelberg.
Some machine vision applications in agriculture
Billingsley, John. 2006. "Some machine vision applications in agriculture." Gonzalez, Dante Jorge Dorantes (ed.) 10th International Conference on Mechatronics Technology (ICMT 2006). Mexico City 20 - 24 Nov 2006 Mexico.
A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control
McCarthy, Cheryl, Hancock, Nigel and Raine, Steven R.. 2006. "A preliminary evaluation of machine vision sensing of cotton nodes for automated irrigation control." Irrigation Australia 2006: Irrigation Association of Australia National Conference and Exhibition. Brisbane, Australia 09 - 11 May 2006 Brisbane.
Viewpoint
Billingsley, John. 2006. "Viewpoint." Sensor Review. 26 (4), pp. 261-261.
Machine vision applications in agriculture
Billingsley, John. 2005. "Machine vision applications in agriculture." Shamsudin, H. M. Amin (ed.) 9th International Conference on Mechatronics Technology. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 05 - 07 Dec 2005 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Essentials of mechatronics
Billingsley, John. 2006. Essentials of mechatronics. United States. John Wiley & Sons.
The role of native rodents in seed dispersal and seed predation of the Bunya Pine (Araucaria bidwillii)
Smith, I. R., Withers, Kerry and Billingsley, John. 2005. "The role of native rodents in seed dispersal and seed predation of the Bunya Pine (Araucaria bidwillii)." Cree, Alison (ed.) 22nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry (ANZSCPB 2005). Dunedin, New Zealand 09 - 11 Dec 2005 New Zealand.
Application of machine vision technology to identification of oestrous in the Julia Creek dunnart (Sminthopsis douglasi)
Bjursell, A., Dunn, M., Withers, K., Senior, G., Lundie-Jenkins, G. and Billingsley, J.. 2005. "Application of machine vision technology to identification of oestrous in the Julia Creek dunnart (Sminthopsis douglasi)." Cree, Alison (ed.) 22nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry (ANZSCPB 2005). Dunedin, New Zealand 09 - 11 Dec 2005 New Zealand.
The steering of trailed implements for tractor path tracking
Ong, Clement and Billingsley, John. 2003. "The steering of trailed implements for tractor path tracking." Billingsley, John (ed.) 10th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 2003). Perth, Australia 09 - 11 Dec 2003 Taunton, England.
Machine vision classification of animals
Dunn, Mark, Billingsley, John and Finch, Neal. 2003. "Machine vision classification of animals." Billingsley, John (ed.) 10th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 2003). Perth, Australia 09 - 11 Dec 2003 Research Studies Press.
Teaching mechatronics principles using laboratory classes
Billingsley, John and Dunlop, Reg. 2003. "Teaching mechatronics principles using laboratory classes." Billingsley, John (ed.) 10th Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (MViP 2003). Perth, Australia 09 - 11 Dec 2003 Taunton, England.
Unusual vision - machine vision applications at the NCEA
Billingsley, John and Dunn, Mark. 2005. "Unusual vision - machine vision applications at the NCEA." Sensor Review. 25 (3), pp. 202-208. https://doi.org/10.1108/02602280510606480
Torpor in the carnivorous marsupial Sminthopsis macroura: effects of food quality and food quantity
Withers, Kerry W., White, Debra H. and Billingsley, John. 2000. "Torpor in the carnivorous marsupial Sminthopsis macroura: effects of food quality and food quantity." Heldmaier, Gerhard, Klingenspor, Martin and Klaus, Susanne (ed.) 11th International Hibernation Symposium. Jungholz, Austria 13 - 18 Aug 2000 Berlin, Germany.
Conditions under which Flavomycin Increases Wool Growth and Liveweight Gain in Sheep
Murray, P. J., Winslow, S. G. and Rowe, J. B.. 1992. "Conditions under which Flavomycin Increases Wool Growth and Liveweight Gain in Sheep." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 43 (2), pp. 367-377. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9920367
The Influence of Protein Quality on the Effect of Flavomycin on Wool Growth, Liveweight Change and Rumen Fermentation in Sheep
Murray, P. J., Rowe, J. B. and Aitchison, E. M.. 1990. "The Influence of Protein Quality on the Effect of Flavomycin on Wool Growth, Liveweight Change and Rumen Fermentation in Sheep." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 41 (5), pp. 987-993. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9900987
The Effect of Nutrition on Testicular Growth in the Merino Ram
Murray, P. J., Rowe, J. B., Pethick, D. W. and Adams, N. R.. 1990. "The Effect of Nutrition on Testicular Growth in the Merino Ram." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 41 (1), pp. 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9900185
Effect of Nutrition on the Response in Ovulation Rate in Merino Ewes following Short-term Lupin Supplementation and Insulin Administration
Leury, B. J., Murray, P. J. and Rowe, J. B.. 1990. "Effect of Nutrition on the Response in Ovulation Rate in Merino Ewes following Short-term Lupin Supplementation and Insulin Administration." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 41 (4), pp. 751-759. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9900751