Threat and opportunity: the impact of social inclusion and feedback recipient likeability on feedback, self-esteem and belonging

Paper


Machin, T. M. and Jeffries, C. H.. 2013. "Threat and opportunity: the impact of social inclusion and feedback recipient likeability on feedback, self-esteem and belonging." 48th Australian Psychological Society Annual Conference (APS 2013): Psychology for a Healthy Nation. Cairns, Australia 08 - 12 Oct 2013 Australia.
Paper/Presentation Title

Threat and opportunity: the impact of social inclusion and feedback recipient likeability on feedback, self-esteem and belonging

Presentation TypePaper
AuthorsMachin, T. M. (Author) and Jeffries, C. H. (Author)
Journal or Proceedings TitleProceedings of the 48th Australian Psychological Society Annual Conference (APS 2013)
ERA Conference ID50300
Number of Pages1
Year2013
Place of PublicationAustralia
Web Address (URL) of Paperhttp://www.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/Cairns-2013-Conference-Abstracts-19Nov14.pdf
Conference/Event48th Australian Psychological Society Annual Conference (APS 2013): Psychology for a Healthy Nation
Australian Psychological Society (APS) Annual Conference
Event Details
48th Australian Psychological Society Annual Conference (APS 2013): Psychology for a Healthy Nation
Event Date
08 to end of 12 Oct 2013
Event Location
Cairns, Australia
Event Details
Australian Psychological Society (APS) Annual Conference
APS Annual Conference
Abstract

The need to belong is a basic psychological need and an important motivator of behaviour (Gere & MacDonald, 2010). When individuals are looking for opportunities to connect to others, they are most attracted to likeable people to satisfy their belonging and increase their self-worth (Brown, 1993; Leary, 2005). Social exclusion studies show that individuals are reluctant to perform behaviours that may cause rejection from others (Leary & Baumeister, 2000). A large volume of work has demonstrated that individuals are reluctant to communicate negative feedback and will modify feedback to make it appear less negative (e.g. Jeffries & Hornsey, 2012). The aim of this study was to investigate how feedback recipient likeability impacts on the belonging needs and self-esteem of an individual providing negative feedback. Participants were asked to recall and record a previous experience of social inclusion, or social exclusion, or the food they had eaten in the last 48 hours. They were then asked to evaluate a book review supposedly written by a fellow student and give negative feedback anonymously. This research used a 3 x 2 between group design to investigate social exclusion (inclusion vs exclusion vs control) and feedback recipient likeability (high vs low). Results showed that feedback was not positively modified regardless of feedback likeability. Results also showed that individuals who recalled social exclusion experienced decreased levels of belonging and self-esteem after delivery of negative feedback to a highly likeable individual but had increased levels of belonging and self-esteem after delivery of negative feedback to a less likeable individual. Further analyses showed a three-way interaction between social inclusion and feedback recipient likeability on changes in both belonging and self-esteem after delivery of feedback. These research findings were able to provide a sharper focus on the impact of belonging and self-esteem as a function of likeability, as well as supporting previous research on how anonymity helps alleviate social acceptance concerns thus avoiding modified feedback.

Keywordslikeability; belonging
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020520599. Social and personality psychology not elsewhere classified
470108. Organisational, interpersonal and intercultural communication
520105. Psychological methodology, design and analysis
Public Notes

Files associated with this item cannot be displayed due to copyright restrictions.

Byline AffiliationsSchool of Psychology and Counselling
Department of Psychology
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/q264y/threat-and-opportunity-the-impact-of-social-inclusion-and-feedback-recipient-likeability-on-feedback-self-esteem-and-belonging

  • 1856
    total views
  • 12
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Authenticity and Inauthenticity in Adolescents: A Scoping Review
Alchin, Carolyn, Machin, Tanya M., Martin, Neil and Burton, Lorelle J.. 2023. "Authenticity and Inauthenticity in Adolescents: A Scoping Review." Adolescent Research Review. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-023-00218-8
‘It's all about rapport’: Australian therapists' recommendations for engaging adolescent males in counselling and psychotherapy
Boerma, Micah, Beel, Nathan, Jeffries, Carla and Krishnamoorthy, Govind. 2023. "‘It's all about rapport’: Australian therapists' recommendations for engaging adolescent males in counselling and psychotherapy." Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12716
Better than Scrolling: Digital Detox in the Search for the Ideal Self
Vialle, Stephanie J., Machin, Tanya and Abel, Susan. 2023. "Better than Scrolling: Digital Detox in the Search for the Ideal Self." Psychology of Popular Media. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000496
The impact of low socioeconomic status and primary health care access on emergency department presentations in young children in regional Queensland
McCosker, Catherine, Beccaria, Gavin, Beccaria, Lisa and Machin, Tanya. 2023. "The impact of low socioeconomic status and primary health care access on emergency department presentations in young children in regional Queensland." Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 59 (9), pp. 1035-1038. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.16450
An exploration of trolling behaviours in Australian adolescents: An online survey
Marrington, Jessica Z., March, Evita, Murray, Sarah, Jeffries, Carla, Machin, Tanya and March, Sonja. 2023. "An exploration of trolling behaviours in Australian adolescents: An online survey." PLoS One. 18 (4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0284378
Introduction
Beel, Nathan, Chinchen, Christine, Machin, Tanya and du Plessis, Carol. 2023. "Introduction." Beel, Nathan, Chinchen, Christine, Machin, Tanya and du Plessis, Carol (ed.) Common client issues in counselling: An Australian perspective.. Australia. University of Southern Queensland. pp. 1-11
Review: Recommendations for male-friendly counselling with adolescent males: A qualitative systematic literature review
Boerma, Micah, Beel, Nathan, Jeffries, Carla and Ruse, Jesse. 2023. "Review: Recommendations for male-friendly counselling with adolescent males: A qualitative systematic literature review ." Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 28 (4), pp. 536-549. https://doi.org/10.1111/camh.12633
Common Client Issues in Counselling: An Australian Perspective
Beel, Nathan, Chinchen, Christine, Machin, Tanya, du Plessis, Carol, Mullens, Amy B., Rees, Bronwyn, Purnell-Webb, Trish, Brown, Samantha, Murray, Judith, Ayre, Kay, Gilmour, John, Falcon, John, Flanagan, John, Brown, James, Krishnamoorthy, Govind, Bryce, India, Malengret, Claire, Dall'Osto, Claire and King, Deborah. Beel, Nathan, Chinchen, Christine, Machin, Tanya and du Plessis, Carol (ed.) 2023. Common Client Issues in Counselling: An Australian Perspective . University of Southern Queensland.
Children’s Perspectives on Emotions Informing a Child-Reported Screening Instrument
Zieschank, Kirsty L., Machin, Tanya, Day, Jamin, Ireland, Michael J. and March, Sonja. 2021. "Children’s Perspectives on Emotions Informing a Child-Reported Screening Instrument." Journal of Child and Family Studies. 30 (12), pp. 3105-3120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-02086-z
The ethics review and the humanities and social sciences: disciplinary distinctions in ethics review processes
Carniel, Jessica, Hickey, Andrew, Southey, Kim, Bromdal, Annette, Crowley-Cyr, Lynda, Eacersall, Douglas, Farmer, Will, Gehrmann, Richard, Machin, Tanya and Pillay, Yosheen. 2022. "The ethics review and the humanities and social sciences: disciplinary distinctions in ethics review processes." Research Ethics. 19 (2), pp. 139-156. https://doi.org/10.1177/17470161221147202
A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic
Psychological Science Accelerator Self-Determination Theory Coll, A, Machin, Michael A., Machin, Tanya, Martin, Neil I. and Brownlow, Charlotte. 2022. "A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic." University of Adelaide. 119 (22), pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2111091119
Statistics for Research Students: An Open Access Resource with Self-Tests and Illustrative Examples
Fein, Erich C., Gilmour, John, Machin, Tanya and Hendry, Liam. 2022. Statistics for Research Students: An Open Access Resource with Self-Tests and Illustrative Examples. Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
The Australian Handbook for Careers in Psychological Science
Machin, Tony, Machin, Tanya, Jeffries, Carla, Hoare, Nancey and Abel, Susan. Rowling, Samara and Andersen, Nikki (ed.) 2022. The Australian Handbook for Careers in Psychological Science. Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Show no weakness: Male-friendly counsellors’ descriptions of men
Beel, Nathan, Brownlow, Charlotte, Jeffries, Carla and du Preez, Jan. 2022. "Show no weakness: Male-friendly counsellors’ descriptions of men." Australian Counselling Research Journal. 16 (1), pp. 12-22.
Social Media and Technology Across the Lifespan
Machin, Tanya, Brownlow, Charlotte, Abel, Susan and Gilmour, John. Machin, Tanya, Brownlow, Charlotte, Abel, Susan and Gilmour, John (ed.) 2022. Social Media and Technology Across the Lifespan. Cham, Switzerland. Palgrave Macmillan.
Correction to: Children’s Perspectives on Emotions Informing a Child-Reported Screening Instrument
Zieschank, Kirsty L., Machin, Tanya, Day, Jamin, Ireland, Michael J. and March, Sonja. 2022. "Correction to: Children’s Perspectives on Emotions Informing a Child-Reported Screening Instrument ." Journal of Child and Family Studies. 31 (1), p. 336. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-02138-4
The Effects of Facebook-based Social Support on Health Across Metropolitan and Regional Australians
Gilmour, John, Jeffries, Carla, Machin, Tanya and Brownlow, Charlotte. 2022. "The Effects of Facebook-based Social Support on Health Across Metropolitan and Regional Australians." Machin, Tanya, Brownlow, Charlotte, Abel, Susan and Gilmour, John (ed.) Social Media and Technology Across the Lifespan. Cham, Switzerland. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 97-114
Beyond criticism of ethics review boards: strategies for engaging research communities and enhancing ethical review processes
Hickey, Andrew, Davis, Samantha, Farmer, Will, Dawidowicz, Julianna, Moloney, Clint, Lamont-Mills, Andrea, Carniel, Jess, Pillay, Yosheen, Akenson, David, Bromdal, Annette, Gehrmann, Richard, Mills, Dean, Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy, Machin, Tanya, Reich, Suzanne, Southey, Kim, Crowley-Cyr, Lynda, Watanabe, Taiji, Davenport, Josh, ..., Maxwell, Jacinta. 2021. "Beyond criticism of ethics review boards: strategies for engaging research communities and enhancing ethical review processes." Journal of Academic Ethics. 20, pp. 549-567. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-021-09430-4
Parental Experiences of Engaging With the National Disability Insurance Scheme for Their Children: A Systematic Literature Review
Russo, Fiona, Brownlow, Charlotte and Machin, Tanya. 2021. "Parental Experiences of Engaging With the National Disability Insurance Scheme for Their Children: A Systematic Literature Review." Journal of Disability Policy Studies. 32 (2), pp. 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1177/1044207320943607
Social media, rituals, and long-distance family relationship maintenance: A mixed-methods systematic review
Abel, Susan, Machin, Tanya and Brownlow, Charlotte. 2021. "Social media, rituals, and long-distance family relationship maintenance: A mixed-methods systematic review." New Media and Society. 23 (3), pp. 632-654. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444820958717
Threat and opportunity: the impact of social inclusion and likeability on anonymous feedback, self-esteem, and belonging
Machin, Tanya M. and Jeffries, Carla H.. 2017. "Threat and opportunity: the impact of social inclusion and likeability on anonymous feedback, self-esteem, and belonging." Personality and Individual Differences. 115, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.11.055
Psychological Literacy: What Is It and How Do We Measure It?
Machin, M. Anthony and Machin, Tanya M.. 2019. "Psychological Literacy: What Is It and How Do We Measure It?" Baker, Suzanne (ed.) 126th Annual American Psychological Association Convention (APA 2018). San Francisco, United States 09 - 12 Aug 2018 Washington, D.C., United States.
Improving online student feelings of support and sense of belonging by interaction alerts
Machin, Tanya and Jeffries, Carla. 2019. "Improving online student feelings of support and sense of belonging by interaction alerts." 2019 Australian Psychology Learning and Teaching Conference (AUSPLAT 2019). Melbourne, Australia 13 - 15 Sep 2019 Melbourne, Australia.
The development of an online e-course in human research ethics
Machin, Tanya, Brownlow, Charlotte and Jackson, Annmaree. 2019. "The development of an online e-course in human research ethics." 2019 Australian Psychology Learning and Teaching Conference (AUSPLAT 2019). Melbourne, Australia 13 - 15 Sep 2019 Melbourne, Australia.
Understanding the cues and strategies counsellors use to develop rapport with clients through telephone counselling
Phillip, Karen, Beel, Nathan and Machin, Tanya. 2020. "Understanding the cues and strategies counsellors use to develop rapport with clients through telephone counselling." Psychotherapy and Counselling Journal of Australia. 8 (1), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.59158/001c.71253
Experiencing the Journey Together: The Role of Social Support during the Doctorate
Machin, Tanya, M. and Parsons-Smith, Renee L.. 2019. "Experiencing the Journey Together: The Role of Social Support during the Doctorate." Machin, Tanya, M., Clara, Marc and Danaher, Patrick Alan (ed.) Traversing the Doctorate: Reflections and Strategies from Students, Supervisors and Administrators. Cham, Switzerland. Springer. pp. 269-285
Child development a cultural approach. Australian and New Zealand edition
Arnett, Jeffrey, Maynard, Ashley E., Brownlow, Charlotte, Chapin, Laurie and Machin, Tanya. 2020. Child development a cultural approach. Australian and New Zealand edition. Melbourne, Australia. Pearson Australia Group.
Online privacy for psychologists
Machin, Tanya and Brownlow, Charlotte. 2018. "Online privacy for psychologists." Australian Psychological Society Congress 2018. Sydney, Australia 27 - 30 Sep 2018 Australia.
Facebook-Based Social Support and Health: A Systematic Review
Gilmour, John, Machin, Tanya, Brownlow, Charlotte, Jeffries, Carla, Gilmour, John, Machin, Tanya, Brownlow, Charlotte and Jeffries, Carla. 2020. Facebook-Based Social Support and Health: A Systematic Review. United States. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000246
Traversing the doctorate: situating scholarship and identifying issues
Machin, Tanya M., Clara, Marc and Danaher, Patrick Alan. 2019. "Traversing the doctorate: situating scholarship and identifying issues." Machin, Tanya M., Clara, Marc and Danaher, Patrick Alan (ed.) Traversing the doctorate: reflections and strategies from students, supervisors and administrators. Cham, Switzerland. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1-12
Cultural awareness and sensitivity: foundational experiences in a Level 1 Psychology course
Goh, Yong, Jeffries, Carla and du Preez, J.. 2019. "Cultural awareness and sensitivity: foundational experiences in a Level 1 Psychology course." 2019 Australian Psychology Learning and Teaching Conference (AUSPLAT 2019). Melbourne, Australia 13 - 15 Sep 2019 Australia.
Counseling men: treatment recommendations from Australian men’s therapists
Beel, Nathan, Brownlow, Charlotte, Jeffries, Carla and du Preez, Jan. 2020. "Counseling men: treatment recommendations from Australian men’s therapists." The Journal of Men’s Studies. 28 (1), pp. 101-121. https://doi.org/10.1177/1060826519861969
Support, socialise and advocate: An exploration of the stated purposes of Facebook autism groups
Abel, Susan, Machin, Tanya and Brownlow, Charlotte. 2019. "Support, socialise and advocate: An exploration of the stated purposes of Facebook autism groups." Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 61, pp. 10-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2019.01.009
Children and social media
Machin, Tanya and Abel, Susan. 2022. "Children and social media." Childhood Studies. 25 April 2022, pp. 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1093/OBO/9780199791231-0198
Internet research and the implications for ethical research practice
Jackson, Annmare, Brownlow, Charlotte and Machin, Tanya. 2016. "Internet research and the implications for ethical research practice." Australasian Ethics Network Conference (AEN 2016). Adelaide, Australia 23 - 25 Nov 2016 Adelaide, South Australia.
A case study of designing artificial Facebook pages: a new approach to online research [Online case study]
Machin, Tanya M, Brownlow, Charlotte and Jeffries, Carla H. 2018. "A case study of designing artificial Facebook pages: a new approach to online research [Online case study]." SAGE research methods cases, Part 2. United Kingdom. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Understanding the autistic individual: a practical guide to discourse analysis
Brownlow, Charlotte, O'Dell, Lindsay and Machin, Tanya. 2017. "Understanding the autistic individual: a practical guide to discourse analysis." O'Reilly, Michelle, Lester, Jessica Nina and Muskett, Tom (ed.) A practical guide to social interaction research in autism spectrum disorders. London, United Kingdom. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 141-165
Recommendations for male-friendly individual counseling with men: A qualitative systematic literature review for the period 1995–2016
Beel, Nathan, Jeffries, Carla, Brownlow, Charlotte, Winterbotham, Sonya and du Preez, Jan. 2018. "Recommendations for male-friendly individual counseling with men: A qualitative systematic literature review for the period 1995–2016." Psychology of Men and Masculinity. 19 (4), pp. 600-611. https://doi.org/10.1037/men0000137
You’re either with us or against us! Moral conviction determines how the politicized distinguish friend from foe
Zaal, Maarten P., Saab, Rim, O'Brien, Kerry, Jeffries, Carla, Barreto, Manuela and van Laar, Colette. 2017. "You’re either with us or against us! Moral conviction determines how the politicized distinguish friend from foe." Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. 20 (4), pp. 519-539. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430215615682
From ‘likes’ to unfriending: the need to belong and relational information on Facebook
Machin, Tanya M.. 2016. From ‘likes’ to unfriending: the need to belong and relational information on Facebook. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
To 'like' or not to 'like': a thematic analysis of social cues on Facebook
Machin, T., Jeffries, C. and Brownlow, C.. 2015. "To 'like' or not to 'like': a thematic analysis of social cues on Facebook." 50th Australian Psychological Society Annual Conference (APS 2015): Celebrating the Past, Looking Toward the Future. Gold Coast, Australia 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2015 Australia.
Motives for Facebook use in an Australian sample
Machin, Tanya M., Jeffries, Carla H. and Machin, M. Anthony. 2014. "Motives for Facebook use in an Australian sample." Society of Australasian Social Psychologists Conference (SASP 2014). Canberra, Australia 10 - 12 Apr 2014 Australia.
The impact of workplace incivility on the satisfaction of basic needs: the role of past experience
Machin, M. A. and Jeffries, C. H.. 2013. "The impact of workplace incivility on the satisfaction of basic needs: the role of past experience." 48th Australian Psychological Society Annual Conference (APS 2013): Psychology for a Healthy Nation. Cairns, Australia 08 - 12 Oct 2013 Melbourne, Australia.
More science than art: understanding and reducing defensiveness in the face of criticism of groups and cultures
Hornsey, Matthew J., Jeffries, Carla and Esposo, Sarah. 2012. "More science than art: understanding and reducing defensiveness in the face of criticism of groups and cultures." Sutton, Robbie M., Hornsey, Matthew J. and Douglas, Karen M. (ed.) Feedback: the communication of praise, criticism and advice. New York, NY. United States. Peter Lang Publishing. pp. 123-136
Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers
Bain, Paul G., Hornsey, Matthew J., Bongiorno, Renata and Jeffries, Carla. 2012. "Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers." Nature Climate Change. 2 (8), pp. 600-603. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1532
Withholding negative feedback: is it about protecting the self or protecting others?
Jeffries, Carla H. and Hornsey, Matthew J.. 2012. "Withholding negative feedback: is it about protecting the self or protecting others?" British Journal of Social Psychology. 51 (4), pp. 772-780. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.2012.02098.x
The David and Goliath principle: cultural, ideological, and attitudinal underpinnings of the normative protection of low-status groups from criticism
Jeffries, Carla H., Hornsey, Matthew J., Sutton, Robbie M., Douglas, Karen M. and Bain, Paul G.. 2012. "The David and Goliath principle: cultural, ideological, and attitudinal underpinnings of the normative protection of low-status groups from criticism ." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 38 (8), pp. 1053-1065. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212444454